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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 inhibits complement component 1q effector mechanisms and exerts detrimental effects during pneumococcal pneumonia.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Phagocytosis and inflammation within the lungs is crucial for host defense during bacterial pneumonia. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-2 was proposed to negatively regulate TLR-mediated responses and enhance phagocytosis by macrophages, but the role of TREM-2 in respiratory tract infections is unknown. Here, we established the presence of TREM-2 on alveolar macrophages (AM) and explored the function of TREM-2 in the innate immune response to pneumococcal infection in vivo. Unexpectedly, we found Trem-2-/- AM to display augmented bacterial phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo compared to WT AM. Mechanistically, we detected that in the absence of TREM-2, pulmonary macrophages selectively produced elevated complement component 1q (C1q) levels. We found that these increased C1q levels depended on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) activity and were responsible for the enhanced phagocytosis of bacteria. Upon infection with S. pneumoniae, Trem-2-/- mice exhibited an augmented bacterial clearance from lungs, decreased bacteremia and improved survival compared to their WT counterparts. This work is the first to disclose a role for TREM-2 in clinically relevant respiratory tract infections and demonstrates a previously unknown link between TREM-2 and opsonin production within the lungs.
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Herpes simplex encephalitis in glioma patients: a challenging diagnosis.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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In recent years, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) has been reported with increasing frequency in settings of immunosuppression, such as acquired immunodeficiency, transplantation and cancer. As observed, in immunocompromised individuals HSE presents peculiar clinical and paraclinical features, and poorer prognosis.
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Muscle ultrasonography for detecting fasciculations in frontotemporal dementia.
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Ultrasound detection of muscle fasciculations was recently proposed for assessing lower motor neuron (LMN) dysfunction in ALS patients. Given the continuum between ALS and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD), the aim of the present study was to evaluate muscle ultrasound (MUS) in FTD both for feasibility and prevalence of fasciculations. Twenty-two FTD patients were examined (five muscles bilaterally: biceps brachii, first dorsalis interosseous, T10 paraspinalis, vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior) with a 7-MHz linear array transducer and a fasciculation score (FS) computed. Twenty-two matched cognitively-intact control subjects and six ALS patients were also included. Results showed that MUS was feasible, reliable and well tolerated in all subjects. Two FTD/MND patients displayed very high FS values, similar to those in ALS patients. The remaining 20 FTD patients displayed a mean FS value significantly higher than the control group with six patients (30%) having FS values out of the range of controls. Disease progression rate correlated with the FS. In conclusion, MUS can be easily applied to FTD patients and represents a non-invasive technique for defining LMN involvement in these patients. LMN dysfunction is a frequent condition in FTD and might identify a subset of patients with a different clinical course.
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Quality of life and brain tumors: what beyond the clinical burden?
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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This study analyzed the subjective facets of quality of life (QoL) and their relation to the type of brain tumor (BT) and phase of disease. Two hundred and ninety-one patients with pinealoblastoma, medulloblastoma, low-grade glioma, anaplastic astrocytoma, or glioblastoma were evaluated. With respect to 110 healthy controls, patients in the phases of radiotherapy/chemotherapy, stable disease, or tumor recurrence were significantly more anxious and depressed compared with patients in the early postoperative period. All patients were impaired in mental flexibility and memory, with preservation of abstract reasoning. The Functional Living Index-Cancer (FLIC), previously validated in cancer and BT patients, yielded six subjective factors (disease perception, affective well-being, role and leisure, personal base, nausea, sharing). None of the FLIC factors were predicted by tumor type, which only related to the physical and cognitive performances and mood scores. Affective well-being, role and leisure, and sharing were predicted by the phase of disease. Personal base, including self-perception and confidence, was independent on tumor progression and treatment. To conclude, QoL encompasses different subjective aspects, which vary in relation to the phase of disease and clinical burden. However, some person-related facets appear independent on tumor progression and treatment, indicating individual resources. Knowing this may guide tailored interventions supporting QoL.
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Survival effect of first- and second-line treatments for patients with primary glioblastoma: a cohort study from a prospective registry, 1997-2010.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Prospective follow-up studies of large cohorts of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) are needed to assess the effectiveness of conventional treatments in clinical practice. We report GBM survival data from the Brain Cancer Register of the Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta (INCB) in Milan, Italy, which collected longitudinal data for all consecutive patients with GBM from 1997 to 2010.
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Isolated acute dysphagia due to varicella-zoster virus.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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We present a case of zoster sine herpete causing isolated acute dysphagia in an immunocompetent patient. The interest of this paper is the atypical presentation of varicella-zoster virus reactivation. A 77-year-old woman presented with a 3-day history of fever and worsening dysphagia for both liquid and solid foods. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis and PCR amplified varicella-zoster virus DNA with high antibody titers in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The panel was suggestive of a cranial neuritis due to varicella-zoster virus, involved cranial nerves, even in the absence of a cutaneous and mucosal rash. Varicella-zoster virus reactivation should be included in the differential diagnosis of isolated or multiple cranial nerve palsies, with or without zosteriform skin lesions. A prompt etiologic diagnosis can lead to early administration of antiviral therapy.
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Non-paraneoplastic voltage-gated calcium channels antibody-mediated cerebellar ataxia responsive to IVIG treatment.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Non-paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia associated with voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) antibodies is a rare entity with only few cases reported in literature. We describe a 60year-old man with subacute cerebellar ataxia and subclinical Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) in whom VGCC antibodies were detected at high titer in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Screening for underlying malignancies was negative. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment led to the improvement of clinical picture and reduction of serum antibody titer over a 13-month follow-up period. We emphasize that VGCC antibodies should be included in the diagnostic work-up of patients with subacute cerebellar ataxia and that treatment with IVIG can improve the clinical picture and prevent disability.
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Acute late-onset encephalopathy after radiotherapy: an unusual life-threatening complication.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Unusual late-onset complications of brain irradiation, characterized by reversible neurologic focal signs, seizures, and MRI alterations, have recently been reported and classified as stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART)(1) and peri-ictal pseudoprogression (PIPG).(2.)
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A case of late herpes simplex encephalitis relapse.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Late relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis, defined as recurrence more than 3 months after the first initial encephalitic episode, is a rare condition. We describe the case of an adult patient who presented a relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis 8 years after the first episode occurred at the age of 57 years and review the literature of this topic.
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Valproate induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy successfully treated with levocarnitine.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy is an unusual but serious adverse effect that is usually characterized by the acute onset of impaired consciousness, focal neurological symptoms and increased seizure frequency. It has been reported to occur at therapeutic valproate levels. We report a patient who developed valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy after a short treatment with valproate and was successfully treated with levocarnitine. We discuss this patient and review the literature regarding the use of levocarnitine in similar patients.
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Circulating T regulatory cells migration and phenotype in glioblastoma patients: an in vitro study.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary human brain tumor. The relatively high amount of T regulatory lymphocytes present in the tumor, contributes to the establishment of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Samples of peripheral blood were collected from GBM patients and healthy controls and a purified population of Treg (CD4(+)/CD25(bright)) was isolated using flow cytometric cell sorting. Treg migrating capacities toward human glioma cell line conditioned medium were evaluated through an in vitro migration test. Our data show that supernatants collected from GBM cell lines were more attractant to Treg when compared to complete standard medium. The addition of an anti-CCL2 antibody to conditioned medium decreased conditioned medium-depending Treg migration, suggesting that CCL2 (also known as Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein, MCP-1) is implicated in the process. The number of circulating CD4(+)/?L or Treg/?L was similar in GBM patients and controls. Specific Treg markers (FOXP3; CD127; Helios; GITR; CTLA4; CD95; CCR2, CCR4; CCR7) were screened in peripheral blood and no differences could be detected between the two populations. These data confirm that the tumor microenvironment is attractive to Treg, which tend to migrate toward the tumor region changing the immunological response. Though we provide evidence that CCL2 is implicated in Treg migration, other factors are needed as well to provide such effect.
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Perioperative thromboprophylaxis in patients with craniotomy for brain tumours: a systematic review.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events are frequent in neurooncological patients in perioperative period thus increasing mortality and morbidity. The role of prophylaxis has not yet been established with certainty, and in various neurosurgery and intensive care units the practice is inconsistent. A better definition of the risk/cost/benefit ratio of the various methods, both mechanical (intermittent pneumatic compression-IPC, graduated compression stockings-GCS) and pharmacological (unfractionated heparin-UFH or low molecular weight heparin-LMWH), is warranted. We aim to define the optimal prophylactic treatment in the perioperative period in neurooncological patients. A systematic review of the literature was performed in Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. Thirteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified, in which physical methods (IPC or GCS) and/or drugs (UFH or LMWHs) were evaluated in perioperative prophylaxis of neurological patients, mostly with brain cancer not treated with anticoagulants for other diseases. The analysis was conducted on a total of 1,932 randomized patients of whom 1,558 had brain tumours. Overall data show a trend of reduction of VTE in patients treated with mechanical methods (IPC or GCS) that should be initiated preoperatively and continued until discharge or longer in case of persistence of risk factors. The addition of enoxaparin starting the day after surgery, significantly reduces clinically manifest VTE, despite an increase in major bleeding events. Further studies are needed to delineate the types of patients with an increase of VTE risk and risk/benefits ratio of physical and pharmacological treatments in the perioperative period.
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Operability of glioblastomas: "sins of action" versus "sins of non-action".
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Despite prognosis of glioblastomas is still poor, mounting evidence suggests that more extensive surgical resections are associated with longer life expectancy. However, the surgical indications, at present, are far from uniform and the concept of operability is extremely surgeon-dependant. The results of glioblastoma resection in 104 patients operated on between March 2005 and April 2011 were reviewed with the aim to shed some light on the limits between sins of action (operating upon complex tumors causing a permanent severe deficit) and sins of non-action (considering inoperable tumors that can be resected with good results). Fifty-five patients (54.4 %) (Group 1) presented with a disputable surgical indication because of one or more of the following clinico-radiological aspects: involvement of motor and language areas (39.4 %), deep location (7.7 %), corpus callosum infiltration (13.4 %), or major vessels encasement (8.6 %). Forty-six (42.5 %) patients (Group 2) presented with an indisputable surgical indication (readily accessible tumors in non-eloquent areas). Overall mortality was 2.9 %. The mean overall survival was 19.8 months and not significantly different in the two Groups (20.4 Group 2 and 19.5 months for Group 1; p = 0.7). Patients with GTR and <72 years had a longer survival (p = 0.004 and 0.03, respectively). Seventy patients (69.3 %) showed an uneventful post-operative course, without statistical significance difference between Group 1 and 2. The gross total removal of glioblastoma with many complexities (Group 1) was found to be feasible with acceptable mortality, morbidity and long-term survival rates.
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Prospective study of carmustine wafers in combination with 6-month metronomic temozolomide and radiation therapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma: preliminary results.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Locoregional chemotherapy with carmustine wafers, positioned at surgery and followed by radiation therapy, has been shown to prolong survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, as has concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. A combination of carmustine wafers with the Stupp treatment regimen has only been investigated in retrospective studies.
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Polycystic Lipomembranous Osteodysplasia with Sclerosing Leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL): a new report of an Italian woman and review of the literature.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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We report the clinical case of a 43year old Italian woman and her family with Polycystic Lipomembranous Osteodysplasia with Sclerosing Leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL), also known as Nasu-Hakola disease. PLOSL is a unique disease clinically characterized by a progressive presenile frontal-lobe dementia and multiple cystic bone lesions, typically leading to fractures of the limbs in the third decade of life. This rare recessively inherited disease is caused by mutations in one of two genes encoding different subunits of a receptor signalling complex, TYROBP and TREM2. In the present case fractures after microtrauma were not diagnosed, despite a radiological demonstration of the characteristic bone lesions in PLOSL. Further investigation led to the same diagnosis in her brother, with similar clinical presentation and the same mutation. Therefore a diagnosis of PLOSL should be considered in cases of presenile frontal-lobe dementia, even if the hallmark of pathological fractures is absent.
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Bevacizumab at recurrence in high-grade glioma.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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Bevacizumab has been introduced in the management of high-grade gliomas after preliminary studies that showed an acceptable safety and a marked increase in clinico-radiological responses in comparison with second-line chemotherapy. The objective is to synthetically review the present use of bevacizumab--alone or in combination--in the context of recurrent high-grade glioma and highlight the future developments. The methodology of this study is to analyse and discuss relevant literature studies using bevacizumab in recurrent high-grade glioma. Bevacizumab may be used as single-agent therapy in recurrent high-grade glioma, with good clinico-radiological responses having little effect on survival. The open questions and developments include new MRI criteria for evaluation of response to anti-angiogenic agents, the identification of putative factors predicting response/failure of bevacizumab and the introduction of bevacizumab in first-line management of high-grade glioma.
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Loco-regional treatments in first-diagnosis glioblastoma: literature review on association between Stupp protocol and Gliadel.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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Loco-regional chemotherapy with carmustine wafers (Gliadel) positioned at surgery and followed by radiotherapy has been shown to prolong survival in first-diagnosis glioblastoma, as well as concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. The combination of Gliadel with the Stupp protocol has mostly been investigated in retrospective studies. objective of this study was to review the literature of efficacy and toxicities in patients with first-diagnosis glioblastoma treated with surgery, Gliadel, radiotherapy and temozolomide chemotherapy. The data in the literature regarding the combined use of Gliadel with chemotherapy, concomitant with radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma was analyzed and compared. The results on survival and toxicity are summarized. The combination of Gliadel and radiotherapy with temozolomide is well tolerated and may increase survival without a substantial increase in major toxicity. However, only prospective comparative studies will be able to address the issue of true advantage in survival with this combination.
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Increased migration of a human glioma cell line after in vitro CyberKnife irradiation.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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A human glioblastoma multiforme cell line (U87) and its derived-spheroids were irradiated either using a conventional irradiation (CIR) or a CK-like irradiation (IIR) in which the 8 Gy was delivered intermittently over a period of 40 minutes. The ability of glioma cells to migrate into a matrigel matrix was evaluated on days 1-8 from irradiation. Irradiation with CK-driven IIR significantly increased the invasion potential of U87 cells in a matrigel-based assay. In contrast to CIR, IIR was associated with increased levels of TGF-? at four days (Real time PCR), ?1-integrin at 4-5 days (real-time PCR and western blot) and no elevation in phosphorylated AKT at days 4 and 5 (western blot). Our data suggests that glioma cell invasion as well as elevations of TGF-? and ?1-integrin are associated with IIR and not CIR.
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The burden of brain tumor: a single-institution study on psychological patterns in caregivers.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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Quality of life and well-being in caregivers are usually partly neglected since all attention is focused on patients and the way they react to the illness. Carers also usually neglect their own needs, especially when the illness of the patient is as complex as a brain tumor. The aim of this study is to investigate how caregivers deal with a diagnosis of brain tumor in their relatives and how they manage their quality of life and psychosocial well-being. One hundred primary caregivers of patients with brain tumors were interviewed and were asked to fill in self-administered questionnaires detecting multidimensional levels of quality of life, anxiety, depression, and psychosocial reaction to the patients illness. Data were related with some functional and psychosocial information collected about the patients disease. Caregivers try to react to the illness of their relatives by mobilizing their physical reaction and growing their self-esteem, but they live with a clinically significant impairment of their quality of life, and experience a deep level of anxiety and depression. The caregivers burden appears mainly in their ability to provide care and in financial strain. The length of disease and the functional status of patients significantly influence caregivers psychosocial well-being. Despite the appearance they want to show their affected relatives, caregivers suffer from deep limitation in their quality of life. The relevance of caregivers burden suggests the importance of psychological support to improve reaction to the illness.
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Recurrent brain tumour: the impact of illness on patients life.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Despite advances in therapies that offer improved survival rates, clinical course of brain tumours leads to a progressive functional deterioration in patients with modifications in their psychological reaction to the disease. Patients with brain tumours are rarely assessed for quality of life and psychological variables, and even fewer studies have assessed patients who have experienced a recurrence of brain tumours. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the patients with recurrent brain tumours and their reaction to the illness.
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In vitro effects of Cyberknife-driven intermittent irradiation on glioblastoma cell lines.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Radiosurgery is used increasingly upon recurrence of high-grade gliomas to deliver a high dose of focused radiation to a defined target. The purpose of our study was to compare intermittent irradiation (IIR) by using a CyberKnife (CK) with continuous irradiation (CIR) by using a conventional linear accelerator (LINAC). A significant decrease in surviving fraction was observed after IIR irradiation compared with after CIR at a dose of 8 Gy. Three hours after irradiation, most of the DNA damage was repaired in U87. Slightly higher basal levels of Ku70/80 mRNA were found in U87 compared with A172, while radiation treatment induced only minor regulation of Ku70/80 and Rad51 transcription in either cell lines. IIR treatment using CK significantly decreased the survival in U87 and A172 compared with CIR. Although the two cell lines differed in DNA repair capability, the role of Ku70/80 and Rad51 in the cell line radiosensitivity seemed marginal.
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Expression of the new CXCL12 receptor, CXCR7, in gliomas.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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Gliomas are very invasive brain tumors with poor prognosis and therefore any attempt to limit tumor cell dissemination in the brain is expected to improve glioma treatment. The recent deorphanization of CXCR7 as additional receptor for CXCL12 and CXCL11 has raised key issues on its interaction with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis as a mechanism to modulate glioma cell migration. In this work we investigated protein and mRNA expression of the two chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL11, together with their receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 in human glioma specimens and cell lines by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. The main purpose of this study was to find out whether and at what extent CXCR4 and CXCR7 are differentially expressed in glioma cells. In human glioma specimens the levels of CXCL11 and CXCR4 mRNA were significantly higher in glioblastomas compared to non-tumor controls or low grade gliomas, whilst no difference was found for CXCL12 and CXCR7 mRNA expression. In cell lines, flow cytometry and immunocytochemical experiments showed CXCR4 was mainly expressed irrespective of its membrane or intracellular localization. In contrast, a predominant intracellular localization together with a negligible membrane expression of CXCR7 was found in all cells examined. In in vitro experiments CXCR4 and CXCR7 antagonists and the silencing of CXCR4 showed complete inhibition of glioma proliferation. Our findings, in agreement with previous data, suggest that in human glioma cells the prevalent intracellular localization of CXCR7 might modulate the functionality of CXCL11/12 either acting as a scavenger for these chemokines or interfering with the signaling pathways activated by the stimulation of CXCR4.
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Glial dystrophin-associated proteins, laminin and agrin, are downregulated in the brain of mdx mouse.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
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In this study, we investigated the involvement of dystrophin-associated proteins (DAPs) and their relationship with the perivascular basement membrane in the brains of mdx mice and controls at the age of 2 months. We analyzed (1) the expression of glial DAPs ?-?-dystroglycan (DG), ?-syntrophin, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, Kir 4.1 and dystrophin isoform (Dp71) by immunocytochemistry, laser confocal microscopy, immunogold electron microscopy, immunoblotting and RT-PCR; (2) the ultrastructure of the basement membrane and expression of laminin and agrin; and (3) the dual immunofluorescence colocalization of AQP4/?-?-DG, and of Kir 4.1/agrin. The following results were observed in mdx brain as compared with controls: (1) a significant reduction in protein content and mRNA expression of DAPs; (2) ultrastructurally, a thickened and discontinuous appearance of the basement membrane and a significant reduction in laminin and agrin; and (3) a molecular rearrangment of ?-?-DG, coupled with a parallel loss of agrin and Kir 4.1 on basement membrane and glial endfeet. These data indicate that in mdx brain the deficiency in dystrophin and dystrophin isoform (Dp71) is coupled with a reduction of DAP components, coupled with an altered anchoring to the basement membrane.
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A spectrum of LMX1B mutations in Nail-Patella syndrome: new point mutations, deletion, and evidence of mosaicism in unaffected parents.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Nail-Patella syndrome (MIM 161200) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypoplastic or absent patellae, dystrophic nails, dysplasia of the elbows, and iliac horn. In 40% of cases, a glomerular defect is present and, less frequently, ocular damage is observed. Inter- and intrafamilial variable expressivity of the clinical phenotype is a common finding. Mutations in the human LMX1B gene have been demonstrated to be responsible for Nail-Patella syndrome in around 80% of cases.
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CXCL12, CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression in brain metastases.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2009
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Brain metastases occur in about 25% of patients who die of cancer. The most common sources of brain metastases in adults are lung, breast, kidney, colorectal cancer and melanoma. The chemokine/receptor system CXCL12/CXCR4 plays a key role in multiple biological functions; among these, homing of neoplastic cells from the primary site to the target and metastasis progression. Recently, an alternative CXCL12 receptor CXCR7 has been discovered. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 by immunohistochemistry in 56 patients with metastatic brain disease from different non-CNS primary tumors and evaluate their prognostic relevance as well as that of other patient/treatment-related features on patient survival. CXCL12 showed an expression in tumor cells and in tumor vessels; CXCR7 was expressed by tumor and endothelial cells (both within the tumor and in the adjacent brain tissue), while CXCR4 showed a positivity in all samples with a nuclear pattern. Among the investigated immunohistochemical parameters, only CXCL12 expression in tumor endothelial cells showed a statistically significant correlation with shorter survival (p = 0.04 log-rank), perhaps identifying more aggressive tumors. Thus, this is the first study evaluating at the same time the expression of CXCL12 and its two receptors in a cohort of brain metastases.
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Aquaporin-4 contributes to the resolution of peritumoural brain oedema in human glioblastoma multiforme after combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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Brain tumour oedema is coupled with blood-brain barrier damage and alteration in water flow. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is involved in the development and resolution of brain oedema, and it is strongly upregulated in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Here, we evaluated AQP4 expression and content in GBM and correlated with VEGF-VEGFR-2 expression. In the relapse after chemotherapy and radiotherapy, AQP4 content reduced in parallel with VEGF-VEGFR-2, as compared with primary tumours, and in the peripheral areas of relapsed tumours AQP4 mimicked normal findings of perivascular rearrangement. After immunogold electron microscopy, gold particles were attached on the glial membrane facing the perivascular side, likewise AQP4 gold labelling of the vessels of the control areas. In primary tumours the peripheral vessels appeared faintly marked by AQP4, while the perivascular tumour cells showed a strong expression. The vasculature of the inner tumour areas was unlabelled by AQP4, while tumour cells were labelled, in both primary and relapsing tumours. Relapsed tumours after radiotherapy alone showed slight AQP4 reduction and perivascular restoring in the peripheral areas of the tumour. These data indicate that in GBM chemotherapy and radiotherapy induce a down-regulation in AQP4 expression restoring its perivascular rearrangement suggesting its potential role in the resolution of brain oedema.
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Intrathecal synthesis of tumor markers is a highly sensitive test in the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis from solid cancers.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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Identification of neoplastic cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by cytological analysis is the key diagnostic feature of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). Because of the lack of sensitivity of this test, considerable efforts have been made to identify alternative diagnostic markers. Data from the literature suggest that measurement of tumor markers (TM) in CSF may be helpful for improving the diagnosis.
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Cisplatinum and BCNU chemotherapy in primary glioblastoma patients.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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The prognosis of patients with glioblastoma is very poor with a mean survival of 10-12 months. Currently available treatment options are multimodal, which include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. However, these have been shown to improve survival only marginally in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. Methylated methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is correlated with improved progression-free and overall survival in patients treated with alkylating agents. Strategies to overcome MGMT-mediated chemoresistance are being actively investigated.
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Systemic sagopilone (ZK-EPO) treatment of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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It has been demonstrated that sagopilone (ZK-EPO) has antitumor activity in human orthotopic glioma models in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ZK-EPO in patients with pretreated, recurrent malignant gliomas. Fifteen patients with recurrent malignant gliomas who had received prior surgery, radiotherapy, and >or=2 lines of alkylating chemotherapy were recruited. ZK-EPO (16 mg/m(2)) was administered iv for 3 h every 21 days. The primary end point was six months progression-free survival (PFS-6); secondary end points were safety, toxicity, response rate, and median time to progression (TTP). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluations were performed every two cycles and toxicity was evaluated at each cycle using common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE 3.0). A median of four cycles was administered. The median TTP was 13 weeks. PFS-6 was achieved in five patients (33%), three with glioblastoma multiforme and two with anaplastic astrocytoma. The most common treatment-related adverse event was neuropathy, which occurred in 6/15 patients. ZK-EPO had an acceptable safety profile and clinically relevant activity in patients with pretreated, recurrent malignant gliomas.
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Living with a brain tumor : reaction profiles in patients and their caregivers.
Support Care Cancer
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The psychological burden induced by brain tumor is profound both for the sick person and for their own family. This particular tumor not only impacts patients quality of life, but also reduces seriously the caregivers quality of life. We aim to describe brain tumor patients and their caregivers quality of life during the illness and assess the existing relation between clinical and psychological features of patients and their caregivers.
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Multidrug resistance proteins expression in glioma patients with epilepsy.
J. Neurooncol.
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Epilepsy occurs in glioma, especially in low-grade glioma (LGG), but also in glioblastoma (GBM). In about 20 % of patients pharmacological treatment with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) fails. Refractory epilepsy is a multifactorial phenomenon not yet completely understood. The multidrug resistance phenotype was initially associated to P-glycoprotein (Pgp), an ATP-dependent transporter belonging to the same superfamily of multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs). Glutathione-S-transferase-? (GST-?) is also involved in refractory epilepsy. In the present work we investigated the expression of Pgp, MRP1, MRP3 and GST-? in surgical specimens obtained from 35 patients with glioma and epilepsy. We observed MRP1 expression in tumor and endothelial cells (EC), MRP3 and Pgp expression mainly in ECs and GST-? predominantly in tumor cells (TC). MRP1 and MRP3 were more expressed in high grade glioma (HGG) than in LGG. In 6 cases we could compare tumor and periphery detecting the same MRP1 and Pgp expression, while MRP3 was mainly expressed in the tumor. We observed a trend of a better outcome in seizure control associated with a lower expression of MRP1 and MRP3. MRP3 was statistically more expressed in TCs of HGG than LGG (p = 0.0401) and more expressed in tumor than in periphery, in agreement with recent works that identify MRP3 as a potential target in GBM. Moreover, MRP3 was investigated in association with refractory epilepsy for the first time in our study and it was less expressed in patients with complete response to AEDs (p = 0.0550). Our preliminary data show an association between multidrug resistance transporters and refractory epilepsy in glioma.
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Decrease in circulating endothelial progenitor cells in treated glioma patients.
J. Neurooncol.
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High-grade gliomas are highly vascularized tumors, in which the amount of new blood vessels is closely related with the degree of malignancy. The role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the neoangiogenesis of gliomas and the effects of post-surgical therapies (i.e., radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy) have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of surgery and post-surgical treatment on the levels of circulating EPCs in glioma patients and their correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, we assessed by flow cytometry the number of EPCs in the peripheral blood of 78 high-grade glioma patients (both untreated and treated with RT and chemotherapy) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. EPCs were markedly decreased in all treated glioma patients as compared to untreated ones. VEGF levels were significantly higher in patients as compared to controls, and surgery, but not chemotherapy, significantly decreased VEGF concentrations. We found no relationship between VEGF plasma levels and EPCs. In conclusion, the reliability of EPCs as a biomarker for monitoring angiogenesis in glioma patients needs further studies of correlations of this parameter with other markers of tumor-related vasculature.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.