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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Influence of HLA-DRB-1 alleles on the production of antibody against CSP, MSP-1, AMA-1, and DBP in Brazilian individuals naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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We evaluated the influence of allelic frequency of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -DRB1 on the acquisition of antibody response against malaria sporozoite and merozoite peptides in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria acquired in endemic areas of Brazil. IgG antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against four peptides of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) (amino, carboxyl, and VK210 and VK247 repeats) and peptides of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1), and Duffy-binding protein (DBP). We found an association between HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR5 alleles and lack of antibody response to CSP amino terminal, as well as an association between HLA-DR3 and the highest antibody response to MSP1 (Pv200L). In conclusion, we suggest a potential regulatory role of the HLA-DRB1 alleles in the production of antibodies to a conserved region of P. vivax CSP and MSP1 in Brazilian population exposed to malaria.
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a HIV-1-infected population from Southeastern Brazil in the HAART era.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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To evaluate retrospectively the microbiological profile of Mycobacterium species isolated from HIV-infected patients attending the HIV/TB reference health care units in São José do Rio Preto, Brazil.
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Development of PCR-RFLP assay for the discrimination of Plasmodium species and variants of P. vivax (VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like) in Anopheles mosquitoes.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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The identification of Plasmodium species in Anopheles mosquitoes is an integral component of malaria control programs. We developed a new assay to identify Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium vivax variants. Specific primers were designed to hybridize to CS gene-specific regions. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used to distinguish the P. vivax variants VK210, VK247, and P. vivax-like. The new PCR-RFLP assay revealed good agreement when compared with a nested PCR using artificially infected Anopheles mosquitoes. This sensitive PCR-RFLP method can be useful when detection of Plasmodium species and P. vivax variants is required and may be employed to improve the understanding of malaria transmission dynamics by Anopheles species.
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Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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In order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the ?-giardin gene.
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Evaluation of the naturally acquired antibody immune response to the Pv200L N-terminal fragment of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 in four areas of the Amazon Region of Brazil.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Frequency and levels of IgG antibodies to an N-terminal fragment of the Plasmodium vivax MSP-1 (Pv200L) protein, in individuals naturally exposed to malaria in four endemic areas of Brazil, were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma samples of 261 P. vivax-infected individuals from communities of Macapá, Novo Repartimento, Porto Velho, and Plácido de Castro in the Amazonian region with different malaria transmission intensities. A high mean number of studied individuals (89.3%) presented with antibodies to the Pv200L that correlated with the number of previous malaria infections; there were significant differences in the frequency of the responders (71.9-98.7) and in the antibody levels (1:200-1:51,200) among the four study areas. Results of this study provide evidence that Pv200L is a naturally immunogenic fragment of the PvMSP-1 and is associated with the degree of exposure to parasites. The fine specificity of antibodies to Pv200L is currently being assessed.
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Population genetics of GYPB and association study between GYPB*S/s polymorphism and susceptibility to P. falciparum infection in the Brazilian Amazon.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum invade through several pathways using different RBC receptors. Field isolates appear to use a greater variability of these receptors than laboratory isolates. Brazilian field isolates were shown to mostly utilize glycophorin A-independent invasion pathways via glycophorin B (GPB) and/or other receptors. The Brazilian population exhibits extensive polymorphism in blood group antigens, however, no studies have been done to relate the prevalence of the antigens that function as receptors for P. falciparum and the ability of the parasite to invade. Our study aimed to establish whether variation in the GYPB*S/s alleles influences susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum in the admixed population of Brazil.
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Osteomyelitis: a current challenge.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2010
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Over the last 30 years, the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has almost been totally elucidated, and many factors responsible for the persistence of this infection have been identified. Numerous antimicrobial agents with distinct spectrums of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics have been used in its treatment. Surgical techniques, including muscle grafts, the Ilizarov technique, and antibiotic bone cements, have been applied. However, bone infections are still a challenge. Despite the importance of isolation and identification of microorganisms to determine the antimicrobial treatment of bone infections, there are few systematic national studies about the etiological profile of these diseases. This article describes the current knowledge of osteomyelitis and summarizes published national data based on the experience of different Orthopedic and Traumatology Services. In general, S. aureus was described as an important etiological agent; however, the difference in design of national studies makes a comparison between the prevalence of bone infection, the associated risk factors, and the different therapeutic approaches difficult. In conclusion, effort is necessary in order to stimulate systematic national studies in different Orthopedics and Traumatology Services to obtain a better consensus on preventive measures and therapies of bone infections.
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Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite genotypes: a limited variation or new subspecies with major biological consequences?
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite variants have been identified in several geographical areas. The real implication of the genetic variation in this region of the P. vivax genome has been questioned for a long time. Although previous studies have observed significant association between VK210 and the Duffy blood group, we present here that evidences of this variation are limited to the CSP central portion.
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Catheter-related infections in a northwestern São Paulo reference unit for burned patients care.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Despite improvements in care and rehabilitation of burned patients, infections still remain the main complication and death cause. Catheter-related infections are among the four most common infections and are associated with skin damage and insertion site colonization. There are few studies evaluating this kind of infection worldwide in this special group of patients. Padre Albino Hospital Burn Care Unit (PAHBCU) is the only reference center in the Northwestern São Paulo for treatment of burned patients. This paper presents the results of a retrospective study aiming at describing the epidemiological and clinical features of catheter-related infections at PAHBCU.
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Concurrent Dengue and malaria in the Amazon region.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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The Amazon region has extensive forested areas and natural ecosystems, providing favorable conditions for the existence of innumerous arboviruses. Over 200 arboviruses have been isolated in Brazil and about 40 are associated with human disease. Four out of 40 are considered to be of public health importance in Brazil: Dengue viruses (1-4), Oropouche, Mayaro and Yellow Fever. Along with these viruses, about 98% of the malaria cases are restricted to the Legal Amazon region.
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Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite variants and Duffy blood group genotypes in the Brazilian Amazon region.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of the Plasmodium vivax infective sporozoite is considered to be a major target for the development of recombinant malaria vaccines. The Duffy blood group molecule acts as the red blood cell receptor for P. vivax. We review the frequency of P. vivax CSP variants and report their association with the Duffy blood group genotypes from Brazilian Amazon patients carrying P. vivax malaria. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 155 P. vivax-infected individuals from five Brazilian malaria-endemic areas. The P. vivax CSP variants and the Duffy blood group genotypes were assessed using PCR/RFLP. In single infections, the VK210 variant was the commonest followed by the P. vivax-like variant. The typing of P. vivax indicated that the frequency of variants among the study areas was significantly different from one to another. This is the first detection of the VK247 and P. vivax-like variant in single infections in endemic areas of Brazil. Association of the CSP P. vivax variants with the heterozygous Duffy blood group system genotype was significant for VK210 single infection. These observations provide additional data on the Plasmodium-host interactions concerning the Duffy blood group and P. vivax capability of causing human malaria.
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Calicivirus and Giardia lamblia are associated with diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients from southeast Brazil.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2009
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To study enteropathogens, 100 fecal samples were collected from a Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive population, with or without diarrhea. Giardia lamblia and calicivirus were significantly associated with diarrhea as were severe immunosuppression and the presence of at least one enteropathogen. No sample was positive for rotavirus and only one asymptomatic individual carried the astrovirus. We concluded that there is a great diversity of pathogens and opportunistic infections in the studied population, with a high prevalence of mixed colonization/infection. Our findings pave the way for future molecular studies related to the expression of virulence factors and to the possibility of pathogen-pathogen interactions, especially between G. lamblia and calicivirus. These findings are relevant to the improvement of therapies and controlling diarrhea in the HIV-seropositive population.
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Etiological agents of diarrhea in patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus-1: a review.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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Despite the importance of understanding the epidemiology of agents responsible for infectious diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) population, the number of articles about this subject is relatively few. The current article summarizes published data on bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic enteropathogens in the HIV/AIDS seropositive subjects in different countries, regions and localities. In general, there is a great difference in the frequencies of etiological agents due to factors which include immune status, geographical location, climate and socioeconomic conditions. It is important to stress that a great prevalence of infection by emergent agents has been reported in the more advanced stages of AIDS. Therefore, to establish specific treatment depends directly on knowledge of these agents and risk factors associated to their distribution. Moreover, the colonization by potential pathogenic agents verified in these individuals is high thus implicating that they act as carriers. Finally, public health measures of control and prevention must take into consideration the regional previously identified enteropathogens, especially in areas where HIV prevalence is high.
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NINJURIN1 single nucleotide polymorphism and nerve damage in leprosy.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
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Leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, can damage the peripheral nervous system and represents one of the leading causes of nontraumatic neuropathy in some developing countries. The NINJURIN1 is a cell adhesion molecule that provides suitable substrates for repair of Schwann cells after peripheral nerve injury. The single nucleotide polymorphism NINJ1, is the result of a transversion of an adenine to a nucleotide polymorphic cytokine (A?C), responsible for an amino acid exchange of asparagine to alanine at position 110 of the protein (asp110ala).
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