End-to-end next-generation sequencing microbiology data analysis requires a diversity of tools covering bacterial resequencing, de novo assembly, scaffolding, bacterial RNA-Seq, gene annotation and metagenomics. However, the construction of computational pipelines that use different software packages is difficult owing to a lack of interoperability, reproducibility and transparency. To overcome these limitations we present Orione, a Galaxy-based framework consisting of publicly available research software and specifically designed pipelines to build complex, reproducible workflows for next-generation sequencing microbiology data analysis. Enabling microbiology researchers to conduct their own custom analysis and data manipulation without software installation or programming, Orione provides new opportunities for data-intensive computational analyses in microbiology and metagenomics.
Human Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis (ARO) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by reduced bone resorption by osteoclasts. In 2000, we found that mutations in the TCIRG1 gene encoding for a subunit of the proton pump (V-ATPase) are responsible for more than one-half of ARO cases. Since then, five additional genes have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, leaving approximately 25% of cases that could not be associated with a genotype. Very recently, a mutation in the sorting nexin 10 (SNX10) gene, whose product is suggested to interact with the proton pump, has been found in 3 consanguineous families of Palestinian origin, thus adding a new candidate gene in patients not previously classified. Here we report the identification of 9 novel mutations in this gene in 14 ARO patients from 12 unrelated families of different geographic origin. Interestingly, we define the molecular defect in three cases of "Västerbottenian osteopetrosis," named for the Swedish Province where a higher incidence of the disease has been reported. In our cohort of more than 310 patients from all over the world, SNX10-dependent ARO constitutes 4% of the cases, with a frequency comparable to the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL), receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK) and osteopetrosis-associated transmembrane protein 1 (OSTM1)-dependent subsets. Although the clinical presentation is relatively variable in severity, bone seems to be the only affected tissue and the defect can be almost completely rescued by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). These results confirm the involvement of the SNX10 gene in human ARO and identify a new subset with a relatively favorable prognosis as compared to TCIRG1-dependent cases. Further analyses will help to better understand the role of SNX10 in osteoclast physiology and verify whether this protein might be considered a new target for selective antiresorptive therapies.
Despite the wide use of cell lines in cancer research, the extent to which their surface properties correspond to those of primary tumors is poorly characterized. The present study addresses this problem from a transcriptional standpoint, analyzing the expression of membrane protein genes--the Membranome--in primary tumors and immortalized in-vitro cultured tumor cells. 409 human samples, deriving from ten independent studies, were analyzed. These comprise normal tissues, primary tumors and tumor derived cell lines deriving from eight different tissues: brain, breast, colon, kidney, leukemia, lung, melanoma, and ovary. We demonstrated that the Membranome has greater power than the remainder of the transcriptome when used as input for the automatic classification of tumor samples. This feature is maintained in tumor derived cell lines. In most cases primary tumors show maximal similarity in Membranome expression with cell lines of same tissue origin. Differences in Membranome expression between tumors and cell lines were analyzed also at the pathway level and biological themes were identified that were differentially regulated in the two settings. Moreover, by including normal samples in the analysis, we quantified the degree to which cell lines retain the Membranome up- and down-regulations observed in primary tumors with respect to their normal counterparts. We showed that most of the Membranome up-regulations observed in primary tumors are lost in the in-vitro cultured cells. Conversely, the majority of Membranome genes down-regulated upon tumor transformation maintain lower expression levels also in the cell lines. This study points towards a central role of Membranome genes in the definition of the tumor phenotype. The comparative analysis of primary tumors and cell lines identifies the limits of cell lines as a model for the study of cancer-related processes mediated by the cell surface. Results presented allow for a more rational use of the cell lines as a model of cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.