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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dynamic balancing of isoprene carbon sources reflects photosynthetic and photorespiratory responses to temperature stress.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The volatile gas isoprene is emitted in Tg/annum quantities from the terrestrial biosphere and exerts a large effect on atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene is made primarily from recently-fixed photosynthate; however, "alternate" carbon sources play an important role, particularly when photosynthate is limiting. We examined the relative contribution of these alternate carbon sources under changes in light and temperature, the two environmental conditions that have the strongest influence over isoprene emission. Using a novel real-time analytical approach that allowed us to examine dynamic changes in carbon sources, we observed that relative contributions do not change as a function of light intensity. We found that the classical uncoupling of isoprene emission from net photosynthesis at elevated leaf temperatures is associated with an increased contribution of "alternate" carbon. We also observed a rapid compensatory response where "alternate" carbon sources compensated for transient decreases in recently-fixed carbon during thermal ramping, thereby maintaining overall increases in isoprene production rates at high temperatures. Photorespiration is known to contribute to the decline in net photosynthesis at high leaf temperatures. A reduction in the temperature at which the contribution of alternate carbon sources increased was observed under photorespiratory conditions, while photosynthetic conditions increased this temperature. Feeding [2-13C]glycine (a photorespiratory intermediate) stimulated emissions of [13C1-5]isoprene and 13CO2, supporting the possibility that photorespiration can provide an alternate source of carbon for isoprene synthesis. Our observations have important implications for establishing improved mechanistic predictions of isoprene emissions and primary carbon metabolism, particularly under the predicted increases in future global temperatures.
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A severe manifestation of primary HIV-1 infection in an adolescent.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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Primary HIV infection (PHI) is symptomatic in 50-90% of patients with symptoms resembling infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis, however, is seldom made at first presentation. Clinically severe presentations during primary HIV type 1 infection are considered to occur infrequently. We report a case of a severe manifestation of PHI with meningoencephalitis in the setting of HIV seroconversion in an adolescent girl.
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Combined impact of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 and interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? polymorphisms on serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Brazilian HCV-infected patients.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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We investigated the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and host cytokine gene polymorphisms and serum cytokine levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Serum IL-6, TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-?, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17A levels were measured in 67 HCV patients (68.2% genotype 1 [G1]) and 47 healthy controls. The HCV patients had higher IL-6, IL-2, IFN-?, IL-10, and IL-17A levels than the controls. HCV G1 patients had higher IL-2 and IFN-? levels than G2 patients. The -174IL6G>C, -308TNF?G>A, and -1082IL10A>G variants were similarly distributed in both groups. However, HCV patients with the -174IL6GC variant had higher IL-2 and IFN-? levels than patients with the GG and CC variants. Additionally, HCV patients with the -308TNF?GG genotype had higher IL-17A levels than patients with the AG genotype, whereas patients with the -1082IL10GG variant had higher IL-6 levels than patients with the AA and AG variants. A significant proportion of HCV patients had high levels of both IL-2 and IFN-?. The subgroup of HCV patients with the G1/IL6CG/TNF?GG association displayed the highest proportions of high producers of IL-2 and IFN-? whereas the subgroup with the G1/TNF?GG profile showed high proportions of high producers of IL-6 and IL-17A. HCV patients with other HCV/cytokine genotype associations showed no particular cytokine profile. Our results suggest that HCV genotype G1 and IL-6 and TNF-? polymorphisms have a clinically relevant influence on serum pro-inflammatory cytokine profile (IL-2 and IFN-?) in HCV patients.
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The CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocyte subset displays increased mitochondrial activity and effector function during acute Plasmodium vivax malaria.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+)CD16- (classical), CD14(+)CD16(+) (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16(+) (patrolling) cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+) cells, in particular the CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14(+) were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-? and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+)CD16(+) cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection.
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Signals of aging associated with lower growth rates in Kluyveromyces lactis cultures under nitrogen limitation.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The effects of aging on the specific growth rate of Kluyveromyces lactis cultures, as a function of (NH4)2SO4 concentration, were evaluated. The growth kinetic parameters maximum specific growth rate and saturation constant for (NH4)2SO4 were calculated to be 0.44 h(-1) and 0.15 mmol·L(-1), respectively. Batch cultures were allowed to age for 16 days without influence of cell density or starvation. The specific growth rates of these cultures were determined each day and decreased as the population aged at different nitrogen concentrations. Aging signals (N-acetylglucosamine content of the cell wall, cell dimensions, and apoptosis markers) were measured. Apoptosis markers were detected after 5 days at limiting (NH4)2SO4 concentrations (0.57, 3.80, and 7.60 mmol·L(-1)) but only after 8 days at a nonlimiting (NH4)2SO4 concentration (38.0 mmol·L(-1)). Similarly, continuous cultures of K. lactis performed under nitrogen limitation and, at lower dilution rates, accumulated cells exhibiting aging signals. The results demonstrate that aging affects growth rate and raise the question of whether nitrogen limitation accelerates aging. Because aging is correlated with growth rate, and each dilution rate of the continuous cultures tends to select and accumulate cells with a respective age, cultures growing at lower growth rates can be useful to investigate yeast physiological responses, including aging.
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T lymphocytes subsets and cytokine pattern induced by vaccination against bovine brucellosis employing S19 calfhood vaccination and adult RB51 revaccination.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The aims of this study were to address the protective immune response induced by S19 vaccination (n=10) and RB51 revaccination, in pregnant (n=9) and non-pregnant (n=10) S19 calfhood-vaccinated cattle as follows: evaluate the in vitro CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes specific proliferation, and in vitro expression of IFN-? by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells and IL-4 by CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD21(+) lymphocytes subset. Upon in vitro stimulation with ?-irradiated Brucella abortus 2308, blood mononuclear cells from S19 vaccinated and RB51 revaccinated cows exhibited significantly higher proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes and CD4(+)IFN-?(+) T-cells compared to non-vaccinated animals. RB51 revaccination, regardless of the pregnancy status, did not enhance the proliferation of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cells nor IFN-? or IL-4 production. Data from the present study suggest that cattle's cellular immune response induced after brucellosis vaccination and revaccination is due to CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, being CD4(+) T-cells the main source of IFN-?.
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Biomarker analysis revealed distinct profiles of innate and adaptive immunity in infants with ocular lesions of congenital toxoplasmosis.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Toxoplasma gondii is the main infectious cause of human posterior retinochoroiditis, the most frequent clinical manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis. This investigation was performed after neonatal screening to identify biomarkers of immunity associated with immunopathological features of the disease by flow cytometry. The study included infected infants without NRL and with retinochoroidal lesions (ARL, ACRL, and CRL) as well as noninfected individuals (NI). Our data demonstrated that leukocytosis, with increased monocytes and lymphocytes, was a relevant hematological biomarker of ARL. Immunophenotypic analysis also revealed expansion of CD14(+)CD16(+)HLA-DR(high) monocytes and CD56(dim) cytotoxic NK-cells in ARL. Moreover, augmented TCR? ? (+) and CD8(+) T-cell counts were apparently good biomarkers of morbidity. Biomarker network analysis revealed that complex and intricated networks underscored the negative correlation of monocytes with NK- and B-cells in NRL. The remarkable lack of connections involving B-cells and a relevant shift of NK-cell connections from B-cells toward T-cells observed in ARL were outstanding. A tightly connected biomarker network was observed in CRL, with relevant connections of NK- and CD8(+) T-cells with a broad range of cell subsets. Our findings add novel elements to the current knowledge on the innate and adaptive immune responses in congenital toxoplasmosis.
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Preeclampsia: integrated network model of platelet biomarkers interaction as a tool to evaluate the hemostatic/immunological interface.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with platelet activation, which may be involved in its pathogenesis promoting coagulation and mediating inflammation. We investigated whether the platelet activation status together with the frequency of platelet-leukocyte aggregates/PLA and monocyte tissue factor/TF expression could be used as laboratorial biomarkers for PE diagnosis and prognosis.
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Innovations in diagnosis and post-therapeutic monitoring of Chagas disease: Simultaneous flow cytometric detection of IgG1 antibodies anti-live amastigote, anti-live trypomastigote, and anti-fixed epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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This study developed a remarkable methodological innovation (FC-ATE) which enables simultaneous detection of antibodies specific to the three evolutive forms of Trypanosoma cruzi: live amastigote (AMA), live trypomastigote (TRYPO), and fixed epimastigote (EPI) using a differential fluorescence staining as low (AMA), intermediate (TRYPO), and high (EPI). An outstanding performance (100%) was observed in the discrimination of the chagasic (CH) and non-chagasic (NCH) patients. In the applicability of FC-ATE in the diagnosis of Chagas disease, 100% of the CH samples presented positivity in the percentage of positive fluorescent parasites (PPFP) for all the three forms of T. cruzi. Moreover, 94% of the samples of NCH presented negative values of PPFP with AMA and TRYPO, and 88% with EPI. Samples from the NCH group with false-positive results were those belonging to the leishmaniasis patients. Considering the applicability of this technique in post-therapeutic monitoring of Chagas disease, 100% of non-treated (NT) and treated non-cured (TNC) samples were positive with the three T. cruzi evolutive forms, while a percentage of 100% from samples of the treated cured (TC) patients were negative with AMA, 93% with TRYPO and 96% with EPI. The comparison between FC-ATE and two other flow cytometric tests using the same samples of patients NT, TNC and TC showed that the three techniques presented different reactivities, although categorical correlation between the methodologies was observed. Taken together, the results obtained with the novel FC-ATE method have shown an outstanding performance in the diagnosis and post-therapeutic monitoring of Chagas disease.
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Subdoses of 17DD yellow fever vaccine elicit equivalent virological/immunological kinetics timeline.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The live attenuated 17DD Yellow Fever vaccine is one of the most successful prophylactic interventions for controlling disease expansion ever designed and utilized in larger scale. However, increase on worldwide vaccine demands and manufacturing restrictions urge for more detailed dose sparing studies. The establishment of complementary biomarkers in addition to PRNT and Viremia could support a secure decision-making regarding the use of 17DD YF vaccine subdoses. The present work aimed at comparing the serum chemokine and cytokine kinetics triggered by five subdoses of 17DD YF Vaccine.
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Cognitive performance and peripheral endocannabinoid system receptor expression in schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric syndrome characterized by generalized cognitive deficits that are associated with functional impairment. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) modulates neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity and is important for cognitive functioning. Evidence points to the involvement of this neuromodulatory system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and that alteration of the ECS on peripheral lymphocytes could reflect central changes. The objective of this study was to compare levels of peripheral endocannabinoid receptor expression in patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects and find evidence of association between peripheral expression of those receptors and cognitive performance. Patients with stabilized schizophrenia (N=53) and controls (N=22) underwent clinical and cognitive evaluation, and assessment of cannabinoid receptor expression on the surface of peripheral immune cells (lymphocytes, natural killer cells and monocytes) by flow cytometry. Patients with schizophrenia had lower levels of cannabinoid receptor expression on total T lymphocytes, but after controlling for possible confounders this difference did not remain significant. In patients, increased cannabinoid receptor expression on lymphocytes and monocytes was significantly correlated with worst cognitive performance. These data provide additional evidence of the involvement of the ECS in the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.
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Evaluation of the use of C-terminal part of the Schistosoma mansoni 200kDa tegumental protein in schistosomiasis diagnosis and vaccine formulation.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Schistosoma mansoni tegument is involved in essential functions for parasite survival and represents a target for screening candidates for vaccine and diagnosis. Our group using reverse vaccinology selected six candidates, previously demonstrated by proteomics studies to be expressed in the parasite tegument, among them was Sm200. In this work we have cloned and expressed a recombinant form of Sm200 C-terminal (1069-1520) region. The efficacy of rSm200 (1069-1520) in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and in the formulation of a vaccine against S. mansoni was assessed respectively in an ELISA based diagnostic assay and immunization protocols in mice. Significant differences between non-infected and acutely infected or chronically infected animals were observed and no cross-recognition was observed with sera from Ascaris suum or Ancylostoma ceylanicum infected mice. rSm200-ELISA test could also discriminate infected individuals from healthy donors not living in endemic area for schistosomiasis but failed to discriminate between individuals from a low endemic area for schistosomiasis known to have positive or negative stools after examination. Recombinant Sm200 also failed to induce protection against schistosomiasis, demonstrating that the C-terminal part of Sm200 is unable to induce protective immune response in mice. Therefore rSm200 (1069-1520)-ELISA represents an important tool to be used in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis.
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Immunological profile of resistance and susceptibility in naturally infected dogs by Leishmania infantum.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Visceral leishmaniasis has a great impact on public health, and dogs are considered the main domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causal parasite. In this study, 159 animals naturally infected by L. infantum from an endemic area of Brazil were evaluated through an analysis of cellular responses, using flow cytometry, and of the hematological parameters. The results confirmed that disease progression is associated with anemia and reductions in eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. The investigation of the immune response, based on the immunophenotypic profile of peripheral blood, showed declines in the absolute numbers of T lymphocytes CD5(+) and their subsets (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) and a drop of B lymphocytes in asymptomatic seropositive (AD-II) and symptomatic seropositive (SD) dogs. Neutrophils, when stimulated with soluble antigen of L. infantum, showed higher synthesis of interferon (IFN)-?(+) in AD-II and SD groups, with decreased production of interleukin (IL)-4(+) in asymptomatic seronegative dogs positive for L. infantum infection based on polymerase chain reaction testing (AD-I group). In the AD-II and SD groups, subpopulations of stimulated lymphocytes (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) also exhibited greater synthesis of IFN-?(+) and IL-4(+) in culture. These results suggest that the animals of the AD-II and SD groups exhibited a mixed immune response (Type 1 and 2) and the AD-I group presenting an immune profile very similar to normal control animals.
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The robust and modulated biomarker network elicited by the Plasmodium vivax infection is mainly mediated by the IL-6/IL-10 axis and is associated with the parasite load.
J Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Recent studies have shown that the inflammatory process, including the biomarker production, and the intense activation of innate immune responses are greater in the malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax than other species. Here, we examined the levels of serum biomarkers and their interaction during acute malaria.
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LBSapSal-vaccinated dogs exhibit increased circulating T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4? and CD8?) as well as a reduction of parasitism after challenge with Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland of Lutzomyia longipalpis.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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The development of a protective vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is an alternative approach for interrupting the domestic cycle of Leishmania infantum. Given the importance of sand fly salivary proteins as potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in the last few decades. In this context, we previously immunized dogs with a vaccine composed of L. braziliensis antigens plus saponin as the adjuvant and sand fly salivary gland extract (LBSapSal vaccine). This vaccine elicited an increase in both anti-saliva and anti-Leishmania IgG isotypes, higher counts of specific circulating CD8? T cells, and high NO production.
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Assessment of chemokine serum levels in epithelial ovarian cancer patients.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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Aims and background. The study was undertaken to investigate CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/ MIP-1?, CCL4/MIP-1?, CCL5/RANTES and CXCL8/IL-8 women with epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods and study design. Sixteen patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer and 18 healthy women with no evidence of malign neoplasia (control group) aged from 23 to 89 years (mean ± SEM, 58.7 ± 2.3) were included. The epithelial ovarian cancer patients underwent laparotomy and debulking surgery. Chemokines serum levels were measured by cytometric bead array. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney and Kendalls tau. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analyses. Results. The tumor staging (FIGO) was classified into: I in 4 cases (25%), III in 5 cases (31.3%) and stage IV in 7 cases (43.8%). Sera chemokine dosages of CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL4/MIP-1? were lower in epithelial ovarian cancer patients than in the control group (P = 0.021 and P = 0.030, respectively). No significant difference between groups was observed in the levels of CCL3/MIP-1?, CCL5/RANTES and CXCL8/IL-8. No association between the chemokines analyzed and tumor stage was found. The serum level of CCL4/MIP-1? was correlated with CA-125. Conclusions. The study of serum levels of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1?, CCL4/MIP-1?, CCL5/RANTES and CXCL8/IL-8 chemokines in epithelial ovarian cancer patients identified a down-regulation in CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL4/MIP-1?, which suggests that the two chemokines may play an important role in the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer.
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Callithrix penicillata: A feasible experimental model for Dengue Virus Infection.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Although the murine models have the feasibility to reproduce some signs of Dengue Virus (DENV) infection, the use of isogenic hosts with polarized immune response patterns does not reproduce the particularities of human disease. Our goal was to investigate the kinetics of peripheral blood biomarkers in immunocompetent Callithrix penicillata non-human primates subcutaneously infected with DENV-3. The viral load of infected animals was determinated by quantitative real time PCR. Measurements of DENV-3/IgM were performed, and several parameters were assessed by hemogram: Red blood cells count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cells count, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets count. The coagulogram was performed by Prothrombin time (PT), and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assays. The renal function was monitored by Urea and Creatinine, and the liver function by the aspartate (AST), and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases. Also, the level of the cytokines IL-6, TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-5 was quantified during the experimental study. Data analysis was performed considering relevant differences when baseline fold changes were found outside from 0.75 to 1.5 range. Our data demonstrated that infected animals presented relevant signs of dengue disease, including peaks of viremia at 5 days-post-infection (dpi), peaks of anti-DENV-3 IgM at 15 dpi and hemaglutination inhibition assay (HIA) from 15 to at 60 dpi. Despite early monocytosis, slight neutrophilia and lymphocytosis, animals developed persistent leucopenia starting at 4 dpi. Anemia episodes were steady at 3-4 dpi. Patent thrombocytopenia was observed from 1-15 dpi with sporadic decrease of APTT. A substantial increase of ALT and AST was observed with higher peak at 4 dpi. Moreover, early increases of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma besides late increase of IFN- gamma were observed. The analysis of biomarkers network pointed out two relevant strong axes during early stages of dengue fever, a protective axes TNF-alpha/Lymphocytes/Platelets, and a pathological IL-2/IL-6/Viremia/Monocyte/PT bond. Later on, the biomarker network highlighted the interaction IFN-gamma/PLT/DENV-3(IgM;HAI)/PT, and the involvement of type-2 cytokines (IL-4;IL-5). Our findings demonstrated that C. penicillata is a feasible experimental model for Dengue Virus infection, which could be useful to pathogenesis studies, discovery of novel antiviral drugs as well as to evaluate vaccine candidates against DENV.
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Evaluation of a prototype flow cytometry test for serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a critical challenge since conventional immunoserological tests still present some deficiencies. The current study evaluated a prototype flow cytometry serology test, using antigens and fluorescent antibodies that had been stored for 1 year at 4°C, on a broad range of serum samples. Noninfected control dogs and Leishmania infantum-infected dogs were tested, and the prototype test showed excellent performance in differentiating these groups with high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy (100% in all analyses). When the CVL group was evaluated according to the dogs clinical status, the prototype test showed outstanding accuracy in all groups with positive serology (asymptomatic II, oligosymptomatic, and symptomatic). However, in dogs which had positive results by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) but negative results by conventional serology (asymptomatic I), serological reactivity was not observed. Additionally, sera from 40 dogs immunized with different vaccines (Leishmune, Leish-Tec, or LBSap) did not present serological reactivity in the prototype test. Eighty-eight dogs infected with other pathogens (Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Babesia canis) were used to determine cross-reactivity and specificity, and the prototype test performed well, particularly in dogs infected with B. canis and E. canis (100% and 93.3% specificities, respectively). In conclusion, our data reinforce the potential of the prototype test for use as a commercial kit and highlight its outstanding performance even after storage for 1 year at 4°C. Moreover, the prototype test efficiently provided accurate CVL serodiagnosis with an absence of false-positive results in vaccinated dogs and minor cross-reactivity against other canine pathogens.
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Cytokine response signatures in disease progression and development of severe clinical outcomes for leptospirosis.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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The role of the immune response in influencing leptospirosis clinical outcomes is not yet well understood. We hypothesized that acute-phase serum cytokine responses may play a role in disease progression, risk for death, and severe pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome (SPHS).
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Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 are differentially expressed in patients with indeterminate and cardiac clinical forms of Chagas disease.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Dilated chronic cardiomyopathy (DCC) from Chagas disease is associated with myocardial remodeling and interstitial fibrosis, resulting in extracellular matrix (ECM) changes. In this study, we characterized for the first time the serum matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 levels, as well as their main cell sources in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients presenting with the indeterminate (IND) or cardiac (CARD) clinical form of Chagas disease. Our results showed that serum levels of MMP-9 are associated with the severity of Chagas disease. The analysis of MMP production by T lymphocytes showed that CD8(+) T cells are the main mononuclear leukocyte source of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 molecules. Using a new 3-dimensional model of fibrosis, we observed that sera from patients with Chagas disease induced an increase in the extracellular matrix components in cardiac spheroids. Furthermore, MMP-2 and MMP-9 showed different correlations with matrix proteins and inflammatory cytokines in patients with Chagas disease. Our results suggest that MMP-2 and MMP-9 show distinct activities in Chagas disease pathogenesis. While MMP-9 seems to be involved in the inflammation and cardiac remodeling of Chagas disease, MMP-2 does not correlate with inflammatory molecules.
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Immunological profile of HTLV-1-infected patients associated with infectious or autoimmune dermatological disorders.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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In the present study, the frequency, the activation and the cytokine and chemokine profile of HTLV-1 carriers with or without dermatological lesions were thoroughly described and compared. The results indicated that HTLV-1-infected patients with dermatological lesions have distinct frequency and activation status when compared to asymptomatic carriers. Alterations in the CD4(+)HLA-DR(+), CD8(+) T cell, macrophage-like and NKT subsets as well as in the serum chemokines CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were observed in the HTLV-1-infected group with skin lesions. Additionally, HTLV-1 carriers with dermatological skin lesions showed more frequently high proviral load as compared to asymptomatic carriers. The elevated proviral load in HTLV-1 patients with infectious skin lesions correlated significantly with TNF-?/IL-10 ratio, while the same significant correlation was found for the IL-12/IL-10 ratio and the high proviral load in HTLV-1-infected patients with autoimmune skin lesions. All in all, these results suggest a distinct and unique immunological profile in the peripheral blood of HTLV-1-infected patients with skin disorders, and the different nature of skin lesion observed in these patients may be an outcome of a distinct unbalance of the systemic inflammatory response upon HTLV-1 infection.
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Gene expression profile of cytokines and chemokines in skin lesions from Brazilian Indians with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by dermotropic Leishmania species belonging to the Viannia subgenera, with Leishmania (V.) braziliensis considered the main agent in Brazil. After infection, a local inflammatory process is initiated, inducing the expression of several cytokine/chemokine genes. We evaluated the immunity to CL of patients living in the indigenous community Xakriabá, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, by performing detailed analyses of the mRNA expression of different cytokines and chemokines in CL lesions, considering the time evolution (recent or late). We also studied the profile of the inflammatory infiltrate by histopathological analysis. The histopathological features of recent CL lesions showed an intense inflammatory reaction, characterized by the presence of both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, whereas late CL lesions exhibited a predominance of mononuclear leukocytes. The gene expression of cytokines/chemokines in skin biopsies from the CL group showed higher transcript levels of modulatory (IL10 and TGFB1), anti-inflammatory (IL4), and pro-inflammatory (TNF, IFNG, IL12B, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL10) biomarkers in recent lesions than in late lesions. Our findings suggest that differential gene expression of cytokines and chemokines found in skin lesions from CL patients is associated with time evolution of lesions.
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Cellular immunophenotypic profile in the splenic compartment during canine visceral leishmaniasis.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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To determine the role of the spleen in the pathogenesis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), we analyzed cellular immunophenotypic profiles of 52 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum, clinically classified as follows: asymptomatic dogs-I (AD-I), seronegative/PCR+; asymptomatic dogs-II (AD-II), seropositive/PCR+; oligosymptomatic dogs (OD) and symptomatic dogs (SD). Seven non-infected dogs (CD) were included as a control group. AD-II presented higher levels of CD8+ T splenocytes and lower TCD4+/TCD8+ ratio in comparison with CD. OD and SD showed lower percentages of CD21+ as compared with AD-II. All seropositive dogs presented lower levels of CD45RA+ than CD. Regardless of the stimuli used, the proliferation index from splenocytes in vitro was inversely correlated with clinical status. After LSA stimulation, there was a higher percentage of specific CD8+ T in AD-II than CD and non-stimulated culture. In contrast, splenocytes from SD under in vitro LSA stimulation induced decreased MHC-II+ expression in comparison with all groups, and non-stimulated culture. In conclusion, the role of CD8+ T splenocytes seems to be important for an effective immunological response, a hallmark of asymptomatic CVL, whereas the pronounced loss of MHC-II expression upon LSA stimulation is a biomarker of symptomatic CVL.
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Dual role of IL-12 in the therapeutic efficacy or failure during combined PEG-Interferon-?2A and ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Several efforts have been made to establish novel biomarkers with relevant predictive values to monitor HCV-infected patients under pegilated Interferon-?2A-(PEG-IFN-?2A)/ribavirin therapy. The aim of this study was to monitor the kinetics of HCV viral load, serum levels of pro-inflammatory/regulatory cytokines and leukocyte activation status before and after PEG-IFN-?2A/ribavirin therapy in 52 volunteers, including 12 chronic HCV patients and 40 controls. The HCV viral load, serum levels of cytokines (IL-8/IL-6/TNF-?/IL-12/IFN-?/IL-4/IL-10) and the phenotype of peripheral blood leukocytes were evaluated before and after 4, 12 and 24 weeks following the PEG-IFN-?2A/ribavirin therapy. Our results demonstrated that sustained virological response-(SVR) is associated with early decrease in the viral load after 4 weeks of treatment. The presence of a modulated pro-inflammatory profile at baseline favors SVR, whereas a strong inflammatory response at baseline predisposes to therapeutic failure. Furthermore, a time-dependent increase on serum IL-12 levels in patients under treatment is critical to support the SVR, while the early predominance of IL-10 correlates to late virological relapse. On the other hand, a broad but unguided "cytokine storm" is observed in the non-responder HCV patients after 12 weeks of treatment. Corroborating these findings, monocyte/lymphocyte activation at baseline is associated with the non-responders to therapy whereas high CD8(+) T-cell numbers associate with SVR. All in all, these data suggest that the baseline pattern of serum pro-inflammatory/regulatory cytokines and the immunological activation status of chronic HCV patients undergoing PEG-IFN-?2A/ribavirin therapy are closely related with the therapeutic response.
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Cell surface markers for T and B lymphocytes activation and adhesion as putative prognostic biomarkers for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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The study population comprised HNSCC patients, risk-positive controls (tabagism and alcoholism habits), and risk-negative controls (without risk factors). Significant increases in the activation status of CD4(+)and CD8(+) T-cells, and higher migration potentials of lymphocytes were observed in HNSCC patients compared with control groups. Although decreased frequency of CD19(+)-B lymphocytes was observed in HSNCC patients, a higher percentage of HLA-DR(+)CD19(+)-B lymphocytes was detected in these individuals as compared with other evaluated groups. Metastasis and tumor grading were the major pathological parameters associated with significant alterations in the expression of activation molecules on circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells. A reduced frequency of CD38-expressing CD8(+) T-cells was the most relevant biomarker associated with HNSCC aggressiveness. Performance analysis suggested a cut-off point for the CD8(+)CD38(+)/CD8(+) T-cell ratio of 7.0 for segregating patients according to tumor grading. In contrast, a higher proportion of CD8(+)CD54(+)/CD8(+) T-cells could represent a relevant biomarker associated with metastasis in HNSCC patients, and performance analysis suggested a cut-off point for the CD8(+)CD54(+)/CD8(+) T-cell ratio of 30 for segregating patients according to absence or presence of metastasis. The results obtained can increment immunological aspects of HNSCC and provide tools for the determination of cut-off scores of clinically relevant immunophenotypic prognostic biomarkers.
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Association of microparticles and preeclampsia.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Preeclampsia (PE) is a syndrome characterized by poor placentation and endothelial dysfunction. The diagnosis for this syndrome is based in hypertension and proteinuria presented after the 20th week of pregnancy. Despite intensive research, PE is still one of the leading causes of maternal mortality, although reliable screening tests or effective treatments of this disease have yet to be proposed. Microparticles (MPs) are small vesicles released after cell activation or apoptosis, which contain membrane proteins that are characteristic of the original parent cell. MPs have been proven to play key role in thrombosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis, as well as to mediate cell-cell communication by transferring mRNAs and microRNA from the cell of origin to target cells. Placenta-derived syncytiotrophoblast MPs are one of the most increased MPs during PE and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Therefore, a better overall understanding of the role of MPs in PE may be useful for new clinical diagnoses and therapeutic approaches.
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Phenotypic features of innate and adaptive immunity in patients with chronic hepatitis C and end-stage renal disease.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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The knowledge of the immunological profile of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on haemodialysis (HD) is still limited.
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Effects of nisin-incorporated films on the microbiological and physicochemical quality of minimally processed mangoes.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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The aim of this study is to examine the effects of nisin-incorporated cellulose films on the physicochemical and microbiological qualities of minimally processed mangoes. The use of antimicrobial films did not affect the physicochemical characteristics of mangoes and showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Bacillus cereus. The mango slices were inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes (10(7)CFU/g), and the viable cell numbers remained at 10(5) and 10(6)CFU/g, respectively, after 12days. In samples packed with antimicrobial films, the viable number of L. monocytogenes cells was reduced below the detection level after 4days. After 6days, a reduction of six log units was observed for S. aureus. In conclusion, nisin showed antimicrobial activity in mangoes without interfering with the organoleptic characteristics of the fruit. This result suggests that nisin could potentially be used in active packing to improve the safety of minimally processed mangoes.
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Cytokines signatures in short and long-term stable renal transplanted patients.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Despite the evidences showing the relevance of regulatory immune-mediated mechanisms to guarantee the stable graft function in renal transplanted patients, studies focusing on the immune response observed over a long-term period after renal transplantation are still limited. Several efforts have been done to establish novel biomarkers with relevant predictive values that could be used as prognostic laboratorial tools to monitor the complex network triggered through time after kidney transplantation. In this study, we have evaluated the pro-inflammatory and regulatory patterns of plasma cytokines in a group of 120 renal transplanted patients with stable graft function ranging from 1 to 160 months. Our data demonstrated an overall predominance of regulatory cytokines short-term after renal transplantation (1-24 months) with peaks of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10. Moreover, a slight peak of TNF-? was observed 25-60 months after renal transplantation. Following a gap of stable cytokine profile (61-120 months), peaks of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8, IL-6, IL1?, TNF-? and IL-12 were observed later on (>120 months) after renal transplantation. Additionally, the categorical analysis of "low" or "high" cytokine producers re-enforce the occurrence of an overall regulatory status early-after stable renal graft function with a predominant pro-inflammatory pattern later on long-term renal transplantation. Taken together, our data suggest that IL-5 is a good biomarker associated with short-term stable renal function, whereas IL-12 seems to be a relevant pro-inflammatory element in long-term renal transplanted patients.
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Severe preeclampsia goes along with a cytokine network disturbance towards a systemic inflammatory state.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Although preeclampsia causes high maternal/fetal morbidity and mortality, the etiology of this multi-system disorder still remains to be elucidated. Herein, we have characterized the cytokine plasma levels in severe preeclamptic women compared to normotensive pregnant and non-pregnant women, aiming to better understand the immunological network and its clinical significance for the pathogenesis and severity of preeclampsia. A total of 219 women were selected. The study population was composed of three groups referred as severe preeclamptic, normotensive pregnant and non-pregnant women. Cytokine plasma levels were determined using commercially available kits, Cytometric Beads Array - CBA to quantify TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12. Our findings demonstrated that severe preeclamptic state is associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8, IL-6, and IFN-? (P < 0.05 for all) whereas normotensive pregnancy evolves high levels of regulatory cytokine IL-10 (P < 0.05). Moreover, an outstanding pro-inflammatory "cytokine signature" could be observed in severe preeclamptic women display, while an overall regulatory state is the hallmark for normotensive pregnancy. In summary, our data showed that elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the maternal circulation with a deviation in the "IL-8 × IL-6" axis towards IFN-? might drive the cytokine network in preeclamptic women towards an excessive systemic inflammatory state.
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Impact of mitomycin C on the mRNA expression signatures of immunological biomarkers in eosinophilic nasal polyposis.
Am J Rhinol Allergy
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The topical application of mitomycin C has been evaluated as a complementary therapy for eosinophilic nasal polyposis (ENP). However, the mechanism underlying the additional benefits of mitomycin C for the control of eosinophilic inflammation and prevention of posttherapeutic relapse remains to be elucidated. In this work, the aim was to characterize the gene expression profile by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of proinflammatory and regulatory biomarkers that are typically associated with ENP and to assess the impact of the topical application of mitomycin C on the nasal mucosal tissue immunologic milieu after ENP surgery.
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Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy.
J Parasitol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group) before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group). Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI) or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA), increased synthesis of IFN-? and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-? and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis.
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Effect of the preservative and temperature conditions on the stability of Leishmania infantum promastigotes antigens applied in a flow cytometry diagnostic method for canine visceral leishmaniasis.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is imperative, but euthanasia of seropositive dogs has been highly criticized. Commonly used, immunodiagnostic tests, including Dual-Path Platform®, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescent antibody test, have failed at detecting asymptomatic dogs in endemic areas. In this context, new serological methods are needed. Flow cytometry serology has demonstrated potential as a test with excellent performance for CVL. In this study, we proposed to establish the best conditions for preserving Leishmania infantum promastigote antigens employed in this serology test. During 12 months of follow-up, promastigotes were maintained in different preservatives (phosphate-buffered saline with 3% fetal bovine serum, phenol 0.35%, thimerosal 0.01%, and formaldehyde 0.5%) and stored at 3 distinct temperatures (25 °C, 4 °C, and -20 °C). During the study period, the morphological characteristics of the promastigotes were assessed by flow cytometry according to the forward and side scatter parameters and also under optical microscopic analysis. Reactivity performance was evaluated as the percentage of positive fluorescent parasites in the sera of naturally infected and noninfected dogs. Microbiological analysis was performed at 2 time points, the first and sixth months, to rule out contamination of stored promastigotes. Taken together, our results indicated that the best conditions to preserve fixed L. infantum antigens were storage in formaldehyde at 4 °C. Promastigotes presented the best morphological profile, with appropriate antigenic stability even at 4 °C, in an inexpensive preservative for a long period of conservation.
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Anti-inflammatory/regulatory cytokine microenvironment mediated by IL-4 and IL-10 coordinates the immune response in hemophilia A patients infected chronically with hepatitis C virus.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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In the past decades patients with hemophilia were infected commonly by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and a significant number of patients are infected chronically. Focusing on the role of the immune system for controlling and or maintaining HCV infection, the leukocyte and cytokine profiles of peripheral blood from hemophilia A patients and other patients with and without HCV infection were studied. The results demonstrated that hemophilia A is characterized by a general state of circulating leukocytes activation along with an overall increase in the frequency of IL-6 and IL-10 with decrease of IL-8 and IL-12. HCV infection of patients with hemophilia A does not influence further the activation state of circulating leukocytes but is accompanied by lower levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and a prominent anti-inflammatory/regulatory serum cytokine pattern, mediated by IL-4 and IL-10. Additionally, the results demonstrated that hemophilia A patients infected with HCV displaying No/Low antibody response to C33c and C22 have significant lower viral load and higher serum levels of IL-12 and IL-4. This finding suggests that the differential RIBA reactivity to C33c/C22 HCV core proteins may have a putative value as a prognostic biomarker for the infection in hemophilia A patients.
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Biodistribution and antitumoral effect of long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomal cisplatin administered in Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents and has been widely used in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. However, CDDP, a low-molecular-weight compound, is rapidly absorbed by the capillaries in the i.p. serosa and transferred to the bloodstream, inducing the appearance of systemic side-effects, such as nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, the i.p. CDDP chemotherapy is limited to patients whose residual tumor nodules are less than 0.5 cm in diameter after surgical debulking. The failure of i.p. therapy is attributed to the poor penetration of CDDP into larger tumors. One strategy to improve drug delivery in the peritoneal region and reduce toxicity is the use of drug delivery systems. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biodistribution and antitumoral effect of long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes containing CDDP (SpHL-CDDP), as compared with free CDDP, after their i.p. administration in Ehrlich ascitic tumor-bearing mice. After administering a 6 mg/kg single i.p. bolus injection of either free CDDP or SpHL-CDDP, ascitic fluid (AF), blood and organs (kidneys, liver, spleen and lungs) were collected and analyzed for CDDP content. The area under the CDDP concentration-time curve (AUC) obtained for AF and blood after SpHL-CDDP administration was 3.3-fold larger and 1.3-fold lower, respectively, when compared with free CDDP treatment, thus indicating its high retention within the peritoneal cavity. The determination of the ratio between AUC in each tissue and that in blood (Kp) showed a lower accumulation of CDDP in kidneys after SpHL-CDDP treatment. The SpHL-CDDP treatment demonstrated a significant uptake by the liver and spleen. SpHL-CDDP treatment led to a higher survival rate of mice with initial or disseminated peritoneal carcinomatosis than CDDP treatment. These results indicate that SpHL-CDDP may be useful for i.p. chemotherapy due to their greater concentration in the peritoneal cavity.
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Regulatory T cells phenotype in different clinical forms of Chagas disease.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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CD25(High) CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been described as key players in immune regulation, preventing infection-induced immune pathology and limiting collateral tissue damage caused by vigorous anti-parasite immune response. In this review, we summarize data obtained by the investigation of Treg cells in different clinical forms of Chagas disease. Ex vivo immunophenotyping of whole blood, as well as after stimulation with Trypanosoma cruzi antigens, demonstrated that individuals in the indeterminate (IND) clinical form of the disease have a higher frequency of Treg cells, suggesting that an expansion of those cells could be beneficial, possibly by limiting strong cytotoxic activity and tissue damage. Additional analysis demonstrated an activated status of Treg cells based on low expression of CD62L and high expression of CD40L, CD69, and CD54 by cells from all chagasic patients after T. cruzi antigenic stimulation. Moreover, there was an increase in the frequency of the population of Foxp3+ CD25(High)CD4+ cells that was also IL-10+ in the IND group, whereas in the cardiac (CARD) group, there was an increase in the percentage of Foxp3+ CD25(High) CD4+ cells that expressed CTLA-4. These data suggest that IL-10 produced by Treg cells is effective in controlling disease development in IND patients. However, in CARD patients, the same regulatory mechanism, mediated by IL-10 and CTLA-4 expression is unlikely to be sufficient to control the progression of the disease. These data suggest that Treg cells may play an important role in controlling the immune response in Chagas disease and the balance between regulatory and effector T cells may be important for the progression and development of the disease. Additional detailed analysis of the mechanisms on how these cells are activated and exert their function will certainly give insights for the rational design of procedure to achieve the appropriate balance between protection and pathology during parasite infections.
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Discovery of cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic compounds against leukemia cells: Tert-butyl-4-[(3-nitrophenoxy) methyl]-2,2-dimethyloxazolidine-3-carboxylate.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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We evaluated biological activity in leukemia cells lines of R and S enantiomers of tert-butyl 4-[(3-nitrophenoxy)-methyl]-2,2-dimethyloxazolidine-3-carboxylate (BNDC).
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Plasmodium berghei NK65 induces cerebral leukocyte recruitment in vivo: an intravital microscopic study.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Malaria is second only to tuberculosis as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality as a consequence of a single infectious agent. Much of the pathology of malaria arises from the inappropriate or excessive immune response mounted by the host in an attempt to eliminate the parasite. We here report the inflammatory changes observed in the cerebral microvasculature of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice that had been inoculated with Plasmodium berghei NK65, a lethal strain of rodent malaria. Although no neurological signs were observed in experimentally infected mice, inflammation of the cerebral microvasculature was clearly evident. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that alterations in cerebral tissue were more intense in infected C57Bl/6 mice than in infected BALB/c animals. Intravital microscopic examination of the cerebral microvasculature revealed increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion in pial venules of infected mice compared with non-infected animals. The extravasation of Evans blue dye into the cerebral parenchyma was also elevated in infected mice in comparison with their non-infected counterparts. Additionally, protein levels of TNF-?, MIG/CXCL9, MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1?/CCL3 and RANTES/CCL5 were up-regulated in brain samples derived from infected C57Bl/6 mice. Taken together, the data reported here illustrate the complex strain-dependent relationships between leukocyte recruitment, blood brain barrier permeability and chemokine production.
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Trypanosoma cruzi: desferrioxamine decreases mortality and parasitemia in infected mice through a trypanostatic effect.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Desferrioxamine (DFO) is a potent iron chelator that is also known to modulate inflammation and act as an efficient antioxidant under normal conditions and under oxidative stress. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the efficacy of DFO in the treatment of viral, bacterial and protozoan infections. DFO is known to reduce the intensity of Trypanosoma cruzi infections in mice even during a course of therapy that is not effective in maintaining anaemia or low iron levels. To further clarify these findings, we investigated the action of DFO on mouse T. cruzi infection outcomes and the direct impact of DFO on parasites. Infected animals treated with DFO (5 mg/animal/day) for 35 days, beginning 14 days prior to infection, presented lower parasitemia and lower cumulative mortality rate. No significant effect was observed on iron metabolism markers, erythrograms, leukograms or lymphocyte subsets. In the rapid method for testing in vivo T. cruzi susceptibility, DFO also induced lower parasitemia. In regard to its direct impact on parasites, DFO slightly inhibited the growth of amastigotes and trypomastigotes in fibroblast culture. Trypan blue staining showed no effects of DFO on parasite viability, and only minor apoptosis in trypomastigotes was observed. Nevertheless, a clear decrease in parasite mobility was detected. In conclusion, the beneficial actions of DFO on mice T. cruzi infection seem to be independent of host iron metabolism and free of significant haematological side effects. Through direct action on the parasite, DFO has more effective trypanostatic than trypanocidal properties.
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Applicability of an optimized non-conventional flow cytometry method to detect anti-Trypanosoma cruzi immunoglobulin G for the serological diagnosis and cure assessment following chemotherapeutic treatment of Chagas disease.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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One of the challenges on immunodiagnostic of Chagas disease in endemic areas has been the search for more practical and safe antigenic preparation that provides tests with higher sensitivity and specificity, with low cross-reactivity. A new approach using fixed Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes to detect IgG reactivity was investigated previously. In order to continue this investigation, this study aimed at optimizing the flow cytometry-based method to the diagnosis of Chagas disease patients after specific chemotherapy. To achieve our goal, serum samples from 93 subjects - 52 adults chronically infected by T. cruzi, and 41 uninfected controls were tested by flow cytometry. Secondly, serum samples from patients Treated Cured and Treated Uncured from Chagas disease were also tested to evaluate the potential of the method on assessing cure. After establishing the ideal serum dilution and cut off, 121 serum samples from patients with other endemic infections were tested to check cross-reactivity. The results showed that parasite staining with Evans blue dye eliminated debris, allowing trustworthy analysis of anti-fixed epimastigote IgG reactivity. The applicability of the method to diagnose Chagas disease was confirmed by the high sensitivity (98.1%) and specificity (100%) found. This method also contributed for post-therapeutic assessment of cure, identifying 94.1% of Treated Uncured and 83.3% of Treated Cured patients. Cross-reactivity was observed in a very low number (6.7%). On the whole, these data highly recommend the use of anti-fixed T. cruzi epimastigote IgG reactivity by flow cytometry to the diagnosis and cure monitoring of Chagas disease in endemic areas.
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The use of IgG antibodies in conventional and non-conventional immunodiagnostic tests for early prognosis after treatment of Chagas disease.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Treatment success of chronically infected Chagas disease patients is laborious and a positive prognosis often is made only after repetitive serological and/or parasitological examinations with continuous negative results. Recently, we have developed a non-conventional flow-cytometric method in order to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against live trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and showed its usefulness in the prognosis of treatment success. In the present study, we investigated the performance of flow-cytometric anti-live trypomastigote IgG antibodies (FC-ALTA) and flow-cytometric anti-fixed epimastigote IgG antibodies (FC-AFEA), as well as conventional serological methods, for early monitoring of benznidazole treated Chagas disease patients, e.g. 5years after treatment. The analysis of individual FC-ALTA reactivity along the titration curve before and after treatment, we were able to show, that between 4% and 13% of treated patients under evaluation presented with reduced serological reactivity and segregated from the other patient groups. Similar results were obtained with semi-quantitative, conventional indirect hemagglutination or indirect immunofluorescence. Our data therefore suggest that the combined use of conventional and non-conventional serological methods could provide more suitable cure criteria in early post-therapeutic prognosis of Chagas disease.
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Influence of clinical status and parasite load on erythropoiesis and leucopoiesis in dogs naturally infected with leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2011
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The bone marrow is considered to be an important storage of parasites in Leishmania-infected dogs, although little is known about cellular genesis in this organ during canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL).
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Bactericidal activity of ethanolic extracts of propolis against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic cows.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen for both humans and animals, and it has been an ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide. Elimination of S. aureus with classic antibiotics is difficult, and the current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) against S. aureus cultivated in complex media or milk. EEP (0-0.5 mg ml(-1)) decreased growth of S. aureus in BHI media and 1 mg ml(-1) was bactericidal against washed cell suspensions (10(7) CFU ml(-1)). Propolis extracts also killed S. aureus cells resuspended in milk, but the bactericidal dose was at least 20-fold greater. Cultures that were transferred for at least 60 generations with sub-lethal doses of propolis did not change much their sensibility to EEP. Atomic force microscopy images revealed changes in morphology and cell size of S. aureus cells exposed to EEP (0.5 mg ml(-1)). Our results indicate that propolis extracts might be effective against mastitis-causing S. aureus strains in vivo, but milk constituents affect the inhibitory activity of propolis. Considering that propolis-resistance appears to be a phenotype not easily selected, the use of EEP combined or not with other antimicrobial agents might be useful for mastitis control in vivo.
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Immunological changes in canine peripheral blood leukocytes triggered by immunization with first or second generation vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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In this study, we summarized the major phenotypic/functional aspects of circulating leukocytes following canine immunization with Leishvaccine and Leishmune®. Our findings showed that Leishvaccine triggered early changes in the innate immunity (neutrophils and eosinophils) with late alterations on monocytes. Conversely, Leishmune(®) induced early phenotypic changes in both, neutrophils and monocytes. Moreover, Leishvaccine triggered mixed activation-related phenotypic changes on T-cells (CD4+ and CD8+ and B-lymphocytes, whereas Leishmune(®) promoted a selective response, mainly associated with CD8+ T-cell activation. Mixed cytokine profile (IFN-?/IL-4) was observed in Leishvaccine immunized dogs whereas a selective pro-inflammatory pattern (IFN-?/NO) was induced by Leishmune® vaccination. The distinct immunological profile triggered by Leishvaccine and Leishmune® may be a direct consequence of the distinct biochemical composition of these immunobiological, i.e. complex versus purified Leishmania antigen along with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) versus saponin adjuvant. Both immunobiologicals are able to activate phagocytes and CD8+ T-cells and therefore could be considered as a putative vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL).
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Understanding of the immunological heterogeneity of canine mammary carcinomas to provide immunophenotypic features of circulating leukocytes as clinically relevant prognostic biomarkers.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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We have evaluated the phenotypic features of peripheral blood leukocytes as putative novel biomarkers with prognostic values to monitor canine mammary carcinomas. Female dogs were categorized into distinct groups, referred as mammary carcinoma in benign mixed tumor-MC-BMT and mammary carcinoma-MC. Our findings demonstrate that decreased percentage of B-cells along with increased frequency of NK-cells, CD8(+)T-cells, and CD8(+)CD5(Low+)T-cells beside higher T/B-cells and lower CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio were the hallmarks of MC-BMT. Despite the lower expression of MHCI and MHCII, the lymphocytes from MC-BMT and MC displayed higher migration potential as suggested by enhanced frequency of CD18(+) events. Although increased levels of macrophage-like cells/(CD14(+)CD16(+)) and decreased levels of MHCII expression were a common phenotypic feature in mammary carcinoma, down-regulation of MHCI was selectively observed in MC. Decreased frequency of CD4(+) T-cells with increased levels of CD8(+) T-cells and lower CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell ratio were relevant biomarkers of MC-BTM(-). Although decreased expression of MHCI by monocytes was observed in MC-BTM regardless of the presence of lymph node metastasis, this phenotypic feature was restricted to MC free of metastasis. The CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cells ratio lower than 1.8 was elected as a valid parameter with outstanding performance to predict survival in MC-BMT. On the other hand, the MHCI expression by monocytes higher than 10(2) MFI showed good value to estimate worse outcome in MC. These results should help to improve our understanding of the immunological heterogeneity of canine mammary carcinomas and provide tools for the determination of cut-off scores of clinically relevant immonophenotypic prognostic biomarkers.
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Cytokine and transcription factor profiles in the skin of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi presenting distinct cutaneous parasite density and clinical status.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2010
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The immune response in the skin of dogs infected with Leishmania chagasi and its association with distinct levels of tissue parasitism and clinical progression of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) are poorly understood and limited studies are available. A detailed analysis of the profiles of cytokines (IFN-?, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, TGF-?1 and TNF-?) and transcription factors (T-bet, GATA-3 and FOXP3) in the skin of 35 naturally infected dogs was carried out using real-time PCR alongside determinations of skin parasite density and the clinical status of CVL. A mixed cytokine profile with high levels of expression of IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-13 was determined in asymptomatic dogs. Additionally, the levels of transcription factors GATA-3 and FOXP3 were correlated with the asymptomatic disease. A mixed cytokine profile was also observed during active CVL. Moreover, high levels of IL-10 and TGF-?1, concomitant with the low expression of IL-12, may represent a key condition that allows persistence of parasite replication in the skin. The results obtained indicate that in asymptomatic disease or lower levels of skin parasite density, a mixed inflammatory, regulatory immune response profile may be of major relevance for both the maintenance of the clinical status of the dogs as well as for parasite persistence and replication at low levels.
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Rural tourism: a risk factor for schistosomiasis transmission in Brazil.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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This paper reports an outbreak of acute schistosomiasis among 38 tourists who rented a country house in the district of Igarapé, the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, during a holiday period in 2006. A total number of 32 individuals were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. Results of stool examinations revealed individual S. mansoni egg counts per gram of faeces (epg) ranging from 4-768 epg with a geometric mean egg count of 45. The most frequent clinical symptoms were abdominal pain (78.1%), headache (75%), fever (65.6%), dry cough (65.2%) and both diarrhoea and asthenia (59.4%). A malacological survey of the area, where 22 specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata were collected, revealed three (13.6%) specimens eliminating Schistosoma cercariae. This investigation re-confirms a recently described pattern of schistosomiasis infection, resulting in the acute form of the disease and connected to rural tourism, which contributes to the spread of the disease among the middle-class and into non-endemic areas. The lack of specific knowledge about acute schistosomiasis among health services causes an increased number of unnecessary diagnostic procedures and delays in accurate diagnosis and treatment, resulting in considerable discomfort for the patients.
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Seric chemokines and chemokine receptors in eosinophils during acute human schistosomiasis mansoni.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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The recruitment of circulating eosinophils by chemokines and chemokine receptors plays an important role in the inflammation process in acute human schistosomiasis. Our main focus has been on the plasma chemokines (CXCL8/CCL2/CCL3/CCL24) and chemokine receptors (CCR2/CCR3/CCR5/CXCR1/CXCR2/CXCR3/CXCR4) expressed by circulating eosinophils from acute Schistosoma mansoni infected patients (ACT). Our studies compared ACT patients and healthy individuals as a control group. Our major findings demonstrated a plethora of chemokine secretion with significantly increased secretion of all chemokines analysed in the ACT group. Although no differences were detected for beta-chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5) or alpha-chemokine receptors (CXCR3 and CXCR4), a significantly lower frequency of CXCR1+ and CXCR2+ eosinophils in the ACT group was observed. The association between chemokines and their chemokine receptors revealed that acutely infected schistosome patients displaying decreased plasma levels of CCL24 are the same patients who presented enhanced secretion of CCL3, as well as increased expression of both the CCR5 and CXCR3 chemokine receptors. These findings suggest that CCL24 may influence the kinetics of chemokines and their receptors and eosinophils recruitment during human acute schistosomiasis mansoni.
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Augmented plasma microparticles during acute Plasmodium vivax infection.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2010
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In the last few years, the study of microparticles (MPs)--submicron vesicles released from cells upon activation or apoptosis--has gained growing interest in the field of inflammation and in infectious diseases. Their role in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax remains unexplored. Because acute vivax malaria has been related to pro-inflammatory responses, the main hypothesis investigated in this study was that Plasmodium vivax infection is associated with elevated levels of circulating MPs, which may play a role during acute disease in non-immune patients.
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Increase of reactive oxygen species by desferrioxamine during experimental Chagas disease.
Redox Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Oxidative stress is common in inflammatory processes associated with many diseases including Chagas disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in a murine model, biomarkers of oxidative stress together with components of the antioxidant system in order to provide an overview of the mechanism of action of the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). The study population comprised 48 male Swiss mice, half of which were treated daily by intraperitoneal injection of DFO over a 35-day period, while half were administered sterile water in a similar manner. On the 14th day of the experiment, 12 DFO-treated mice and an equal number of untreated mice were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Serum concentrations of nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase and hepatic levels of total glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and protein carbonyl, were determined on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 post-infection. The results obtained revealed that DFO enhances antioxidant activity in the host but also increases oxidative stress, indicating that the mode of action of the drug involves a positive contribution to the host together with an effect that is not beneficial to the parasite.
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Immunophenotypic features of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from mammary carcinomas in female dogs associated with prognostic factors and survival rates.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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The immune system plays an important role in the multifactorial biologic system during the development of neoplasias. However, the involvement of the inflammatory response in the promotion/control of malignant cells is still controversial, and the cell subsets and the mechanisms involved are poorly investigated. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical-pathological status and the immunophenotyping profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and their association with the animal survival rates in canine mammary carcinomas.
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Coinfection with different Trypanosoma cruzi strains interferes with the host immune response to infection.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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A century after the discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi in a child living in Lassance, Minas Gerais, Brazil in 1909, many uncertainties remain with respect to factors determining the pathogenesis of Chagas disease (CD). Herein, we simultaneously investigate the contribution of both host and parasite factors during acute phase of infection in BALB/c mice infected with the JG and/or CL Brener T. cruzi strains. JG single infected mice presented reduced parasitemia and heart parasitism, no mortality, levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-?, CCL2, IL-6 and IFN-?) similar to those found among naïve animals and no clinical manifestations of disease. On the other hand, CL Brener single infected mice presented higher parasitemia and heart parasitism, as well as an increased systemic release of pro-inflammatory mediators and higher mortality probably due to a toxic shock-like systemic inflammatory response. Interestingly, coinfection with JG and CL Brener strains resulted in intermediate parasitemia, heart parasitism and mortality. This was accompanied by an increase in the systemic release of IL-10 with a parallel increase in the number of MAC-3(+) and CD4(+) T spleen cells expressing IL-10. Therefore, the endogenous production of IL-10 elicited by coinfection seems to be crucial to counterregulate the potentially lethal effects triggered by systemic release of pro-inflammatory mediators induced by CL Brener single infection. In conclusion, our results suggest that the composition of the infecting parasite population plays a role in the host response to T. cruzi in determining the severity of the disease in experimentally infected BALB/c mice. The combination of JG and CL Brener was able to trigger both protective inflammatory immunity and regulatory immune mechanisms that attenuate damage caused by inflammation and disease severity in BALB/c mice.
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Characterization of main cytokine sources from the innate and adaptive immune responses following primary 17DD yellow fever vaccination in adults.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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The mechanisms of immune response following yellow fever (YF-17DD) vaccination are still poorly understood. In this study, we have performed a longitudinal investigation (days 0, 7, 15 and 30) to characterize the cytokine profile of innate and adaptive immunity following YF-17DD first-time vaccination. Data from non-stimulated cultures demonstrated a prominent participation of the innate immunity with increased frequency of TNF-?(+) neutrophils and IFN-?(+) NK-cells at day 7 besides TNF-?(+) monocytes at day 7, day 15 and day 30. Increased frequency of IL-10(+) monocytes was observed at day 15 and day 30, and decreased percentage of IL-4(+) NK-cells were detected at day 7, day 15 and day 30. Time-dependent and oscillating cytokine pattern was observed in CD4(+) T-cells, with low percentage of IL-12(+), IL-4(+) and IL-10(+) cells at day 7 and increased frequency of TNF-?(+) cells at day 15 besides IFN-?(+) and IL-5(+) cells at day 15 and day 30. Later changes with increased percentage of IL-12(+) and IL-5(+)CD8(+) T-cells were observed at day 30. Increased frequency of IL-10(+) B-cells was observed at day 15, when seroconversion was detected in all vaccinees. The overall cytokine analysis of non-stimulated leukocytes showed a transient shift towards a pro-inflammatory profile at day 7, mainly due to changes in the innate immunity, which draws back toward a mixed/regulatory pattern at day 15 and day 30. The changes induced by the in vitro YF-17DD vaccine-stimulation were mainly observed at day 0 and day 7 (before seroconversion) with minor changes at day 15 and day 30 (after seroconversion). These data support the hypothesis that a complex network with mixed pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine profile is associated with the establishment of the protective immunity following YF-17DD primo-vaccination, free of adverse events.
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Diagnostic tool based on an HTLV-1-Tax expression system in eukaryotic cells using a poxvirus vector.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) induces an immune-mediated inflammatory disease affecting the nervous system that eventually is accompanied by ocular, rheumatic and dermatologic manifestations (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, or HAM/TSP). Proviral load and HTLV-1 protein expression, mainly of Tax, is correlated with disease progression and induction of host-virus equilibrium breakdown that, reportedly, involves the presence of Tax-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), T regulatory cells and anti-Tax antibodies. Based on knowledge of anti-Tax antibodies as markers of disease progression, the objectives of this study were both to design an infection/transfection system using the Vaccinia virus and a tax-encoding plasmid for the expression of Tax protein as well as to use this cell support to evaluate anti-Tax IgG by flow cytometry. The flow cytometry assay was standardized using pooled sera from each test group (negative, asymptomatic and HAM/TSP patients). The HAM/TSP group presented higher IgG anti-Tax reactivity (above 70%) than the asymptomatic group (nearly 40% reactivity). The data indicate that the infection/transfection system is useful for assessing Tax expression. This is a promising assay for use as a diagnostic tool to detect IgG anti-Tax and monitor HTLV-1 infected individuals.
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Clinical and immunological insights on severe, adverse neurotropic and viscerotropic disease following 17D yellow fever vaccination.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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Yellow fever (YF) vaccines (17D-204 and 17DD) are well tolerated and cause very low rates of severe adverse events (YEL-SAE), such as serious allergic reactions, neurotropic adverse diseases (YEL-AND), and viscerotropic diseases (YEL-AVD). Viral and host factors have been postulated to explain the basis of YEL-SAE. However, the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of YEL-SAE remain unknown. The present report provides a detailed immunological analysis of a 23-year-old female patient. The patient developed a suspected case of severe YEL-AVD with encephalitis, as well as with pancreatitis and myositis, following receipt of a 17D-204 YF vaccination. The patient exhibited a decreased level of expression of Fc-gammaR in monocytes (CD16, CD32, and CD64), along with increased levels of NK T cells (an increased CD3(+) CD16(+/-) CD56(+/-)/CD3(+) ratio), activated T cells (CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells), and B lymphocytes. Enhanced levels of plasmatic cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) as well as an exacerbated ex vivo intracytoplasmic cytokine pattern, mainly observed within NK cells (gamma interferon positive [IFN-gamma(+)], tumor necrosis factor alpha positive [TNF-alpha(+)], and IL-4 positive [IL-4(+)]), CD8(+) T cells (IL-4(+) and IL-5(+)), and B lymphocytes (TNF-alpha(+), IL-4(+), and IL-10(+)). The analysis of CD4(+) T cells revealed a complex profile that consisted of an increased frequency of IL-12(+) and IFN-gamma(+) cells and a decreased percentage of TNF-alpha(+), IL-4(+), and IL-5(+) cells. Depressed cytokine synthesis was observed in monocytes (TNF-alpha(+)) following the provision of antigenic stimuli in vitro. These results support the hypothesis that a strong adaptive response and abnormalities in the innate immune system may be involved in the establishment of YEL-AND and YEL-AVD.
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Systemic and compartmentalized immune response in canine visceral leishmaniasis.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2009
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Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) are the most important emerging diseases with high prevalence in Latin American countries and are mainly caused by Leishmania (L.) chagasi (Syn=L. infantum). CVL has a great impact on Brazilian public health because domestic dogs are the most important VL peri-domicile reservoirs in both urban and peri-urban areas. Our findings highlight the complexity of cellular immunological events related to the natural infection from dogs by L. chagasi, additionally correlating major peripheral blood phenotypic markers with clinical status and tissues parasite density. Our main results demonstrated that lower frequency of circulating B cells and monocytes are important markers of severe CVL, whereas increased levels of CD8+ lymphocytes appear to be the major phenotypic feature of asymptomatic disease. Determination of the isotypes patterns during CVL demonstrated that asymptomatic dogs and those with low parasitism are associated with an increase of IgG1, while the symptomatic dogs and those with high parasitism are associated with an increase of IgG, IgG2, IgM, IgA and IgE immunoglobulins. Pioneer findings obtained by our group showed a correlation between clinical status of CVL with degree of tissue parasite density. This data demonstrated that asymptomatic dogs presented low parasitism while symptomatic dogs are associated with high parasite load in various tissues such as skin, bone marrow and spleen. We have also investigated the association between tissue parasitism and CVL clinical forms. Regardless of clinical status, skin and spleen are the major sites of high parasite density during ongoing CVL. Furthermore, we demonstrated that bone marrow and spleen parasite density are the most reliable parasitological markers to decode the clinical status of CVL. In this article, we have reviewed some aspects of the histopathological and immunological events occurring in natural and experimental L. chagasi/L. infantum infection, pointing out the main L. chagasi-parasitized tissue. We have discussed the importance of the association between parasite density, immunological/histopathological aspects and clinical status of the CVL, their current applications, challenges for the future and potential opportunities in CVL research.
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Hepatitis C virus screening and clinical monitoring of biomarkers in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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In this study, 395 volunteers were enrolled to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus, the immunological and the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) biomarkers amongst hemodialysis patients, living in Manaus, Brazil. An overall seroprevalence of 13.9% was found in the hemodialysis patients. Analysis of seroconversion patterns demonstrated that most patients with HCV seroconverted up to 10 years following the first hemodialysis session. Anti-NS5 antibody was detectable in 60.4% of patients with HCV. A lower percentage of circulating CD3(+) and CD4(+) T-cells was found in patients seronegative for HCV, whereas a higher frequency of CD8(+) T-cells was the hallmark of patients with HCV. An overall low activation state of monocytes and eosinophils were observed in hemodialysis patients. In contrast, a higher frequency of activated neutrophils was observed in patients with HCV, selectively in the NS5+ subgroup. All hemodialysis patients had a higher percentage of activated lymphocytes, with the higher activation state in patients with NS5- reactivity. Higher ALT levels were observed in patients with HCV, especially in the NS5+ subgroup. Interestingly, the ALT levels were correlated negatively with the lymphocyte activation state, selectively in the NS5- subgroup, suggesting a protective role of these activated lymphocytes in patients with HCV. These findings reinforce the importance of the transmission of HCV among hemodialysis patients, suggesting that apart from the HCV screening, the serological and ALT biomarkers may represent important predictors of morbidity and/or mortality among patients undergoing hemodialysis.
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T-cell-derived cytokines, nitric oxide production by peripheral blood monocytes and seric anti-Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi IgG subclass patterns following immunization against canine visceral leishmaniasis using Leishvaccine and Leishmune.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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It is generally accepted that distinct cytokine expression by the cellular immune response plays a critical role during the outcome of experimental as well as natural canine visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL). Despite the fact that immunoprophylaxis of CVL has become an important control strategy and protective immunity has been reported upon immunization with whole as well as purified Leishmania antigens, the cytokine profile of T-cells triggered by anti-CVL vaccines still remain to be determined. Herein, we have developed a cross-sectional analysis of German Shepherd dogs submitted to vaccination protocols with Leishvaccine (n=6) and Leishmune (n=6). Our data identified distinct immunological profiles elicited by Leishvaccine and Leishmune, with the Leishvaccine triggering a mixed, IFN-gamma and IL-4, cytokine pattern in addition to high levels of anti-Leishmania IgG1, whereas the Leishmune induced an immunological pattern characterized by enhanced levels of IFN-gamma, NO and anti-Leishmania chagasi IgG2. It was important to notice that despite the distinct immunological patterns triggered by Leishvaccine and Leishmune, the ability of both immunobiologicals to activate T-cell-derived IFN-gamma synthesis further suggesting their immunogenic potential against CVL. These findings added support to our hypothesis that both antigenic composition (whole antigen in Leishvaccine versus purified antigen in Leishmune) as well as the adjuvant nature (BGC and saponin) used for the vaccine formulation may count for the distinct activation pattern observed.
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Innate immunity and regulatory T-cells in human Chagas disease: what must be understood?
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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There is a general consensus that during chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the host immune system induces complex processes to ensure the control of parasite growth while preserving the potential to mount and maintain a life-long controlled humoral and cellular immune response against the invading pathogen. This review summarises evidence in an attempt to elucidate what must be understood to further clarify the role of innate immunity in the development/maintenance of clinical Chagas disease and the impact of etiological treatment on host immunity, highlighting the contributions of the innate immunity and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Recently, increasing focus on innate immunity suggest that chronic T. cruzi infection may cause morbidity when innate effector functions, or the down-regulation of adaptive regulatory mechanisms are lacking. In this context, stable asymptomatic host-parasite interactions seem to be influenced by the effector/regulatory balance with the participation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells in parallel with the establishment of regulatory mechanisms mediated by NKT and Treg cells. Moreover, a balanced innate immune activation state, apart from Treg cells, may play a role in controlling the adverse events triggered by the massive antigen release induced by trypanosomicidal agents during Chagas disease etiological treatment.
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Profile of central and effector memory T cells in the progression of chronic human chagas disease.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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Chronic Chagas disease presents several different clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe cardiac and/or digestive clinical forms. Several studies have demonstrated that immunoregulatory mechanisms are important processes for the control of the intense immune activity observed in the chronic phase. T cells play a critical role in parasite specific and non-specific immune response elicited by the host against Trypanosoma cruzi. Specifically, memory T cells, which are basically classified as central and effector memory cells, might have a distinct migratory activity, role and function during the human Chagas disease.
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Anti-fixed Leishmania chagasi promastigotes IgG antibodies detected by flow cytometry (FC-AFPA-IgG) as a tool for serodiagnosis and for post-therapeutic cure assessment in American visceral leishmaniasis.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic infection, caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite belonging to the Leishmania donovani complex. The diagnosis of VL is complex because most clinical features are shared with other commonly occurring febrile hepatosplenic diseases that can be endemic along with VL. A number of serological devices are available but still require improvement mainly due to residual post-therapeutic serology and the cross-reactivity with other Trypanosomatidae protozooses. This study intended to describe and evaluate the performance of an indirect immunofluorescence assay referred as flow cytometry anti-fixed Leishmania chagasi promastigote IgG antibodies (FC-AFPA-IgG) for serodiagnosis of VL and assessment of post-therapeutic cure. The sera reactivity is reported as the percentage of positive fluorescent parasite (PPFP) along the titration curve. The analysis of sera titration curve indicated the sera dilution 1/32,000 and the PPFP=25% as the cut-off to segregate positive and negative results. Using these parameters, the FC-AFPA-IgG displayed outstanding sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis and post-therapeutic cure assessment purposes. The inter-test reproducibility of FC-AFPA-IgG was also verified, considering two independent Analysts and validated the results obtained by FC-AFPA-IgG. Moreover, the comparison between FC-AFPA-IgG and the conventional serologic test (ELISA) showed that besides the statistically analogous results with strong positive correlation the FC-AFPA-IgG displayed higher performance indexes. Further analysis demonstrated that while cross-reactivity was observed in 8% of samples tested by ELISA, no cross-reactivity was detected by FC-AFPA-IgG. Together, the findings presented in this study showed the potential of FC-AFPA-IgG in both diagnosis and post-therapeutic cure assessment of VL.
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Cytokine profile, proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt in circulating mononuclear cells from individuals during the chronic intestinal phase of Schistosomiasis mansoni infection.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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The immune response to Schistosoma mansoni is characterized by a granulomatous reaction around the parasite eggs that are trapped in the host liver, and this reaction modulates the immune response during the chronic phase of the disease. The typical peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) response of patients during the chronic intestinal phase of infection is characterized by a decreased response to an S. mansoni soluble egg antigen. To obtain a greater understanding of Schistosoma infections, this study investigated the effects of the soluble egg antigen (SEA) and soluble adult worm antigen (SWAP) of S. mansoni on cellular proliferation, cytokine production, and ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in PBMCs from infected (XTO) and egg-negative (NI) individuals living in the same endemic area.
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CD4-CD8-?? and ?? T cells display inflammatory and regulatory potentials during human tuberculosis.
PLoS ONE
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T-cells play an important role controlling immunity against pathogens and therefore influence the outcome of human diseases. Although most T-lymphocytes co-express either CD4 or CD8, a smaller T-cell subset found the in the human peripheral blood that expresses the ?? or ?? T-cell-receptor (TCR) lacks the CD4 and CD8 co-receptors. These double negative (DN) T-cells have been shown to display important immunological functions in human diseases. To better understand the role of DN T-cells in human Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we have characterized their frequency, activation and cytokine profile in a well-defined group of tuberculosis patients, categorized as severe and non-severe based on their clinical status. Our data showed that whereas high frequency of ?? DN T-cells observed in M. tuberculosis-infected patients are associated with disease severity, decreased proportion of ?? DN T-cells are found in patients with severe tuberculosis. Together with activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, higher frequencies of both ?? and ?? DN T-cells from tuberculosis patients also express the chronic activation marker HLA-DR. However, the expression of CD69, an early activation marker, is selectively observed in DN T-cells. Interestingly, while ?? and ?? DN T-cells from patients with non-severe tuberculosis display a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, characterized by enhanced IFN-?, the ?? DN T-cells from patients with severe disease express a modulatory profile exemplified by enhanced interleukin-10 production. Overall, our findings suggest that ?? and ?? DN T-cell present disparate immunoregulatory potentials and seems to contribute to the development/maintenance of distinct clinical aspects of TB, as part of the complex immunological network triggered by the TB infection.
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Immune response evaluation through determination of type 1, type 2, and type 17 patterns in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.
Reprod Sci
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Innate and adaptive immune cells secrete different cytokines, which participate through distinct mechanisms in cell-mediated immunity and humoral immune responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response through analysis of type 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cells in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Our study included 44 patients with EOC (study group) and 32 gynecological patients with no ovarian disease (control group). Fragments of ovarian tissue and blood samples were collected in both groups and aliquots of intracystic fluid and peritoneal fluid were recovered from the EOC patient group. Interleukin (IL)-2/IL-4/IL-6/IL-10/IL-17/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?/interferon (IFN)-? levels were measured by cytometric bead array. Statistical analysis included chi-squared, Student t, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Cox regression model. Patients with EOC were associated with higher levels of TNF-?/IL-4/IL-6/IL-10 compared to the control group. Both IL-10 and TNF-? concentrations were higher in patients with stage III/IV EOC and also associated with higher levels of cancer antigen 125. Higher Th1-mediated immune response was observed when the cytoreduction was considered optimal. However, patients with EOC with unsatisfactory cytoreductive surgery and undifferentiated tumors were associated with higher concentrations of Th2 cytokines in the 4 sites studied. Higher IL-6/IL-10 and lower IFN-? concentrations were also associated with a lower overall survival rate in patients with EOC. The EOC group presented a predominantly Th2 response and an immunosuppressant standard and had association between IL-6/IL-10/IFN-? and prognosis.
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Performance of LBSap vaccine after intradermal challenge with L. infantum and saliva of Lu. longipalpis: immunogenicity and parasitological evaluation.
PLoS ONE
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In the last decade, the search for new vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis has intensified. However, the pattern related to immune protection during long periods after experimental infection in vaccine trials is still not fully understood. Herein, we investigated the immunogenicity and parasitological levels after intradermal challenge with Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland extract in dogs immunized with a vaccine composed of L. braziliensis antigens plus saponin as an adjuvant (LBSap vaccine). The LBSap vaccine elicited higher levels of total anti-Leishmania IgG as well as both IgG1 and IgG2. Furthermore, dogs vaccinated had increased levels of lymphocytes, particularly circulating B cells (CD21(+)) and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. LBSap also elicited an intense in vitro cell proliferation associated with higher levels of CD4(+) T lymphocytes specific for vaccine soluble antigen and soluble lysate of L. infantum antigen even 885 days after experimental challenge. Furthermore, LBSap vaccinated dogs presented high IFN-? and low IL-10 and TGF-?1 expression in spleen with significant reduction of parasite load in this tissue. Overall, our results validate the potential of LBSap vaccine to protect against L. infantum experimental infection and strongly support further evaluation of efficiency of LBSap against CVL in natural infection conditions.
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Proviral load and the balance of serum cytokines in HTLV-1-asymptomatic infection and in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).
Acta Trop.
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This study compared the proviral load and the plasma cytokine profiles (interleukin-IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-?, IFN-?) in 87 HTLV-1-infected individuals, including 28 with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), 32 with possible pHAM/TSP and 27 asymptomatic carriers (AC). The control group was composed by 21 HTLV-1-seronegative individuals. Our finding demonstrated that HAM/TSP group presented higher proviral load as compared to all other HTLV-1 groups (p<0.0001). The HAM/TSP group showed higher serum concentration of IL-6 (p=0.0009) as compared to all other groups. Moreover, higher serum concentration of IFN-? (p=0.0118) and IL-4 (p=0.0166) were observed in HAM/TSP group as compared to the healthy controls. Additionally, the HAM/TSP group also showed higher serum concentration of TNF-? (p=0.0239) and IFN-? (p=0.0118) as compared to AC. No differences in the serum concentration of IL-2 and IL-10 were observed among the groups. The analysis of cytokine balance demonstrated that HAM/TSP presented higher pro-inflammatory profile with enhanced IFN-?/IL-10 and IFN-?/IL-4 ratio as compared to AC and pHAM/TSP. Further analysis pointed out to a positive correlation between the IFN-? response and the proviral load in AC. Conversely, a negative association between TNF-? and IL-2 with the proviral load was the hallmark of HAM/TSP group. These findings suggested that the proviral load and the pro-inflammatory cytokine profile may be independent events in the peripheral blood of HAM/TSP individuals. The knowledge about the existence of individual virological/immunological behavior upon HTLV-1 infection, may guide to the establishment of more effective therapeutic interventions.
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Antitumor effectiveness and toxicity of cisplatin-loaded long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes against Ehrlich ascitic tumor.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
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Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents commonly used in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. The disadvantages of its clinical use are systemic side-effects, such as nephrotoxicity and myelotoxicity. Long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes containing CDDP (SpHL-CDDP) were developed by our research group aiming to promote the release of CDDP near the tumor as well as decreasing toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumor efficacy and toxicity of SpHL-CDDP after intraperitoneal administration in initial or disseminated tumor-bearing mice, at a dose of 12 mg/kg. The survival was monitored and blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological analysis. Kidneys, liver and spleen were removed for histopathological examination. Tumor cells were evaluated for cellular viability and cell cycle. The survival of animals treated with SpHL-CDDP was higher than those treated with free CDDP. The cell death caused by treatment with SpHL-CDDP occurred through induction of apoptosis, with a cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. The treatment of mice presenting initial cancer with both formulations provoked a suppression of granulocytes. Mice treated with free CDDP also showed a decrease in platelet count, which suggests a high myelotoxicity. In an advanced cancer model, SpHL-CDDP treatment allowed an improvement of the immune response. Mice affected by cancer at an early stage and treated with free CDDP or SpHL-CDDP showed a lower urea/creatinine index compared with the saline control group. These findings indicate that both treatments were able to reduce the renal damage caused by peritoneal carcinomatosis. Microscopic analysis of kidneys from mice treated with SpHL-CDDP showed a discrete morphological alteration, while tubular necrosis was observed for free CDDP-treated mice. Concerning hepatotoxicity, no alteration in clinical chemistry parameters was observed. These findings reveal that SpHL-CDDP can improve the antitumor efficacy and decrease renal and bone marrow toxicity.
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