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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Gender, age-related, and regional differences of the magnetization transfer ratio of the cortical and subcortical brain gray matter.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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To explore gender, age-related, and regional differences of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of brain cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM).
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Imaging techniques to evaluate cell therapy in peripheral artery disease: state of the art and clinical trials.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Cell-based therapies, as potential approach to cure peripheral artery disease (PAD), have been clinically investigated after promising results in preclinical models. The so far published studies are very heterogeneous, as different cell sources, cell types, amounts of administered cells and delivering strategies have been used. Overall, cell therapies for PAD bring about a general improvement of patient's clinical condition, even though conclusions cannot be established due to the small size and non-randomized design of these trials. In this context, non-invasive imaging techniques, aimed to monitor angiogenesis and neovascularization after cell therapy, will help the follow-up of clinical studies. However, still much work is needed to establish advanced imaging procedure to overcome the limitation of the current techniques and to accumulate more data in large populations of patients. Here, we report the main imaging techniques employed to evaluate the outcome of the different cell-based therapies in PAD. Moreover, we focus on both published and ongoing clinical trials utilizing cell therapy in PAD.
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CA15-3 is a useful serum tumor marker for diagnostic integration of hybrid positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography during follow-up of breast cancer patients.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of CA15-3 for the diagnostic integration of molecular imaging findings performed with hybrid positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PETCT) technology.
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A review of the effects of hypoxia, sleep deprivation and transcranial magnetic stimulation on EEG activity in humans: challenges for drug discovery for Alzheimer's disease.
Curr Alzheimer Res
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Different kinds of challenge can alter cognitive process and electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in humans. This can provide an alternative paradigms to evaluate treatment effects in drug discovery. Here, we report recent findings on the effects of challenges represented by sleep deprivation (SD), transient hypoxia, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy volunteers on cognitive processes and EEG rhythms to build a knowledge platform for novel research for drug discovery in AD Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sleep pressure enhanced frontal delta rhythms (< 4 Hz) during the night, while SD increased slow rhythms in the theta range (4-7 Hz), and reduced resting state alpha rhythms (8-12 Hz) after the following day. Furthermore, SD transiently affected cognitive performance. In contrast, transient experimental hypoxia induced abnormal posterior resting state delta and alpha rhythms in healthy volunteers that resemble the abnormal EEG rhythms typically recorded in AD patients. However, the relationship between the cognitive and EEG effects of such challenges is poorly understood. TMS reversibly interfered with higher brain functions during EEG recordings, but few studies have investigated the relationship between the cognitive and EEG effects of TMS. In conclusion, SD is the most mature challenge model for testing new drugs for AD. Future investigation is needed to better understand the opportunities offered by TMS and hypoxia challenges.
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Cortical EEG alpha rhythms reflect task-specific somatosensory and motor interactions in humans.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Anticipating sensorimotor events allows adaptive reactions to environment with crucial implications for self-protection and survival. Here we review several studies of our group that aimed to test the hypothesis that the cortical processes preparing the elaboration of sensorimotor interaction is reflected by the reduction of anticipatory electroencephalographic alpha power (about 8-12Hz; event-related desynchronization, ERD), as an index that regulate task-specific sensorimotor processes, accounted by high-alpha sub-band (10-12Hz), rather than a general tonic alertness, accounted by low-alpha sub-band (8-10Hz). In this line, we propose a model for human cortical processes anticipating warned sensorimotor interactions. Overall, we reported a stronger high-alpha ERD before painful than non-painful somatosensory stimuli that is also predictive of the subjective evaluation of pain intensity. Furthermore, we showed that anticipatory high-alpha ERD increased before sensorimotor interactions between non-painful or painful stimuli and motor demands involving opposite hands. In contrast, sensorimotor interactions between painful somatosensory and sensorimotor demands involving the same hand decreased anticipatory high-alpha ERD, due to a sort of sensorimotor "gating" effect. In conclusion, we suggest that anticipatory cortical high-alpha rhythms reflect the central interference and/or integration of ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) signals relative to one or two hands before non-painful and painful sensorimotor interactions.
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Antiretroviral therapy effects on sources of cortical rhythms in HIV subjects: Responders vs. Mild Responders.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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We tested the hypothesis that 5months of combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) affect cortical sources of resting state cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in naïve HIV subjects.
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The Italian Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (I-ADNI): validation of structural MR imaging.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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The North American Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (NA-ADNI) was the first program to develop standardized procedures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) imaging biomarker collection. OBJECTIve: We describe the validation of acquisition and processing of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in different Italian academic AD clinics following NA-ADNI procedures.
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Multisite longitudinal reliability of tract-based spatial statistics in diffusion tensor imaging of healthy elderly subjects.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Large-scale longitudinal neuroimaging studies with diffusion imaging techniques are necessary to test and validate models of white matter neurophysiological processes that change in time, both in healthy and diseased brains. The predictive power of such longitudinal models will always be limited by the reproducibility of repeated measures acquired during different sessions. At present, there is limited quantitative knowledge about the across-session reproducibility of standard diffusion metrics in 3T multi-centric studies on subjects in stable conditions, in particular when using tract based spatial statistics and with elderly people. In this study we implemented a multi-site brain diffusion protocol in 10 clinical 3T MRI sites distributed across 4 countries in Europe (Italy, Germany, France and Greece) using vendor provided sequences from Siemens (Allegra, Trio Tim, Verio, Skyra, Biograph mMR), Philips (Achieva) and GE (HDxt) scanners. We acquired DTI data (2 × 2 × 2 mm(3), b = 700 s/mm(2), 5 b0 and 30 diffusion weighted volumes) of a group of healthy stable elderly subjects (5 subjects per site) in two separate sessions at least a week apart. For each subject and session four scalar diffusion metrics were considered: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivity. The diffusion metrics from multiple subjects and sessions at each site were aligned to their common white matter skeleton using tract-based spatial statistics. The reproducibility at each MRI site was examined by looking at group averages of absolute changes relative to the mean (%) on various parameters: i) reproducibility of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the b0 images in centrum semiovale, ii) full brain test-retest differences of the diffusion metric maps on the white matter skeleton, iii) reproducibility of the diffusion metrics on atlas-based white matter ROIs on the white matter skeleton. Despite the differences of MRI scanner configurations across sites (vendors, models, RF coils and acquisition sequences) we found good and consistent test-retest reproducibility. White matter b0 SNR reproducibility was on average 7 ± 1% with no significant MRI site effects. Whole brain analysis resulted in no significant test-retest differences at any of the sites with any of the DTI metrics. The atlas-based ROI analysis showed that the mean reproducibility errors largely remained in the 2-4% range for FA and AD and 2-6% for MD and RD, averaged across ROIs. Our results show reproducibility values comparable to those reported in studies using a smaller number of MRI scanners, slightly different DTI protocols and mostly younger populations. We therefore show that the acquisition and analysis protocols used are appropriate for multi-site experimental scenarios.
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Cortical sources of resting-state EEG rhythms in "experienced" HIV subjects under antiretroviral therapy.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Treatment-naïve patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are characterized by diffuse abnormalities of resting-state cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms (Babiloni et al., 2012a). Here, we tested the hypothesis that these EEG rhythms vary as a function of the systemic immune activity and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV patients.
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Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years) and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years) on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM) and cortical gray matter (GM) in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.
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Clinical Impact of PET/MR Imaging in Patients with Cancer Undergoing Same-Day PET/CT: Initial Experience in 134 Patients-A Hypothesis-generating Exploratory Study.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Purpose To compare the clinical impact of combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to that of combined PET and computed tomography (CT) performed on the same day in patients with cancer. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Patients gave written informed consent for study enrollment, including the possibility to use their imaging and clinical data in future evaluations. A total of 134 patients with cancer with a non-central nervous system primary neoplasm underwent same-day fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT and FDG PET/MR imaging. PET/CT and PET/MR studies were independently interpreted by teams of radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Four readers, divided into two teams composed of one radiologist and one nuclear medicine physician each, read all 134 studies. The referring physician classified discordance between PET/CT and PET/MR observations either as findings affecting clinical management or as findings not affecting clinical management. Data were compared with the ?(2) test. Results Findings affecting clinical management were noted for PET/CT studies but not for PET/MR studies in two (1.5%) of 134 patients and for PET/MR studies but not for PET/CT studies in 24 (17.9%) of 134 patients. The discrepancies between findings affecting clinical management detected with PET/MR imaging over those detected with PET/CT were significant (P < .001). Conclusion In these patients, PET/MR imaging alone contributed to clinical management more often than did PET/CT alone. PET/MR imaging provides information that affects the care of patients with cancer and is unavailable from PET/CT. © RSNA, 2013 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
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Ischemic heart disease in systemic inflammatory diseases. An appraisal.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Systemic inflammatory diseases are inflammatory syndromes that are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The link between inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases can be attributed to coexistence of classical risk factors and of inflammatory mechanisms activated in systemic inflammatory diseases and involving the immune system. Yet, clinical implications of these findings are not entirely clear and deeper knowledge and awareness of cardiac involvement in inflammatory diseases are necessary. The aims of this review are to summarize cardiac involvement in systemic inflammatory diseases and to identify areas where evidence is currently lacking that deserve further investigation in the future.
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Comparison of whole-body PET/CT and PET/MRI in breast cancer patients: Lesion detection and quantitation of 18F-deoxyglucose uptake in lesions and in normal organ tissues.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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To compare the performance of PET/MRI imaging using MR attenuation correction (MRAC) (DIXON-based 4-segment -map) in breast cancer patients with that of PET/CT using CT-based attenuation correction and to compare the quantification accuracy in lesions and in normal organ tissues.
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Cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic alpha rhythms deteriorate across time in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are abnormal in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we tested the hypothesis that these sources in amnesic MCI subjects further deteriorate over 1 year. To this aim, the resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 54 MCI subjects at baseline (Mini Mental State Examination I = 26.9; standard error [SE], 0.2) and at approximately 1-year follow-up (13.8 months; SE, 0.5; Mini Mental State Examination II = 25.8; SE, 0.2). As a control, EEG recordings were also performed in 45 normal elderly and in 50 mild Alzheimers disease subjects. EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), and beta2 (20-30 Hz). Cortical EEG sources were estimated using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Compared with the normal elderly and mild Alzheimers disease subjects, the MCI subjects were characterized by an intermediate power of posterior alpha1 sources. In the MCI subjects, the follow-up EEG recordings showed a decreased power of posterior alpha1 and alpha2 sources. These results suggest that the resting state EEG alpha sources were sensitive-at least at the group level-to the cognitive decline occurring in the amnesic MCI group over 1 year, and might represent cost-effective, noninvasive and widely available markers to follow amnesic MCI populations in large clinical trials.
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The prognostic value of normal stress cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Ischemia detection with stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is typically based on induction of either myocardial perfusion defect or wall motion abnormality. Single-center studies have shown the high value of stress CMR for risk stratification. The aim of this study was to define the prognostic value of stress CMR for prediction of adverse cardiac events in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease.
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Hypercapnia affects the functional coupling of resting state electroencephalographic rhythms and cerebral haemodynamics in healthy elderly subjects and in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR) and coherence of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are impaired in Alzheimers disease (AD) patients. Here we tested the hypothesis that these two variables could be related.
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Subjects hypnotizability level affects somatosensory evoked potentials to non-painful and painful stimuli.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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We evaluated the working hypothesis that the EEG activity associated to non-painful and painful stimuli in condition of waking state (no hypnotic procedure) was related to the hypnotizability level.
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Brief report: Mesenchymal stromal cell atrophy in coculture increases aggressiveness of transformed cells.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are able to influence the growth abilities of transformed cells. Here, we show that papillary thyroid cancer TPC1 and HEK 293T cells interact physically with human primary bone marrow-derived MSCs followed by evanescence of MSC cytoplasm. Interestingly, transformed cells were able to connect only to apoptotic MSCs that had lost their migration ability, whereas naïve MSCs avoided the direct contact. The interaction stimulated the proliferation of the cocultured transformed cells, activated mitogen and stress signaling, and increased resistance to cytotoxins. Consistent with in vitro data, the MSC interaction stimulated transformed cells had enhanced ability to grow and metastasize in vivo. The parental control cells showed mild tumorigenicity as compared to MSC interaction stimulated cells yielding measurable tumors in 31 days and 7 days, respectively. Our coculture model system describes how adjacent transformed cells absorb stromal cells thereby leading to the stroma-driven evolution of moderately carcinogenic cells to highly aggressive metastatic cells.
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Poor desynchronisation of resting-state eyes-open cortical alpha rhythms in obese subjects without eating disorders.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Obese subjects without eating disorders were characterised by poor electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms during resting-state eye-closed condition (Babiloni et al., 2011b). Is this true also for the desynchronisation of alpha rhythms during resting-state eyes opening?
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Intra-hemispheric functional coupling of alpha rhythms is related to golfers performance: a coherence EEG study.
Int J Psychophysiol
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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It has been shown that frontocentral electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms (about 10-12 Hz) were higher in amplitude in expert golfers in successful than unsuccessful putts, possibly reflecting the idea that amplitude regulation of frontocentral alpha rhythms is a physiological mechanism implied in motor control and golfers performance (Babiloni et al., 2008). Here, we tested the ancillary hypothesis that golfers performance is also associated to an improved coordination of cortical activity, as reflected by functional coupling of alpha rhythms across cortical regions. To this aim, between-electrodes spectral coherence was computed from spatially enhanced EEG data of the mentioned study (i.e. right handed 12 expert golfers; augmented 10-20 system; surface Laplacian estimation). Low- (about 8-10 Hz) and high-frequency (about 10-12 Hz) alpha sub-bands were considered with reference to individual alpha frequency peak. Statistical results showed that intra-hemispheric low-frequency alpha coherence in bilateral parietal-frontal (P3-F3 and P4-F4 electrodes) and parietal-central (P3-C3 and P4-C4 electrodes) was higher in amplitude in successful than unsuccessful putts (p<0.004). The same was true for intra-hemispheric high-frequency alpha coherence in bilateral parietal-frontal regions (p<0.004). These findings suggest that intra-hemispheric functional coupling of cortical alpha rhythms between "visuo-spatial" parietal area and other cortical areas is implicated in fine motor control of golfers performance.
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Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms in subjects with normal and abnormal body weight.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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It is well known that resting state regional cerebral blood flow is abnormal in obese when compared to normal-weight subjects but the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are poorly known. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that amplitude of resting state cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms differ among underweight, normal-weight, and overweight/obese subjects as a reflection of the relationship between cortical neural synchronization and regulation of body weight. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 16 underweight subjects, 25 normal-weight subjects, and 18 overweight/obese subjects. All subjects were psychophysically healthy (no eating disorders or major psychopathologies). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13Hz), beta 1 (13-20Hz), beta 2 (20-30Hz), and gamma (30-40Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Statistical results showed that parietal and temporal alpha 1 sources fitted the pattern underweight>normal-weight>overweight/obese (p<0.004), whereas occipital alpha 1 sources fitted the pattern normal-weight>underweight>overweight/obese (p<0.00003). Furthermore, amplitude of the parietal, occipital, and temporal alpha 2 sources was stronger in the normal-weight subjects than in the underweight and overweight/obese subjects (p<0.0007). These results suggest that abnormal weight in healthy overweight/obese subjects is related to abnormal cortical neural synchronization at the basis of resting state alpha rhythms and fluctuation of global brain arousal.
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Reactivity of alpha rhythms to eyes opening is lower in athletes than non-athletes: a high-resolution EEG study.
Int J Psychophysiol
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that compared with non-athletes, elite athletes are characterized by a reduction of reactivity of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms (about 8-12 Hz) to eyes opening in the condition of resting state, as a possible index of spatially selective cortical activation (i.e. "neural efficiency"). EEG data (56 channels; Eb-Neuro©) were recorded in 18 elite karate athletes and 28 non-athletes during resting state eyes-closed and eyes-open conditions. The EEG data were spatially enhanced by surface Laplacian estimation. Cortical activity was indexed by task-related power decrease (TRPD), namely the alpha power during the eyes-open referenced to the eyes-closed resting condition. Low-frequency alpha TRPD (about 8-10 Hz) was lower in the elite karate athletes than in the non-athletes in frontal (p<0.00002), central (p<0.008) and right occipital (p<0.02) areas. Similarly, high-frequency alpha TRPD (about 10-12 Hz) was lower in the elite karate athletes than in the non-athletes in frontal (p<0.00009) and central (p<0.01) areas. These results suggest that athletes brain is characterized by reduced cortical reactivity to eyes opening in the condition of resting state, in line with the "neural efficiency" hypothesis. The present study motivates future research evaluating the extent to which this general functional brain feature is related to heritable trait or intensive visuo-motor training of elite athletes.
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Determinants of physiologic 18F-FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue in sequential PET/CT examinations.
Mol Imaging Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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The aim of this study was to assess independent predictors of 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in patients undergoing repeated positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans.
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Hippocampal and amygdalar volume changes in elderly patients with Alzheimers disease and schizophrenia.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and schizophrenia display cognitive, behavioural disturbances and morphological abnormalities. Although these latter reflect progressive neurodegeneration in AD, their significance in schizophrenia is still unclear. We explored the patterns of hippocampal and amygdalar atrophy in those patients and their associations with clinical parameters. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 20 elderly schizophrenia patients, 20 AD and 19 healthy older controls. Hippocampal and amygdalar volumes were obtained by manual segmentation with a standardized protocol and compared among groups. In both schizophrenia and AD patients, left hippocampal and amygdalar volumes were significantly smaller. The hippocampus/amygdala ratio was significantly lower in schizophrenia compared to both AD cases [2.4 bilaterally, 95% C.I. 2.2 to 2.7] and healthy controls bilaterally [2.5, 95% C.I. 2.3 to 2.9 in left and 2.7, 95% C.I. 2.4 to 3.1 in right hemisphere]. In schizophrenia patients, a significant positive correlation was found between age at disease onset and the right hippocampus/amygdala volume ratio (Spearman rho=0.56). Negative symptoms correlated with higher right/left amygdala volume ratio (Spearmans rho=0.43). Our data show that unlike AD, the hippocampus/amygdala ratio is abnormally low and correlates with the age at onset in schizophrenia, being a neurodevelopmental signature of the disease.
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Attention cortical responses to enlarged faces are reduced in underweight subjects: an electroencephalographic study.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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A previous electroencephalographic (EEG) study has shown that obese subjects are characterized by reduced attention frontal responses to food images, thus raising the hypothesis of attention deficits associated with abnormal body weight (Babiloni et al., 2009a,b). In this line, here we tested the hypothesis of reduced attention cortical responses in underweight subjects.
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Neurodegeneration in friedreichs ataxia is associated with a mixed activation pattern of the brain. A fMRI study.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Friedreichs ataxia (FRDA) is associated with a distributed pattern of neurodegeneration in the spinal cord and the brain secondary to selective neuronal loss. We used functional MR Imaging (fMRI) to explore brain activation in FRDA patients during two motor-sensory tasks of different complexity, i.e. continuous hand tapping and writing of "8" figure, with the right dominant hand and without visual feedback. Seventeen FRDA patients and two groups of age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Task execution was monitored and recorded using MR-compatible devices. Hand tapping was correctly performed by 11 (65%) patients and writing of the "8" by 7 (41%) patients. After correction for behavioral variables, FRDA patients showed in both tasks areas of significantly lower activation in the left primary sensory-motor cortex and right cerebellum. Also left thalamus and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed hypo-activation during hand tapping. During writing of the "8" task FRDA patients showed areas of higher activation in the right parietal and precentral cortex, globus pallidus, and putamen. Activation of right parietal cortex, anterior cingulum, globus pallidus, and putamen during writing of the "8" increased with severity of the neurological deficit. In conclusion fMRI demonstrates in FRDA a mixed pattern constituted by areas of decreased activation and areas of increased activation. The decreased activation in the primary motor cortex and cerebellum presumably reflects a regional neuronal damage, the decreased activation of the left thalamus and primary sensory cortex could be secondary to deafferentation phenomena, and the increased activation of right parietal cortex and striatum might have a possible compensatory significance.
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Axial diffusivity is increased in the degenerating superior cerebellar peduncles of Friedreichs ataxia.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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Decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) demonstrated by diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) in areas of white matter (WM) damage is generally associated with increase of radial diffusivity, while axial diffusivity is reported to be decreased, unchanged, or increased. Aiming to better define the type of axial diffusivity change occurring in a typical human neurodegenerative disease, we investigated axial and radial diffusivity in Friedreichs ataxia (FRDA) which is characterized by selective neuronal loss of the dentate nuclei and atrophy and decreased FA of the superior cerebellar peduncles (SCPs).
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Alzheimers CSF markers in older schizophrenia patients.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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Cognitive impairment is prevalent in older schizophrenia patients but its biological basis is unknown. Neuropathological studies have not revealed Alzheimer disease (AD) lesion burden but in vivo data are lacking.
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Movement-related desynchronization of alpha rhythms is lower in athletes than non-athletes: a high-resolution EEG study.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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The "neural efficiency" hypothesis posits that neural activity is reduced in experts. Here we tested the hypothesis that compared with non-athletes, elite athletes are characterized by a reduced cortical activation during simple voluntary movement and that this is reflected by the modulation of dominant alpha rhythms (8-12 Hz).
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Biliary infections: spectrum of imaging findings and management.
Radiographics
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2009
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Infectious cholangitides encompass a wide spectrum of infectious processes affecting the biliary tree. They can have protean clinical and imaging appearances. Some manifest as an acute medical emergency with high mortality if not properly and emergently managed. Others are chronic processes that may predispose a patient to liver failure or cholangiocarcinoma. The clinical and imaging features and the subsequent therapy are dictated by the pathogens involved, the immune status of the host, and the degree and distribution of biliary obstruction. Bacteria cause most cases of infectious cholangitis in Western countries. In other parts of the world, parasites play an important role, either as causative agents or in predisposing the host to bacterial superinfection. Viral cholangitides primarily affect immunocompromised patients. The clinical and imaging features of cholangitis differ between immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Imaging plays a pivotal role in diagnosis of infectious cholangitis, helps identify predisposing causes, and demonstrates complications. Moreover, interventional radiology provides tools to treat acute life-threatening biliary infections, chronic entities, and complications.
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The role and molecular mechanism of D-aspartic acid in the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and rats.
Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2009
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D-aspartic acid is an amino acid present in neuroendocrine tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates, including rats and humans. Here we investigated the effect of this amino acid on the release of LH and testosterone in the serum of humans and rats. Furthermore, we investigated the role of D-aspartate in the synthesis of LH and testosterone in the pituitary and testes of rats, and the molecular mechanisms by which this amino acid triggers its action.
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Magnetic resonance imaging of nail unit in psoriatic arthritis.
J Rheumatol Suppl
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2009
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The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has modified the imaging strategies of inflammatory arthritides. In psoriatic arthritis (PsA), MRI study of the nail unit identifies nail involvement that appears as the initial lesion for induction of distal phalanx damage and consequently of distal interphalangeal joint arthritis. All psoriatic patients, also in the absence of a clinically evident onychopathy, show characteristic MRI changes of the nail. This evidence could have practical diagnostic value because MRI study of the nail could document diagnosis in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies who have barely evident psoriasis. We discuss the advantages and problems related to the use of low- and high-field MRI in the study of the nail unit of patients with PsA.
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"Neural efficiency" of experts brain during judgment of actions: a high-resolution EEG study in elite and amateur karate athletes.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2009
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Here we tested two working hypotheses on spatially selective cortical activation ("neural efficiency") in experts: (i) compared to non-athletes, elite karate athletes are characterized by a reduced cortical activation during the judgment of karate actions; (ii) compared to non-athletes and elite karate athletes, amateur karate athletes are characterized by an intermediate cortical activation during the judgment of karate actions. Electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded in 16 elite karate athletes, 15 amateur athletes and 17 non-athletes. They observed a series of 120 karate videos. At the end of each video, the subjects had to judge the technical/athletic level of the exercise by a scale from 0 to 10. The mismatch between their judgment and that of the coach indexed the degree of action judgment. The EEG cortical sources were estimated by sLORETA. With reference to a pre-stimulus period, the power decrease of alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms during the video indexed the cortical activation (event-related desynchronization, ERD). Regarding the hypothesis of reduced activity in elite karate athletes, low- and high-frequency alpha ERD was less pronounced in dorsal and "mirror" pathways in the elite karate athletes than in the non-athletes. Regarding the hypothesis of intermediate cortical activity in amateur karate athletes, low- and high-frequency alpha ERD was less pronounced in dorsal pathways across the non-athletes, the amateur karate athletes, and the elite karate athletes. In conclusion, athletes judgment of observed sporting actions is related to less pronounced alpha ERD, as a possible index of "neural efficiency" in experts engaged in social cognition.
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Contrast-enhanced harmonic compound US of the spleen to increase staging accuracy in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma: a prospective study.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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To prospectively compare contrast material-enhanced harmonic compound ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in detecting nodular infiltration in the spleen of patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma.
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Assessment of the arterial input function for estimation of coronary flow reserve by single photon emission computed tomography: comparison of two different approaches.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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Attempts to estimate coronary flow reserve (CFR) with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers have been recently made. We compared two different methods for the estimation of CFR by SPECT imaging.
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Evidence for the involvement of D-aspartic acid in learning and memory of rat.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) is an endogenous amino acid present in neuroendocrine systems. Here, we report evidence that D-Asp in the rat is involved in learning and memory processes. Oral administration of sodium D-aspartate (40 mM) for 12-16 days improved the rats cognitive capability to find a hidden platform in the Morris water maze system. Two sessions per day for three consecutive days were performed in two groups of 12 rats. One group was treated with Na-D-aspartate and the other with control. A significant increase in the cognitive effect was observed in the treated group compared to controls (two-way ANOVA with repeated measurements: F ((2, 105)) = 57.29; P value < 0.001). Five further sessions of repeated training, involving a change in platform location, also displayed a significant treatment effect [F ((2, 84)) = 27.62; P value < 0.001]. In the hippocampus of treated rats, D-Asp increased by about 2.7-fold compared to controls (82.5 +/- 10.0 vs. the 30.6 +/- 5.4 ng/g tissue; P < 0.0001). Moreover, 20 randomly selected rats possessing relatively high endogenous concentrations of D-Asp in the hippocampus were much faster in reaching the hidden platform, an event suggesting that their enhanced cognitive capability was functionally related to the high levels of D-Asp. The correlation coefficient calculated in the 20 rats was R = -0.916 with a df of 18; P < 0.001. In conclusion, this study provides corroborating evidence that D-aspartic acid plays an important role in the modulation of learning and memory.
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In vivo neuropathology of cortical changes in elderly persons with schizophrenia.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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Elderly schizophrenia patients frequently develop cognitive impairment of unclear etiology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies revealed brain structural abnormalities, but the pattern of cortical gray matter (GM) volume and its relationship with cognitive and behavioral symptoms are unknown.
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Structural connectivity in a single case of progressive prosopagnosia: The role of the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus.
Cortex
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Progressive prosopagnosia (PP) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a progressive and selective inability to recognize and identify faces of familiar people. Here we report a patient (G.S.) with PP, mainly related to a prominent deficit in recognition of familiar faces, without a semantic (cross-modal) impairment. An in-depth evaluation showed that his deficit extended to other classes of objects, both living and non-living. A follow-up neuropsychological assessment did not reveal substantial changes after about 1 year. Structural MRI showed predominant right temporal lobe atrophy. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed to elucidate structural connectivity of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the two major tracts that project through the core fusiform region to the anterior temporal and frontal cortices, respectively. Right ILF was markedly reduced in G.S., while left ILF and IFOFs were apparently preserved. These data are in favour of a crucial role of the neural circuit subserved by right ILF in the pathogenesis of PP.
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Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are related to gray matter volume in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimers disease.
Hum Brain Mapp
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Cortical gray matter volume and resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are typically abnormal in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimers disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of EEG rhythms are a functional reflection of cortical atrophy across the disease. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 57 healthy elderly (Nold), 102 amnesic MCI, and 108 AD patients. Cortical gray matter volume was indexed by magnetic resonance imaging recorded in the MCI and AD subjects according to Alzheimers disease neuroimaging initiative project (http://www.adni-info.org/). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). These rhythms were indexed by LORETA. Compared with the Nold, the MCI showed a decrease in amplitude of alpha 1 sources. With respect to the Nold and MCI, the AD showed an amplitude increase of delta sources, along with a strong amplitude reduction of alpha 1 sources. In the MCI and AD subjects as a whole group, the lower the cortical gray matter volume, the higher the delta sources, the lower the alpha 1 sources. The better the score to cognitive tests the higher the gray matter volume, the lower the pathological delta sources, and the higher the alpha sources. These results suggest that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of resting state cortical EEG rhythms are not epiphenomena but are strictly related to neurodegeneration (atrophy of cortical gray matter) and cognition.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.