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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Essential role of IRF4 and MYC signaling for survival of anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinct entity of T-cell lymphoma that can be divided into two subtypes based on the presence of translocations involving the ALK gene (ALK+ and ALK- ALCL). The transcription factor IRF4 is known to be highly expressed in both ALK+ and ALK- ALCLs. However, the role of IRF4 in the pathogenesis of these lymphomas remains unclear. Here we show that ALCLs of both subtypes are addicted to IRF4 signaling, as knockdown of IRF4 by RNA interference was toxic to ALCL cell lines in vitro and in ALCL xenograft mouse models in vivo. Gene expression profiling following IRF4 knockdown demonstrated a significant downregulation of a variety of known MYC target genes. Our analyses furthermore revealed that MYC is a primary target of IRF4, identifying a novel regulatory mechanism of MYC expression and its target gene network in ALCL. MYC itself is essential for ALCL survival, as both knockdown of MYC as well as pharmacologic inhibition of MYC signaling was toxic to ALCL cell lines. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ALCLs are dependent on IRF4 and MYC signaling and that MYC might represent a promising target for future therapies.
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Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphomas of Immunoblastic Type Are a Major Reservoir for MYC-IGH Translocations.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The immunoblastic variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (IB-DLBCL) has recently been recognized as an aggressive lymphoma type with inferior prognosis as compared with other DLBCL variants. At the same time, the presence of MYC rearrangements in DLBCL has been shown to indicate shorter survival in R-CHOP-treated patients. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of MYC gene rearrangements in IB-DLBCL versus non-IB-DLBCL in a large series. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization with an MYC break-apart and MYC-IGH fusion probe, we found that 13/39 evaluable IB-DLBCLs (33%) harbor translocations involving MYC, in contrast with only 5/68 (7%) in the non-IB-DLBCL group (P<0.01). The immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) was the translocation partner in all rearrangements (100%) involving MYC in IB-DLBCL, which is in contrast to what has been reported for DLBCL in the literature (50% to 70%). Moreover, MYC rearrangements occurred as the sole translocation in the majority of cases (77%), whereas across all DLBCLs the majority of MYC-rearranged cases carry additional rearrangements of either BCL2 and/or BCL6 genes (between 58% and 83% of cases). Finally, MYC-rearranged IB-DLBCLs were CD10 positive in 62% (8/13), whereas this was an uncommon feature in MYC germline IB-DLBCLs (15%). In conclusion, IB-DLBCLs are genetically characterized by frequent MYC-IGH translocations that often occur without additional BCL2 and/or BCL6 translocations. The activation of MYC, therefore, may be an important pathogenetic feature in IB-DLBCL.
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Recurrent mutations of NOTCH genes in follicular lymphoma identify a distinctive subset of tumours.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) is one of the most common malignant lymphomas. The t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation is found in about 80% of cases and plays an important role in lymphomagenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development and transformation of this lymphoma are not fully understood. Gain-of-function mutations of NOTCH1 or NOTCH2 have recently been reported in several B cell lymphoid neoplasms but the role of these mutations in FL is not known. In this study we investigated the mutational status of these genes in 112 FLs. NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 mutations were identified in five and two cases, respectively (total 7/112, 6.3%). All mutations predicted for truncated protein in the PEST domain and were identical to those identified in other B cell lymphoid neoplasms. NOTCH-mutated FL cases were characterized by lower frequency of t(14;18) (14% versus 69%, p = 0.01), higher incidence of splenic involvement (71% versus 25%, p = 0.02) and female predominance (100% versus 55%, p = 0.04). A diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) component was more frequently identified in NOTCH-mutated FL than in wild-type cases (57% versus 18%, p = 0.03). These results indicate that NOTCH mutations are uncommon in FL but may occur in a subset of cases with distinctive, characteristic, clinicopathological features. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Safety and activity of ibrutinib plus rituximab for patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a single-arm, phase 2 study.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), is an effective treatment for relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We investigated the activity and safety of the combination of ibrutinib with the monoclonal antibody rituximab in patients with high-risk CLL.
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Mosaic variegated aneuploidy in mouse BubR1 deficient embryos and pregnancy loss in human.
Chromosome Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Chromosome aberrations (aneuploidies mostly) are the cause of the majority of spontaneous abortions in humans. However, little is known about defects in the underlying molecular mechanisms resulting in chromosome aberrations and following failure of preimplantation embryo development, initiation of implantation and postimplantation pregnancy loss. We suggest that defects of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) are responsible for aneuploidy and the following abortions. To develop our hypothesis, we modeled this process in the mouse after inactivation of protein BubR1, one of the key players of SAC. We found that soon after implantation, more than 50 % of cells of BubR1 (-/-) embryos were aneuploid and had an increased level of premature sister chromatid separation (PSCS). Aneuploid cells do not have a predominant gain or loss of some specific chromosomes, but they have mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA), which is characterised by random mixture of different chromosomes. MVA leads to growth retardation, stochastic massive apoptosis, disruption of bilateral symmetry, and embryo death between embryonic days 7.5 to 13.5. Analysis published human data revealed that human recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) embryos and rare infant patients carrying BubR1 mutations that have been described so far have the PSCS and MVA as in BubR1 deficient/insufficient mice. Based on this data, we predict that deficiency/insufficiency of BubR1 and other components of the SAC in human are responsible for a significant fraction of both early and late RPLs.
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Loss of signalling via G?13 in germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Germinal centre B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (GCB-DLBCL) is a common malignancy, yet the signalling pathways that are deregulated and the factors leading to its systemic dissemination are poorly defined. Work in mice showed that sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-2 (S1PR2), a G?12 and G?13 coupled receptor, promotes growth regulation and local confinement of germinal centre B cells. Recent deep sequencing studies of GCB-DLBCL have revealed mutations in many genes in this cancer, including in GNA13 (encoding G?13) and S1PR2 (refs 5,6, 7). Here we show, using in vitro and in vivo assays, that GCB-DLBCL-associated mutations occurring in S1PR2 frequently disrupt the receptor's Akt and migration inhibitory functions. G?13-deficient mouse germinal centre B cells and human GCB-DLBCL cells were unable to suppress pAkt and migration in response to S1P, and G?13-deficient mice developed germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma. Germinal centre B cells, unlike most lymphocytes, are tightly confined in lymphoid organs and do not recirculate. Remarkably, deficiency in G?13, but not S1PR2, led to germinal centre B-cell dissemination into lymph and blood. GCB-DLBCL cell lines frequently carried mutations in the G?13 effector ARHGEF1, and Arhgef1 deficiency also led to germinal centre B-cell dissemination. The incomplete phenocopy of G?13- and S1PR2 deficiency led us to discover that P2RY8, an orphan receptor that is mutated in GCB-DLBCL and another germinal centre B-cell-derived malignancy, Burkitt's lymphoma, also represses germinal centre B-cell growth and promotes confinement via G?13. These findings identify a G?13-dependent pathway that exerts dual actions in suppressing growth and blocking dissemination of germinal centre B cells that is frequently disrupted in germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma.
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Histopathological features and their prognostic impact in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma--a matched pair analysis from the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG).
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare lymphoma entity. We performed a matched-pair analysis to evaluate the prognostic impact of several histopathological features in this distinct Hodgkin lymphoma subtype. Lymph node samples of NLPHL patients were tested for CD15, IgD, phosphorylated STAT6, ICOS and Epstein-Barr virus status of the malignant lymphocyte-predominant cells as well as epithelioid cell clusters and activated T cells in the microenvironment. None of these features was associated with a particular clinical outcome. However, patients presenting with epithelioid cell clusters showed a non-significant trend towards a lower relapse rate, justifying further evaluation of this marker.
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Gene expression signatures delineate biological and prognostic subgroups in peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) encompasses a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with generally poor clinical outcome. Currently 50% of PTCL cases are not classifiable: PTCL-not otherwise specified (NOS). Gene-expression profiles on 372 PTCL cases were analyzed and robust molecular classifiers and oncogenic pathways that reflect the pathobiology of tumor cells and their microenvironment were identified for major PTCL-entities, including 114 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), 31 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive and 48 ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma, 14 adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and 44 extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma that were further separated into NK-cell and gdT-cell lymphomas. Thirty-seven percent of morphologically diagnosed PTCL-NOS cases were reclassified into other specific subtypes by molecular signatures. Reexamination, immunohistochemistry, and IDH2 mutation analysis in reclassified cases supported the validity of the reclassification. Two major molecular subgroups can be identified in the remaining PTCL-NOS cases characterized by high expression of either GATA3 (33%; 40/121) or TBX21 (49%; 59/121). The GATA3 subgroup was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P = .01). High expression of cytotoxic gene-signature within the TBX21 subgroup also showed poor clinical outcome (P = .05). In AITL, high expression of several signatures associated with the tumor microenvironment was significantly associated with outcome. A combined prognostic score was predictive of survival in an independent cohort (P = .004).
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PI3K-dependent multiple myeloma cell survival is mediated by the PIK3CA isoform.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Constitutive phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling has been implicated in multiple myeloma (MM) pathophysiology and is regarded as an actionable target for pharmacological intervention. Isoform-specific PI3K inhibition may offer the most focused treatment approach and could result in greater clinical efficacy and reduced side effects. We therefore performed isoform-specific knockdown of PIK3CA, PIK3CB, PIK3CD, and PIK3CG to analyse their individual contributions to MM cell survival and downstream signalling. In addition, we tested the effectivity of the novel PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors BYL-719 (PIK3CA), TGX-221 (PIK3CB), CAL-101 (PIK3CD), and CAY10505 (PIK3CG). We found the PIK3CA isoform to be of paramount importance for constitutive Akt activity in MM cells, and - in contrast to inhibition of other class I isoforms - only the blockade of PIK3CA was sufficient to induce cell death in a sizeable subgroup of MM samples. Furthermore, pharmacological PIK3CA inhibition in combination treatments of BYL-719 and established anti-myeloma agents resulted in strongly enhanced MM cell death. Our data thus clearly indicate therapeutic potential of PIK3CA inhibitors and support their clinical evaluation in multiple myeloma.
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Detection of an activated JAK3 variant and a Xq26.3 microdeletion causing loss of PHF6 and miR-424 expression in myelodysplastic syndromes by combined targeted next generation sequencing and SNP array analysis.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are hematopoietic disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and progression to acute leukemia. In patients ineligible for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, azacitidine is the only treatment shown to prolong survival. However, with the availability of a growing compendium of cancer biomarkers and related drugs, analysis of relevant genetic alterations for individual MDS patients might become part of routine evaluation. Therefore and in order to cover the entire bone marrow microenvironment involved in the pathogenesis of MDS, SNP array analysis and targeted next generation sequencing (tNGS) for the mostly therapy relevant 46 onco- and tumor-suppressor genes were performed on bone marrow biopsies from 29 MDS patients. In addition to the detection of mutations known to be associated with MDS in NRAS, KRAS, MPL, NPM1, IDH1, PTPN11, APC and MET, single nucleotide variants so far unrelated to MDS in STK11 (n=1), KDR (n=3), ATM (n=1) and JAK3 (n=2) were identified. Moreover, a recurrent microdeletion was detected in Xq26.3 (n=2), causing loss of PHF6 expression, a potential tumor suppressor gene, and the miR-424, which is involved in the development of acute myeloid leukemia. Finally, combined genetic aberrations affecting the VEGF/VEGFR pathway were found in the majority of cases demonstrating the diversity of mutations affecting different nodes of a particular signaling network as an intrinsic feature in MDS patients. We conclude that combined SNP array analyses and tNGS can identify established and novel therapy relevant genomic aberrations in MDS patients and track them in a clinical setting for individual therapy selection.
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The reliability of immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor microenvironment in follicular lymphoma: a validation study from the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The cellular microenvironment in follicular lymphoma is of biological and clinical importance. Studies on the clinical significance of non-malignant cell populations have generated conflicting results, which may partly be influenced by poor reproducibility in immunohistochemical marker quantification. In this study, the reproducibility of manual scoring and automated microscopy based on a tissue microarray of 25 follicular lymphomas as compared to flow cytometry is evaluated. The agreement between manual scoring and flow cytometry was moderate for CD3, low for CD4, and moderate to high for CD8, with some laboratories scoring closer to the flow cytometry results. Agreement in manual quantification across the 7 laboratories was low to moderate for CD3, CD4, CD8 and FOXP3 frequencies, moderate for CD21, low for MIB1 and CD68, and high for CD10. Manual scoring of the architectural distribution resulted in moderate agreement for CD3, CD4 and CD8, and low agreement for FOXP3 and CD68. Comparing manual scoring to automated microscopy demonstrated that manual scoring increased the variability in the low and high frequency interval with some laboratories showing a better agreement with automated scores. Manual scoring reliably identified rare architectural patterns of T-cell infiltrates. Automated microscopy analyses for T-cell markers by two different instruments were highly reproducible and provided acceptable agreement with flow cytometry. These validation results provide explanations for the heterogeneous findings on the prognostic value of the microenvironment in follicular lymphoma. We recommend a more objective measurement, such as computer-assisted scoring, in future studies of the prognostic impact of microenvironment in follicular lymphoma patients.
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Detection of rearrangements and transcriptional up-regulation of ALK in FFPE lung cancer specimens using a novel, sensitive, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The approved dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test for the detection of anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is complex and represents a low-throughput assay difficult to use in daily diagnostic practice. We devised a sensitive and robust routine diagnostic test for the detection of rearrangements and transcriptional up-regulation of ALK.
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Essential role of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex in lymphoma revealed by rare germline polymorphisms.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Constitutive activation of NF-?B is a hallmark of the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), owing to upstream signals from the B-cell receptor (BCR) and MYD88 pathways. The linear polyubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) attaches linear polyubiquitin chains to I?B kinase-?, a necessary event in some pathways that engage NF-?B. Two germline polymorphisms affecting the LUBAC subunit RNF31 are rare among healthy individuals (?1%) but enriched in ABC DLBCL (7.8%). These polymorphisms alter RNF31 ?-helices that mediate binding to the LUBAC subunit RBCK1, thereby increasing RNF31-RBCK1 association, LUBAC enzymatic activity, and NF-?B engagement. In the BCR pathway, LUBAC associates with the CARD11-MALT1-BCL10 adapter complex and is required for ABC DLBCL viability. A stapled RNF31 ?-helical peptide based on the ABC DLBCL-associated Q622L polymorphism inhibited RNF31-RBCK1 binding, decreased NF-?B activation, and killed ABC DLBCL cells, credentialing this protein-protein interface as a therapeutic target.
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The lymphoma-like polychemotherapy regimen "Dexa-BEAM" in advanced and extramedullary multiple myeloma.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Extramedullary disease (EMD) in multiple myeloma (MM) is characterised by an aggressive biology and an adverse prognosis especially when occurring at relapse. Due to the high proliferation found in EMD lesions, we analysed outcome data of patients treated with a lymphoma-type therapy not based on novel compounds, the Dexa-BEAM protocol. Retrospective analysis of MM patients having received Dexa-BEAM (including dexamethasone, carmustine, cytarabine, etoposide and melphalan) at our institution from January 2007 to November 2012. In all, 18 patients were identified, 11 of whom had EMD. Objective response (?PR) to Dexa-BEAM was achieved in more than half of the patients with EMD (6/11); consecutive high-dose consolidation strategy with autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation improved upon the depth of remission in two thirds of EMD patients (4/6) with ongoing remissions in three patients. In contrast, all patients without consolidation relapsed. Progression-free survival after Dexa-BEAM was short in both patient groups with intramedullary or extramedullary myeloma with a median of 3 and 4 months, respectively. Toxicity was relevant with one treatment-related death and grades 3 and 4 toxicities in all 18 patients. Dexa-BEAM is an effective induction regimen in medically fit patients with extramedullary manifestations to regain disease control prior to an intended autologous or allogeneic transplantation.
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Ten-year follow-up of a prospective trial for the targeted therapy of gastric cancer with the human monoclonal antibody PAT-SC1.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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The fully human monoclonal antibody PAT-SC1 is specific for an isoform of CD55 (decay-accelerating factor) designated CD55PAT-SC1. This antigen is expressed in the majority (80%) of gastric cancers (GCs), and the antibody induces tumour cell-specific apoptosis in vitro as well as in vivo. PAT-SC1, therefore, has been deemed promising as a therapeutic agent. Here, we describe the results of an academic clinical study performed in a neoadjuvant setting with resectable GC patients. Patients undergoing treatment for GC between 1997 and 2001 were tested for CD55PAT-SC1 expression. Fifty-one resectable patients that tested positively received a single administration of 20 mg PAT-SC1 48 h prior to surgery. They underwent standard surgery with either subtotal or total gastrectomy with bursectomy, omentectomy and a modified D2-lymphadenectomy, aimed at R0 resection. Primary endpoints of the present study were to evaluate side-effects of the PAT-SC1 antibody treatment and to evaluate histopathological effects such as tumour regression and induction of apoptosis. Long-term survival was a secondary endpoint. Administration of PAT-SC1 appeared safe with only reversible side-effects according to WHO grade I and II. Despite the low?dose of the antibody, 81.6% of the patients showed signs of increased apoptosis within the primary tumour and 60% showed signs of tumour cell regression. Comparison of the 10-year survival rates of the R0-resected CD55PAT-SC1-positive patients treated with the PAT-SC1 antibody with a historical collective of R0-resected CD55PAT-SC1-positive patients not treated with PAT-SC1 indicated a survival benefit in the treated patients. Furthermore, comparison of the patient survival of CD55PAT?SC1-positive vs. CD55PAT-SC1-negative groups suggested that CD55PAT-SC1 antigen expression is an independent predictor of poor survival in a Cox regression analysis. Antibody PAT-SC1 may be a useful additive therapeutic agent in the treatment of patients with CD55PAT-SC1-expressing GCs. In combination with radical standard surgery, PAT-SC1 given as an adjuvant or neoadjuvant immunotherapeutic agent induces apoptosis in tumour cells which may improve survival of these patients. Because of the human origin and its specific binding to the CD55PAT-SC1 antigen, PAT-SC1 was well tolerated in this trial.
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Alternative BRAF mutations in BRAF V600E-negative hairy cell leukaemias.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The BRAF V600E mutation in exon 15 is considered the disease-defining mutation in hairy cell leukaemia (HCL), but single HCL cases lacking this mutation have been described. In 24 HCL, as well as in 194 various mature B- and T-cell neoplasms, we extended the search for BRAF mutations to exon 11. Two V600E-negative HCL contained novel, potentially functionally relevant mutations in exon 11 (F468C and D449E), while one other HCL was BRAF wild-type in exons 2-17. All non-HCL lymphomas lacked BRAF mutations. We therefore suggest screening of BRAF V600E-negative HCL for alternative exon 11 mutations in the diagnostic setting.
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Combination of expression levels of miR-21 and miR-126 is associated with cancer-specific survival in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is marked by high mortality rate. To date, no robust risk stratification by clinical or molecular prognosticators of cancer-specific survival (CSS) has been established for early stages. Transcriptional profiling of small non-coding RNA gene products (miRNAs) seems promising for prognostic stratification. The expression of miR-21 and miR-126 was analysed in a large cohort of RCC patients; a combined risk score (CRS)-model was constructed based on expression levels of both miRNAs.
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Tumor genetics and survival of thymic neuroendocrine neoplasms: a multi-institutional clinicopathologic study.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Thymic neuroendocrine tumors (TNET) are rare primary epithelial neoplasms of the thymus. This study aimed to determine clinically relevant parameters for their classification and for therapeutic decisions. We performed a comprehensive histological, clinical, and genetic study of 73 TNET cases (13 thymic typical carcinoids [TTC], 40 thymic atypical carcinoids [TAC], and 20 high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas [HGNEC] of the thymus), contributed by multiple institutions. The mean number of chromosomal imbalances per tumor was 0.8 in TTC (31% aberrant cases) versus 1.1 in TAC (44% aberrant cases) versus 4.7 in HGNEC (75% aberrant cases). Gains of 8q24 (MYC gene locus) were the most frequent alteration and one of the overlapping features between carcinoids and HGNEC. The 5-year survival rates for TTC, TAC, and HGNEC were 100, 60, and 30%. The 10-year survival rates for TTC and TAC were 50 and 30% (P?=?0.002). Predictive mitotic cut-off values for TTC versus TAC were 2.5 per 10 high-power fields (HPF; indicating a higher death rate, P?=?0.062) and 15 per 10 HPF (indicating higher risk of recurrence, P?=?0.036) for separating HGNEC from TAC. We conclude that the current histopathologic classifications of TNET reflect tumor biology and provide important information for therapeutic management.
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Determining cell-of-origin subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using gene expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The assignment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma into cell-of-origin (COO) groups is becoming increasingly important with the emergence of novel therapies that have selective biological activity in germinal center B cell-like or activated B cell-like groups. The Lymphoma/Leukemia Molecular Profiling Project's Lymph2Cx assay is a parsimonious digital gene expression (NanoString)-based test for COO assignment in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET). The 20-gene assay was trained using 51 FFPET biopsies; the locked assay was then validated using an independent cohort of 68 FFPET biopsies. Comparisons were made with COO assignment using the original COO model on matched frozen tissue. In the validation cohort, the assay was accurate, with only 1 case with definitive COO being incorrectly assigned, and robust, with >95% concordance of COO assignment between 2 independent laboratories. These qualities, along with the rapid turnaround time, make Lymph2Cx attractive for implementation in clinical trials and, ultimately, patient management.
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BCL2 antibodies targeted at different epitopes detect varying levels of protein expression and correlate with frequent gene amplification in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Patients with aggressive, BCL2 protein-positive (+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) often experience rapid disease progression that is refractory to standard therapy. However, there is potential for false-negative staining of BCL2 using the standard monoclonal mouse 124 antibody that hinders the identification of these high-risk DLBCL patients. Herein, we compare 2 alternative rabbit monoclonal antibodies (E17 and SP66) to the 124 clone in staining for BCL2 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded DLBCL tissues. Overall, in 2 independent DLBCL cohorts, E17 and SP66 detected BCL2 expression more frequently than 124. In the context of MYC expression, cases identified as BCL2 (+) with SP66 demonstrated the strongest correlation with worse overall survival. The 124 clone failed to detect BCL2 expression in the majority of translocation (+), amplification (+), and activated B-cell DLBCL cases in which high levels of BCL2 protein are expected. Using dual in situ hybridization as a new tool to detect BCL2 translocation and amplification, we observed similar results as previously reported for fluorescence in situ hybridization for translocation but a higher amplification frequency, indicating that BCL2 amplification may be underreported in DLBCL. Among the discrepant cases, phosphorylation of BCL2 at T69 and/or S70 was more common than in the concordant cases and may contribute to the 124 false negatives, in addition to previously associated mutations within the epitope region. The accurate detection of BCL2 expression is important in the prognosis and treatment of DLBCL particularly with new anti-BCL2 therapies.
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Impact of miR-21, miR-126 and miR-221 as prognostic factors of clear cell renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) characterized by a tumor thrombus (TT) extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) generally indicates poor prognosis. Nevertheless, the risk for tumor recurrence after nephrectomy and thrombectomy varies. An applicable and accurate prediction system to select ccRCC patients with TT of the IVC (ccRCC/TT) at high risk after nephrectomy is urgently needed, but has not been established up to now. To our knowledge, a possible role of microRNAs (miRs) for the development of ccRCC/TT or their impact as prognostic markers in ccRCC/TT has not been explored yet. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of the previously described onco-miRs miR-200c, miR-210, miR-126, miR-221, let-7b, miR-21, miR-143 and miR-141 in a study collective of 74 ccRCC patients. Using the expression profiles of these eight miRs we developed classification systems that accurately differentiate ccRCC from non-cancerous renal tissue and ccRCC/TT from tumors without TT. In the subgroup of 37 ccRCC/TT cases we found that miR-21, miR-126, and miR-221 predicted cancer related death (CRD) accurately and independently from other clinico-pathological features. Furthermore, a combined risk score based on the expression of miR-21, miR-126 and miR-221 was developed and showed high sensitivity and specificity to predict cancer specific survival (CSS) in ccRCC/TT. Using the combined risk score we were able to classify ccRCC/TT patients correctly into high and low risk cases. The risk stratification by the combined risk score (CRS) will benefit from further cohort validation and might have potential for clinical application as a molecular prediction system to identify high- risk ccRCC/TT patients.
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Combination therapy with brentuximab vedotin and cisplatin/cytarabine in a patient with primarily refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with strong expression of CD30. Translocations involving ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Such ALK-positive ALCLs are usually responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). However, there is no general consensus on the optimal therapy for relapsed or refractory ALCL. We report the case of a 24-year-old male suffering from ALK-positive ALCL with an uncommon manifestation of only extranodal disease in the gastric cardia region that showed primary refractoriness to standard CHOP chemotherapy. A combination therapy consisting of the anti-CD30 drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin, and classical lymphoma salvage regimen DHAP (cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine and dexamethasone) was administered. Following two treatment cycles in 21-day intervals, the lymphoma showed considerable regression based on imaging diagnostics and no evidence of vital lymphoma in a subsequent biopsy. We did not observe any increase in toxicity; in particular, polyneuropathy and febrile neutropenia were not observed. In summary, we report that the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and a classical regimen used for aggressive lymphoma, DHAP, could be combined as salvage therapy in a case of refractory ALK-positive ALCL. Phase I/II studies will be required for safety and efficacy analysis.
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Numerical and structural genomic aberrations are reliably detectable in tissue microarrays of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples by fluorescence in-situ hybridization.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Few data are available regarding the reliability of fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), especially for chromosomal deletions, in high-throughput settings using tissue microarrays (TMAs). We performed a comprehensive FISH study for the detection of chromosomal translocations and deletions in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens arranged in TMA format. We analyzed 46 B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) specimens with known karyotypes for translocations of IGH-, BCL2-, BCL6- and MYC-genes. Locus-specific DNA probes were used for the detection of deletions in chromosome bands 6q21 and 9p21 in 62 follicular lymphomas (FL) and six malignant mesothelioma (MM) samples, respectively. To test for aberrant signals generated by truncation of nuclei following sectioning of FFPE tissue samples, cell line dilutions with 9p21-deletions were embedded into paraffin blocks. The overall TMA hybridization efficiency was 94%. FISH results regarding translocations matched karyotyping data in 93%. As for chromosomal deletions, sectioning artefacts occurred in 17% to 25% of cells, suggesting that the proportion of cells showing deletions should exceed 25% to be reliably detectable. In conclusion, FISH represents a robust tool for the detection of structural as well as numerical aberrations in FFPE tissue samples in a TMA-based high-throughput setting, when rigorous cut-off values and appropriate controls are maintained, and, of note, was superior to quantitative PCR approaches.
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Whole-genome integrative analysis reveals expression signatures predicting transformation in follicular lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Transformation of follicular lymphoma (FL) to a more aggressive disease is associated with rapid progression and death. Existing molecular markers for transformation are few and their clinical impact is limited. Here, we report on a whole-genome study of DNA copy numbers and gene expression profiles in serial FL biopsies. We identified 698 genes with high correlation between gene expression and copy number and the molecular network most enriched for these cis-associated genes. This network includes 14 cis-associated genes directly related to the NF?B pathway. For each of these 14 genes, the correlated NF?B target genes were identified and corresponding expression scores defined. The scores for six of the cis-associated NF?B pathway genes (BTK, IGBP1, IRAK1, ROCK1, TMED7-TICAM2 and TRIM37) were significantly associated with transformation. The results suggest that genes regulating B-cell survival and activation are involved in transformation of FL.
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Understanding MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas: pathogenesis and classification.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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MYC is a potent oncogene initially identified as the target of the t(8;14)(q24;q32) chromosome translocation in Burkitt lymphoma. MYC gene alterations have been identified in other mature B-cell neoplasms that are usually associated with an aggressive clinical behavior. Most of these tumors originate in cells that do not normally express MYC protein. The oncogenic events leading to MYC up-regulation seem to overcome the inhibitory effect of physiological repressors such as BCL6 or BLIMP1. Aggressive lymphomas frequently carry additional oncogenic alterations that cooperate with MYC dysregulation, likely counteracting its proapoptotic function. The development of FISH probes and new reliable antibodies have facilitated the study of MYC gene alterations and protein expression in large series of patients, providing new clinical and biological perspectives regarding MYC dysregulation in aggressive lymphomas. MYC gene alterations in large B-cell lymphomas are frequently associated with BCL2 or BCL6 translocations conferring a very aggressive behavior. Conversely, MYC protein up-regulation may occur in tumors without apparent gene alterations, and its association with BCL2 overexpression also confers a poor prognosis. In this review, we integrate all of this new information and discuss perspectives, challenges, and open questions for the diagnosis and management of patients with MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas.
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Activation of the STAT3 Signaling Pathway Is Associated With Poor Survival in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With R-CHOP.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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We previously reported that constitutive STAT3 activation is a prominent feature of the activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (ABC-DLBCL). In this study, we investigated whether STAT3 activation can risk stratify patients with DLBCL.
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Biologic characterization of adult MYC-translocation positive mature B-cell lymphomas other than molecular Burkitt lymphoma.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Chromosomal translocations affecting the MYC oncogene are the biologic hallmark of Burkitt lymphomas but also occur in a subset of other mature B-cell lymphomas. If accompanied by a chromosomal break targeting the BCL2 and/or BCL6 oncogene these MYC translocation positive (MYC+) lymphomas are called double-hit lymphomas, otherwise the term single-hit lymphomas is applied. In order to characterize the biologic features of these MYC+ lymphomas other than Burkitt lymphoma we explored, after exclusion of molecular Burkitt lymphoma as defined by gene expression profiling, the molecular, pathological and clinical aspects of 80 MYC-translocation positive lymphomas (31 single-hit, 46 double-hit & 3 MYC+-lymphomas with unknown BCL6 status). Comparison of single-hit and double-hit lymphomas revealed no difference in MYC partner (IG/non-IG), genomic complexity, MYC expression or gene expression profile. Double-hit lymphomas showed more frequent GCB-like gene expression profile and higher IGH and MYC mutation frequencies. Gene expression profiling revealed 130 differentially expressed genes between BCL6+/MYC+ and BCL2+/MYC+ double-hit lymphomas. BCL2+/MYC+ double-hit lymphomas showed a more frequent GCB-like gene expression profile. Analysis of all lymphomas according to MYC partner (IG/non-IG) revealed no substantial differences. In this series of lymphomas, in which immunochemotherapy was administered in only a minority of cases, single-hit and double-hit lymphomas had a similar poor outcome in contrast with molecular Burkitt lymphoma and lymphomas without MYC break. Our data suggest that, after excluding molecular Burkitt lymphoma and pediatric cases, MYC+ lymphomas are biologically quite homogenous with single-hit and double-hit lymphomas as well as IG-MYC and non-IG-MYC+ lymphomas sharing various molecular characteristics.
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Landscape of somatic mutations and clonal evolution in mantle cell lymphoma.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive tumor, but a subset of patients may follow an indolent clinical course. To understand the mechanisms underlying this biological heterogeneity, we performed whole-genome and/or whole-exome sequencing on 29 MCL cases and their respective matched normal DNA, as well as 6 MCL cell lines. Recurrently mutated genes were investigated by targeted sequencing in an independent cohort of 172 MCL patients. We identified 25 significantly mutated genes, including known drivers such as ataxia-telangectasia mutated (ATM), cyclin D1 (CCND1), and the tumor suppressor TP53; mutated genes encoding the anti-apoptotic protein BIRC3 and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2); and the chromatin modifiers WHSC1, MLL2, and MEF2B. We also found NOTCH2 mutations as an alternative phenomenon to NOTCH1 mutations in aggressive tumors with a dismal prognosis. Analysis of two simultaneous or subsequent MCL samples by whole-genome/whole-exome (n = 8) or targeted (n = 19) sequencing revealed subclonal heterogeneity at diagnosis in samples from different topographic sites and modulation of the initial mutational profile at the progression of the disease. Some mutations were predominantly clonal or subclonal, indicating an early or late event in tumor evolution, respectively. Our study identifies molecular mechanisms contributing to MCL pathogenesis and offers potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
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The prognostic impact of variant histology in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG).
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) accounts for approximately 5% of all Hodgkin lymphoma cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic implication of histopathologic NLPHL variants. Biopsies of 423 NLPHL patients treated within 9 prospective clinical trials performed by the German Hodgkin Study Group were classified as tumor cell-rich cases (n = 10), typical NLPHL (n = 308), or histopathologic variants (n = 105). Histopathologic variants were characterized by the presence of lymphoma cells outside the B-cell nodules or B-cell depletion of the microenvironment. Compared with typical NLPHL, histopathologic variants were associated with advanced disease (29.5% vs 14.6%, P = .0012) and a higher relapse rate (18.1% vs 6.5% at 5 years, P = .0009). Variant histology represented an independent prognostic factor (odds ratio = 2.955) in a multivariate model of progression/relapse. A prognostic score, including the risk factors variant histopathologic growth pattern, low serum albumin, and male gender, was derived from this model and allowed the definition of 3 distinct risk groups. NLPHL patients presenting with histopathologic variants have a poorer outcome compared with those showing typical histology. The newly developed prognostic score combining histologic and clinical features allows allocating NLPHL patients to defined risk groups.
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EZH2 mutations are frequent and represent an early event in follicular lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Gain of function mutations in the H3K27 methyltransferase EZH2 represent a promising therapeutic target in germinal center lymphomas. In this study, we assessed the frequency and distribution of EZH2 mutations in a large cohort of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) (n = 366) and performed a longitudinal analysis of mutation during the disease progression from FL to transformed FL (tFL) (n = 33). Mutations were detected at 3 recurrent mutation hot spots (Y646, A682, and A692) in 27% of FL cases with variant allele frequencies (VAF) ranging from 2% to 61%. By comparing VAF of EZH2 with other mutation targets (CREBBP, MLL2, TNFRSF14, and MEF2B), we were able to distinguish patients harboring clonal EZH2 mutation from rarer cases with subclonal mutations. Overall, the high incidence of EZH2 mutations in FL and their stability during disease progression makes FL an appropriate disease to evaluate EZH2 targeted therapy.
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Genome-wide copy number analyses reveal genomic abnormalities involved in transformation of follicular lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Follicular lymphoma (FL), the second most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the western world, is characterized by the t(14;18) translocation, which is present in up to 90% of cases. We studied 277 lymphoma samples [198 FL and 79 transformed FL (tFL)] using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to identify the secondary chromosomal abnormalities that drive the development of FL and its transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Common recurrent chromosomal abnormalities in FL included gains of 2, 5, 7, 6p, 8, 12, 17q, 18, 21, and X and losses on 6q and 17p. We also observed many frequent small abnormalities, including losses of 1p36.33-p36.31, 6q23.3-q24.1, and 10q23.1-q25.1 and gains of 2p16.1-p15, 8q24.13-q24.3, and 12q12-q13.13, and identified candidate genes that may be driving this selection. Recurrent abnormalities more frequent in tFL samples included gains of 3q27.3-q28 and chromosome 11 and losses of 9p21.3 and 15q. Four abnormalities, gain of X or Xp and losses of 6q23.2-24.1 or 6q13-15, predicted overall survival. Abnormalities associated with transformation of the disease likely impair immune surveillance, activate the NF-?B pathway, and deregulate p53 and B-cell transcription factors.
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Understanding MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas: pathogenesis and classification.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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MYC is a potent oncogene initially identified as the target of the t(8;14)(q24;q32) chromosome translocation in Burkitt lymphoma. MYC gene alterations have been identified in other mature B-cell neoplasms that are usually associated with an aggressive clinical behavior. Most of these tumors originate in cells that do not normally express MYC protein. The oncogenic events leading to MYC up-regulation seem to overcome the inhibitory effect of physiological repressors such as BCL6 or BLIMP1. Aggressive lymphomas frequently carry additional oncogenic alterations that cooperate with MYC dysregulation, likely counteracting its proapoptotic function. The development of FISH probes and new reliable antibodies have facilitated the study of MYC gene alterations and protein expression in large series of patients, providing new clinical and biological perspectives regarding MYC dysregulation in aggressive lymphomas. MYC gene alterations in large B-cell lymphomas are frequently associated with BCL2 or BCL6 translocations conferring a very aggressive behavior. Conversely, MYC protein up-regulation may occur in tumors without apparent gene alterations, and its association with BCL2 overexpression also confers a poor prognosis. In this review, we integrate all of this new information and discuss perspectives, challenges, and open questions for the diagnosis and management of patients with MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas.
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PRDM1/BLIMP1 is commonly inactivated in anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a mature T-cell lymphoma that can present as a systemic or primary cutaneous disease. Systemic ALCL represents 2% to 5% of adult lymphoma but up to 30% of all pediatric cases. Two subtypes of systemic ALCL are currently recognized on the basis of the presence of a translocation involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase ALK gene. Despite considerable progress, several questions remain open regarding the pathogenesis of both ALCL subtypes. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis and to assess the relationship between the ALK(+) and ALK(-) ALCL subtypes, we performed a genome-wide DNA profiling using high-density, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays on a series of 64 cases and 7 cell lines. The commonest lesions were losses at 17p13 and at 6q21, encompassing the TP53 and PRDM1 genes, respectively. The latter gene, coding for BLIMP1, was inactivated by multiple mechanisms, more frequently, but not exclusively, in ALK(-)ALCL. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that that PRDM1 is a tumor suppressor gene in ALCL models, likely acting as an antiapoptotic agent. Losses of TP53 and/or PRDM1 were present in 52% of ALK(-)ALCL, and in 29% of all ALCL cases with a clinical implication.
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Characterization of the p53 cistrome--DNA binding cooperativity dissects p53s tumor suppressor functions.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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p53 protects us from cancer by transcriptionally regulating tumor suppressive programs designed to either prevent the development or clonal expansion of malignant cells. How p53 selects target genes in the genome in a context- and tissue-specific manner remains largely obscure. There is growing evidence that the ability of p53 to bind DNA in a cooperative manner prominently influences target gene selection with activation of the apoptosis program being completely dependent on DNA binding cooperativity. Here, we used ChIP-seq to comprehensively profile the cistrome of p53 mutants with reduced or increased cooperativity. The analysis highlighted a particular relevance of cooperativity for extending the p53 cistrome to non-canonical binding sequences characterized by deletions, spacer insertions and base mismatches. Furthermore, it revealed a striking functional separation of the cistrome on the basis of cooperativity; with low cooperativity genes being significantly enriched for cell cycle and high cooperativity genes for apoptotic functions. Importantly, expression of high but not low cooperativity genes was correlated with superior survival in breast cancer patients. Interestingly, in contrast to most p53-activated genes, p53-repressed genes did not commonly contain p53 binding elements. Nevertheless, both the degree of gene activation and repression were cooperativity-dependent, suggesting that p53-mediated gene repression is largely indirect and mediated by cooperativity-dependently transactivated gene products such as CDKN1A, E2F7 and non-coding RNAs. Since both activation of apoptosis genes with non-canonical response elements and repression of pro-survival genes are crucial for p53s apoptotic activity, the cistrome analysis comprehensively explains why p53-induced apoptosis, but not cell cycle arrest, strongly depends on the intermolecular cooperation of p53 molecules as a possible safeguard mechanism protecting from accidental cell killing.
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Corticomedullary differentiation and maturational arrest in thymomas.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Morphological complexity hampers the histological classification of thymomas. Our aim was to determine whether the use of novel differentiation and maturation markers of cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (cTECs and mTECs) might provide an approach to understanding the underlying biology of these tumours.
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Early development of PAT-SM6 for the treatment of melanoma.
Melanoma Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Despite the recent development of novel therapies for patients with metastatic melanoma, this disease remains fatal in the majority of those who develop a relapse. Here, we report the preclinical and early clinical development of a novel IgM antibody PAT-SM6 that specifically binds to a cancer-specific isoform of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and low-density lipoprotein. Finding a GRP78 cancer-specific form on the surface of cancer cells, but not normal cells in vivo, presents an opportunity for cancer-specific targeting. PAT-SM6 binding to the cell surface induces apoptosis in a variety of tumors, including melanoma. Recent studies show the specificity of PAT-SM6 binding to the surface of melanoma cells and primary tissue but not to normal tissue. They also confirm, for the first time, cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis through classical apoptotic pathways as well as induction of lipid accumulation in melanoma cells. These in-vitro data are supported by positive in-vivo data using PAT-SM6 in a xenograft C8161 model. Furthermore, PAT-SM6 was well tolerated in pharmacokinetic/toxicology studies in monkeys. On the basis of these preclinical observations, a clinical study of PAT-SM6 was carried out in patients with in-transit melanoma. Even with microdosing, histological analyses of tumor biopsies detected the presence of PAT-SM6 as well as apoptosis. Although there are many small molecules and monoclonal antibodies currently in clinical development for patients with melanoma, PAT-SM6 is the only therapeutic targeting the cancer-specific isoform of GRP78. These PAT-SM6 preclinical data and positive findings from the phase 1 safety study provide strong support for the further development of this novel antibody.
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Extrafacial indolent CD8-positive cutaneous lymphoid proliferation with unusual symmetrical presentation involving both feet.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2013
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Indolent CD8+ cutaneous lymphoid proliferation represents a recently described entity among cutaneous T-cell lymphomas that typically presents with solitary skin lesions on the face or at acral sites and usually follows an indolent clinical course. Histopathologically, this entity is characterized by a dense dermal infiltrate of non-epidermotropic, small- to medium-sized pleomorphic CD8+ T-cells of the non-activated cytotoxic phenotype showing a clear-cut grenz zone and a low proliferation index. Distinction from otherwise aggressive T-cell lymphomas bearing a cytotoxic CD8+ phenotype is fundamental. We herein present an unusual case of indolent CD8+ cutaneous lymphoid proliferation presenting in bilateral symmetrical distribution on both feet and lacking the otherwise described grenz zone. Our case widens the spectrum of possible clinical and histomorphological variations of this entity. Taking into account the distinctive and unique clinical and microscopic features of all hitherto published cases of indolent CD8+ cutaneous lymphoid proliferation we suppose that this lymphoma subtype has to be included as a new and distinct entity in the World Health Organisation (WHO)-/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)-classification of cutaneous lymphomas.
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microRNA expression profiles identify subtypes of mantle cell lymphoma with different clinicobiological characteristics.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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microRNAs (miRNA) are posttranscriptional gene regulators that may be useful as diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers. We aim to study the expression profiles of a high number of miRNAs and their relationship with clinicopathologic and biologic relevant features in leukemic mantle cell lymphomas (MCL).
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Detection and preliminary characterization of CD8+T lymphocytes specific for Wilms tumor antigen in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Wilms tumor antigen (WT1) is overexpressed in many different solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. However, little is known about WT1 expression or WT1-specific immune responses in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In a cross-sectional survey study, we investigated the immune recognition of WT1 by patients with NHL. Utilizing a WT1 overlapping peptide library, we discovered that a large percentage of patients with NHL of all grades maintain WT1-specific T cells. Ex vivo frequencies of these T cells measured from unfractionated samples by the CD137 activation marker assay were high in many patients (some > 1% CD8+). Using standard in vitro techniques we discovered that they were cytotoxic to WT1 peptide library-loaded T2 cells and WT1 antigen-primed autologous Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell lines (EBV-LCLs) and expressed interferon gamma (IFN-?). In addition, we detected WT1 mRNA transcripts in diseased lymph node tissues of patients with NHL utilizing real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technology. These results are the first example of strong T cell reactivity against WT1 in patients with NHL which also demonstrate strong cytotoxicity against peptide-loaded tumor cells. The potential for developing WT1 as a target for immunotherapy in NHL deserves further exploration.
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Genome-wide methylation analyses identify a subset of mantle cell lymphoma with a high number of methylated CpGs and aggressive clinicopathological features.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B-cell neoplasm with an aggressive clinical behavior characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) and cyclin D1 overexpression. To clarify the potential contribution of altered DNA methylation in the development and/or progression of MCL, we performed genome-wide methylation profiling of a large cohort of primary MCL tumors (n = 132), MCL cell lines (n = 6) and normal lymphoid tissue samples (n = 31), using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. DNA methylation was compared to gene expression, chromosomal alterations and clinicopathological parameters. Primary MCL displayed a heterogeneous methylation pattern dominated by DNA hypomethylation when compared to normal lymphoid samples. A total of 454 hypermethylated and 875 hypomethylated genes were identified as differentially methylated in at least 10% of primary MCL. Annotation analysis of hypermethylated genes recognized WNT pathway inhibitors and several tumor suppressor genes as frequently methylated, and a substantial fraction of these genes (22%) showed a significant downregulation of their transcriptional levels. Furthermore, we identified a subset of tumors with extensive CpG methylation that had an increased proliferation signature, higher number of chromosomal alterations and poor prognosis. Our results suggest that a subset of MCL displays a dysregulation of DNA methylation characterized by the accumulation of CpG hypermethylation highly associated with increased proliferation that may influence the clinical behavior of the tumors.
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Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma with sequential development of nodal marginal zone lymphoma in a patient with selective immunoglobulin A deficiency.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Multiple lymphoma subtypes occurring within one patient is rare in the context of B-cell lymphoma, and only few such cases have been reported in association with primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma (PCMZL). We herein describe the case of a 43-year-old patient who was diagnosed with PCMZL and subsequently developed a clonally unrelated nodal marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). At the time of diagnosis of PCMZL, multiple skin lesions were present. The atypical lymphoid infiltrate showed monotypic expression of immunoglobulin light chain lambda and heavy chain (IgM) on immunohistochemistry and an identical B-cell clone. No sign of systemic lymphoma was present in staging examinations. Complete remission was achieved utilizing rituximab. After a 3-year clinical course of repetitive cutaneous relapses and remissions, the patient additionally developed nodal lymphoma involvement by MZL which, however, harbored an immunophenotype and a genetic clone distinct from the cutaneous lymphoma counterpart. Therefore, the rare occurrence of two different types of MZL with sequential evolution was diagnosed. In this uncommon case, we hypothesize that selective immunoglobulin A deficiency may play a promoting role for the metachronous development of the two MZL that occurred in our patient.
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Somatic hypermutation analysis in follicular lymphoma provides evidence suggesting bidirectional cell migration between lymph node and bone marrow during disease progression and relapse.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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In follicular lymphoma, somatic hypermutation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes facilitates the identification of different lymphoma cell clones, and the construction of genealogical trees. To investigate the dissemination of lymphoma cells, and the role of bone marrow in disease progression, we simultaneously analyzed the somatic hypermutation patterns of lymph node and bone marrow specimens taken from three patients at onset and relapse of their disease. Immunoglobulin heavy chain genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned and sequenced. Mutational pedigrees were constructed in a hierarchical order. When direct transition of one mutation pattern into that of a successor clones was not feasible, hypothetical predecessor clones were created, and a probability measurement calculation was introduced. Eighty-five sequenced clones were generated. The average mutation rates were 13.45% for the lymph node specimens, and 9.78% for the bone marrow ones. Forty-two hypothetical predecessor clones were introduced into inter-compartment pedigrees. The genealogical trees showed that early lymphoma clones with a low mutational load quickly migrate from lymph nodes into the bone marrow. Bi-directional lymphoma cell migration was detectable between the two compartments. In one case of follicular lymphoma, a clone identical to the initial lymph node clone was detected 2 years later in the bone marrow. The newly introduced algorithm allows the evaluation of both time and direction of follicular lymphoma cell migration. We found evidence that follicular lymphoma originates in the lymph node, and infiltrates the bone marrow early in the course of the disease. Moreover, inter-compartment migration between lymph nodes and bone marrow occurs in both directions.
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p53 DNA binding cooperativity is essential for apoptosis and tumor suppression in vivo.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Four molecules of the tumor suppressor p53 assemble to cooperatively bind proapoptotic target genes. The structural basis for cooperativity consists of interactions between adjacent DNA binding domains. Mutations at the interaction interface that compromise cooperativity were identified in cancer patients, suggesting a requirement of cooperativity for tumor suppression. We report on an analysis of cooperativity mutant p53E177R mice. Apoptotic functions of p53 triggered by DNA damage and oncogenes were abolished in these mice, whereas functions in cell-cycle control, senescence, metabolism, and antioxidant defense were retained and were sufficient to suppress development of spontaneous T cell lymphoma. Cooperativity mutant mice are nevertheless highly cancer prone and susceptible to different oncogene-induced tumors. Our data underscore the relevance of DNA binding cooperativity for p53-dependent apoptosis and tumor suppression and highlight cooperativity mutations as a class of p53 mutations that result in a selective loss of apoptotic functions due to an altered quaternary structure of the p53 tetramer.
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Primary cutaneous follicular helper T-cell lymphoma: diagnostic pitfalls of this new lymphoma subtype.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The recently proposed entity of cutaneous follicular helper T (T(FH)) cell lymphoma (CT(FH)CL) harbors distinct clinical and histopathologic features. Here, diagnostic pitfalls are exemplified in a case report and by review of the literature. A 45-year-old patient developed rapidly growing nodules and plaques on upper arms and buttocks, which were initially misdiagnosed as primary cutaneous follicle center B-cell lymphoma (CFCL). Consequently, systemic therapy with rituximab failed and consecutive skin biopsies revealed CT(FH)CL (CD3+CD4+CD10+PD-1+bcl6+ICOS+CXCL13+). Interestingly, the prima vista PD-1-positive and CD10-positive tumor cells lost PD-1 expression in follow-up biopsies while retaining CD10, ICOS and CXCL13 expression. All biopsy specimens displayed an identical clonal T-cell population. Initially, nodules were controlled by local radiotherapy and oral psoralen combined with ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy. However, disease recurred and progressed rapidly with disseminated nodules. Treatment with bexarotene, methotrexate and polychemotherapy failed to stop disease progression. Finally, modified total skin electron beam radiation resulted in complete remission. Disease stabilized on maintenance therapy with bexarotene in combination with ultraviolet A (UVA) therapy. The case highlights that because of concomitant B-cell stimulation, CT(FH)CL clinicopathologically is prone to be mistaken for CFCL. Importantly, CT(FH)CL might lose PD-1 while retaining CD10 expression in later stages, which may lead to confusion in distinguishing CT(FH)CL from CFCL.
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Recent advances in de novo CD5+ diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Various subsets of DLBCL are distinguished based on molecular and immunohistochemical features. CD5 expressing DLBCL (CD5+ DLBCL) is increasingly recognized as a subtype of DLBCL with an aggressive disease course. Primary CD5+ DLBCL comprises approximately 5-10% of DLBCL. Few studies of CD5+ DLBCL have been reported, primarily from Japan. Publications covered in this review include articles published on PubMed and abstracts from major international conferences until April 2013. Common features of patients with CD5+ DLBCL are older age, female preponderance, elevated LDH, more extra-nodal involvement, poor performance status (PS), higher incidence of CNS involvement, inferior response to rituximab-containing regimens (as compared to CD5- DLBCL) and advanced stage. The majority of these cases belong to the activated B cell subtype (ABC) of DLBCL. It is unclear whether CD5 expression in malignant B cells may confer chemo resistance, upregulate antiapoptotic signals and alter the microenvironment. Molecular techniques have helped in understanding CD5+ DLBCL. Gene expression signature was similar in ABC-DLBCL and CD5+ DLBCL in some studies. Despite the better characterization treatment outcomes are poor and additional studies are needed.
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Related F-box proteins control cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans and human lymphoma.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Cell death is a common metazoan cell fate, and its inactivation is central to human malignancy. In Caenorhabditis elegans, apoptotic cell death occurs via the activation of the caspase CED-3 following binding of the EGL-1/BH3-only protein to the antiapoptotic CED-9/BCL2 protein. Here we report a major alternative mechanism for caspase activation in vivo involving the F-box protein DRE-1. DRE-1 functions in parallel to EGL-1, requires CED-9 for activity, and binds to CED-9, suggesting that DRE-1 promotes apoptosis by inactivating CED-9. FBXO10, a human protein related to DRE-1, binds BCL2 and promotes its degradation, thereby initiating cell death. Moreover, some human diffuse large B-cell lymphomas have inactivating mutations in FBXO10 or express FBXO10 at low levels. Our results suggest that DRE-1/FBXO10 is a conserved regulator of apoptosis.
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The 140-kD isoform of CD56 (NCAM1) directs the molecular pathogenesis of ischemic cardiomyopathy.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Despite recent advances in understanding the relevance of cell adhesion-related signaling in the pathogenesis of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) in animal models, substantial questions remain unanswered in the human setting. We have previously shown that the neural cell adhesion molecule CD56 [neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1)] is specifically overexpressed in ICM; it was the aim of the current study to further elucidate the role of CD56 in the pathogenesis of human ICM. We used quantitative real-time PCR and IHC in human ICM and a rat model of coronary obstruction to demonstrate that CD56(140kD), the only extraneuronally expressed NCAM1 isoform with a cytoplasmic protein domain capable of inducing intracellular signaling, is the only up-regulated CD56 isoform in failing cardiomyocytes in human ICM in vivo. In subsequent analyses of the cellular effects of CD56(140kD) overexpression in the development of ICM using differential whole transcriptome expression analyses and functional in vitro cardiomyocyte cell culture assays, we further show that the up-regulation of CD56(140kD) is associated with profound gene expression changes, increased apoptosis, and reduced Ca(2+) signaling in failing human cardiomyocytes. Because apoptosis and Ca(2+)-related sarcomeric dysfunction are molecular hallmarks of ICM in humans, our results provide strong evidence that CD56(140kD) up-regulation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ICM and may be a target for future immunotherapeutic strategies in the treatment of this common and often fatal disease.
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Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas with plasmacytic differentiation show frequent IgG4 expression.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The expression of IgG4 in malignant B-cell lymphomas has only partially been studied. Recent reports described single cases of marginal zone lymphomas arising in the ocular adnexae that express IgG4. Moreover, a subset of dura-associated marginal zone lymphomas appear to express IgG4 as well. We investigated IgG4 expression in a more systematic manner in a large cohort of marginal zone lymphoma specimens derived from the archive of our institute. Overall, we examined 169 marginal zone lymphomas of various primary sites that displayed a distinct plasmacytic differentiation and light chain restriction, allowing for a detailed investigation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain expression in these tumors by immunohistochemistry. Unexpectedly, primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas showed frequent IgG4 expression. Although only 1 out of 120 noncutaneous marginal zone lymphomas, located in the ocular adnexae, expressed IgG4, 19 of 49 (39%) primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas showed this feature, constituting the highest expression rate of IgG4 reported to date in any B-cell lymphoma. None of the IgG4-positive cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas with available clinical data showed evidence of a preexisting systemic IgG4-related disease, suggesting a localized immunologic IgG4-driven pathogenetic process at early stages of the disease. IgG4-positive and IgG4-negative primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas did not significantly differ in architectural features of the infiltrate or the composition of the reactive T-cell infiltrate as determined by analysis of T-cell content, CD4/CD8 ratio, and content of FOXP3- and PD1-positive T cells. Although the pathogenetic role of IgG4 expression in a significant subset of primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas with plasmacytic differentiation remains unclear at present, the demonstration of IgG4 expression in a marginal zone lymphoma involving the skin might be a helpful clue in the routine diagnostic setting, as these tumors will almost invariably be of primary cutaneous origin with an extremely low risk of spread to noncutaneous sites and an excellent prognosis.
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Expression of Foxp3 in colorectal cancer but not in Treg cells correlates with disease progression in patients with colorectal cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Regulatory T cells (Treg) expressing the transcription factor forkhead-box protein P3 (Foxp3) have been identified to counteract anti-tumor immune responses during tumor progression. Besides, Foxp3 presentation by cancer cells itself may also allow them to evade from effector T-cell responses, resulting in a survival benefit of the tumor. For colorectal cancer (CRC) the clinical relevance of Foxp3 has not been evaluated in detail. Therefore the aim of this study was to study its impact in colorectal cancer (CRC).
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Colorimetric in situ hybridization identifies MYC gene signal clusters correlating with increased copy number, mRNA, and protein in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Abnormalities of the MYC oncogene on chromosome 8 are characteristic of Burkitt lymphoma and other aggressive B-cell lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We recently described a colorimetric in situ hybridization (CISH) method for detecting extra copies of the MYC gene in DLBCL and the frequent occurrence of excess copies of discrete MYC signals in the context of diploidy or polyploidy of chromosome 8, which correlated with increased mRNA signals. We further observed enlarged MYC signals, which were counted as a single gene copy but, by their dimension and unusual shape, likely consisted of "clusters" of MYC genes. In this study, we sought to further characterize these clusters of MYC signals by determining whether the presence of these correlated with other genetic features, mRNA levels, protein, and overall survival. We found that MYC clusters correlated with an abnormal MYC locus and with increased mRNA. MYC mRNA correlated with protein levels, and both increased mRNA and protein correlated with poorer overall survival. MYC clusters were seen in both the germinal center and activated B-cell subtypes of DLBCL. Clusters of MYC signals may be an underappreciated, but clinically important, feature of aggressive B-cell lymphomas with potential prognostic and therapeutic relevance.
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MYC status in concert with BCL2 and BCL6 expression predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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MYC rearrangements occur in 5% to 10% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and confer an increased risk to cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin, and prednisone (CHOP) and rituximab (R)-CHOP treated patients. We investigated the prognostic relevance of MYC-, BCL2- and BCL6-rearrangements and protein expression in a prospective randomized trial. Paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 442 de novo DLBCL treated within the RICOVER study of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL) were investigated using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect protein expression and breaks of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6. Rearrangements of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 were detected in 8.8%, 13.5%, and 28.7%, respectively. Protein overexpression of MYC (>40%) was encountered in 31.8% of tumors; 79.6% and 82.8% of tumors expressed BCL2 and BCL6, respectively. MYC translocations, MYChigh, BCL2high, and BCL6low protein expressions were associated with inferior survival. In multivariate Cox regression modeling, protein expression patterns of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6, and MYC rearrangements were predictive of outcome and provided prognostic information independent of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) for overall survival and event-free survival. A combined immunohistochemical or FISH/immunohistochemical score predicts outcome in DLBCL patients independent of the IPI and identifies a subset of 15% of patients with dismal prognosis in the high-risk IPI group following treatment with R-CHOP. Registered at http://www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials: RICOVER trial of the DSHNHL is NCT 00052936.
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Targeting paraprotein biosynthesis for non-invasive characterization of myeloma biology.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy originating from clonal plasma cells. Despite effective therapies, outcomes are highly variable suggesting marked disease heterogeneity. The role of functional imaging for therapeutic management of myeloma, such as positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG-PET), remains to be determined. Although some studies already suggested a prognostic value of (18)F-FDG-PET, more specific tracers addressing hallmarks of myeloma biology, e.g. paraprotein biosynthesis, are needed. This study evaluated the amino acid tracers L-methyl-[(11)C]-methionine ((11)C-MET) and [(18)F]-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine ((18)F-Fet) for their potential to image myeloma and to characterize tumor heterogeneity.
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Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging to monitor the immunological control of a plasmablastic lymphoma-like B cell neoplasia after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To promote cancer research and to develop innovative therapies, refined pre-clinical mouse tumor models that mimic the actual disease in humans are of dire need. A number of neoplasms along the B cell lineage are commonly initiated by a translocation recombining c-myc with the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene locus. The translocation is modeled in the C.129S1-Igha(tm1(Myc)Janz)/J mouse which has been previously engineered to express c-myc under the control of the endogenous IgH promoter. This transgenic mouse exhibits B cell hyperplasia and develops diverse B cell tumors. We have isolated tumor cells from the spleen of a C.129S1-Igha(tm1(Myc)Janz)/J mouse that spontaneously developed a plasmablastic lymphoma-like disease. These cells were cultured, transduced to express eGFP and firefly luciferase, and gave rise to a highly aggressive, transplantable B cell lymphoma cell line, termed IM380. This model bears several advantages over other models as it is genetically induced and mimics the translocation that is detectable in a number of human B cell lymphomas. The growth of the tumor cells, their dissemination, and response to treatment within immunocompetent hosts can be imaged non-invasively in vivo due to their expression of firefly luciferase. IM380 cells are radioresistant in vivo and mice with established tumors can be allogeneically transplanted to analyze graft-versus-tumor effects of transplanted T cells. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of tumor-bearing mice results in prolonged survival. These traits make the IM380 model very valuable for the study of B cell lymphoma pathophysiology and for the development of innovative cancer therapies.
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Single nucleotide polymorphism array profiling of adrenocortical tumors--evidence for an adenoma carcinoma sequence?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Adrenocortical tumors consist of benign adenomas and highly malignant carcinomas with a still incompletely understood pathogenesis. A total of 46 adrenocortical tumors (24 adenomas and 22 carcinomas) were investigated aiming to identify novel genes involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (Affymetrix) were used to detect copy number alterations (CNAs) and copy neutral losses of heterozygosity (cnLOH). Genomic clustering showed good separation between adenomas and carcinomas, with best partition including only chromosome 5, which was highly amplified in 17/22 malignant tumors. The malignant tumors had more relevant genomic aberrations than benign tumors, such as a higher median number of recurrent CNA (2631 vs 94), CNAs >100 Kb (62.5 vs 7) and CN losses (72.5 vs 5.5), and a higher percentage of samples with cnLOH (91% vs 29%). Within the carcinoma cohort, a precise genetic pattern (i.e. large gains at chr 5, 7, 12, and 19, and losses at chr 1, 2, 13, 17, and 22) was associated with a better prognosis (overall survival: 72.2 vs 35.4 months, P=0.063). Interestingly, >70% of gains frequent in benign were also present in malignant tumors. Notch signaling was the most frequently involved pathway in both tumor entities. Finally, a CN gain at imprinted "IGF2" locus chr 11p15.5 appeared to be an early alteration in a multi-step tumor progression, followed by the loss of one or two alleles, associated with increased IGF2 expression, only in carcinomas. Our study serves as database for the identification of genes and pathways, such as Notch signaling, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. Using these data, we postulate an adenoma-carcinoma sequence for these tumors.
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The natural human IgM antibody PAT-SM6 induces apoptosis in primary human multiple myeloma cells by targeting heat shock protein GRP78.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In contrast to other haematological malignancies, targeted immunotherapy has not entered standard treatment regimens for de novo or relapsed multiple myeloma (MM) yet. While a number of IgG-formatted monoclonal antibodies are currently being evaluated in clinical trials in MM, our study aimed to investigate whether the fully human IgM monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 that targets a tumour-specific variant of the heat shock protein GRP78 might be an attractive candidate for future immunotherapeutic approaches. We here show that GRP78 is stably and consistently expressed on the surface on tumour cells from patients with de novo, but also relapsed MM and that binding of PAT-SM6 to MM cells can specifically exert cytotoxic effects on malignant plasma cells, whereas non-malignant cells are not targeted. We demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis and, to a lesser extent, complement dependent cytotoxicity is the main mode of action of PAT-SM6, whereas antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity does not appear to contribute to the cytotoxic properties of this antibody. Given the favourable safety profile of PAT-SM6 in monkeys, but also in a recent phase I trial in patients with malignant melanoma, our results form the basis for a planned phase I study in patients with relapsed MM.
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Th17 and non-Th17 interleukin-17-expressing cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: delineation, distribution, and clinical relevance.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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The levels and clinical relevance of Th17 cells and other interleukin-17-producing cells have not been analyzed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The objective of this study was to quantify blood and tissue levels of Th17 and other interleukin-17-producing cells in patients with this disease and correlate blood levels with clinical outcome.
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MicroRNA profiles of t(14;18)-negative follicular lymphoma support a late germinal center B-cell phenotype.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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A total of 90% of follicular lymphomas (FLs) harbor the translocation t(14;18) leading to deregulated BCL2 expression. Conversely, 10% of FLs lack the t(14;18), and the majority of these FLs do not express BCL2. The molecular features of t(14;18)-negative FLs remain largely unknown. We performed microRNA expression analysis in 32 FL grades 1 to 3A, including 17 t(14;18)-positive FLs, 9 t(14;18)-negative FLs without BCL2 expression, and 6 t(14;18)-negative FLs with BCL2 expression. MicroRNA profiles were correlated with corresponding mRNA expression patterns, and potential targets were investigated by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry in an independent validation series of 83 FLs. Statistical analysis identified 17 microRNAs that were differentially expressed between t(14;18)-positive FLs and t(14;18)-negative FLs. The down-regulation of miR-16, miR-26a, miR-101, miR-29c, and miR138 in the t(14;18)-negative FL subset was associated with profound mRNA expression changes of potential target genes involving cell cycle control, apoptosis, and B-cell differentiation. miR-16 target CHEK1 showed increased expression in t(14;18)-negative FLs, whereas TCL1A expression was reduced, in line with a partial loss of the germinal center B-cell phenotype in this FL subset. In conclusion, t(14;18)-negative FL have distinct microRNA profiles that are associated with an increased proliferative capacity and a "late" germinal center B-cell phenotype.
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The germinal center/activated B-cell subclassification has a prognostic impact for response to salvage therapy in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a bio-CORAL study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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To evaluate the prognostic value of the cell of origin (COO) in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBLC), prospectively treated by rituximab, dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin (R-DHAP) versus rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide and followed by intensive therapy plus autologous stem-cell transplantation on the Collaborative Trial in Relapsed Aggressive Lymphoma (CORAL) trial.
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BCL2 predicts survival in germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with CHOP-like therapy and rituximab.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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We have previously shown the prognostic significance of BCL2 expression in the activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) patients treated with cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like therapy. However, after the inclusion of rituximab (R) in the CHOP regimen, several conflicting observations about the prognostic value of BCL2 expression have been reported.
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Mutation analysis of the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN2 in Hodgkins lymphoma and T-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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We recently reported deletion of the protein tyrosine phosphatase gene PTPN2 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Functional analyses confirmed that PTPN2 acts as classical tumor suppressor repressing the proliferation of T cells, in part through inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling. We investigated the expression of PTPN2 in leukemia as well as lymphoma cell lines. We identified bi-allelic inactivation of PTPN2 in the Hodgkins lymphoma cell line SUP-HD1 which was associated with activation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Subsequent sequence analysis of Hodgkins lymphoma and T-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma identified bi-allelic inactivation of PTPN2 in 2 out of 39 cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified, but not in Hodgkins lymphoma. These results, together with our own data on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, demonstrate that PTPN2 is a tumor suppressor gene in T-cell malignancies.
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Is there a role for antigen selection in mantle cell lymphoma? Immunogenetic support from a series of 807 cases.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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We examined 807 productive IGHV-IGHD-IGHJ gene rearrangements from mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cases, by far the largest series to date. The IGHV gene repertoire was remarkably biased, with IGHV3-21, IGHV4-34, IGHV1-8, and IGHV3-23 accounting for 46.3% of the cohort. Eighty-four of 807 (10.4%) cases, mainly using the IGHV3-21 and IGHV4-34 genes, were found to bear stereotyped heavy complementarity-determining region 3 (VH CDR3) sequences and were placed in 38 clusters. Notably, the MCL stereotypes were distinct from those reported for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Based on somatic hypermutation (SHM) status, 238/807 sequences (29.5%) carried IGHV genes with 100% germ line identity; the remainder (569/807; 70.5%) exhibited different SHM impact, ranging from minimal (in most cases) to pronounced. Shared replacement mutations across the IGHV gene were identified for certain subgroups, especially those using IGHV3-21, IGHV1-8, and IGHV3-23. Comparison with other entities, in particular CLL, revealed that several of these mutations were "MCL-biased." In conclusion, MCL is characterized by a highly restricted immunoglobulin gene repertoire with stereotyped VH CDR3s and very precise SHM targeting, strongly implying a role for antigen-driven selection of the clonogenic progenitors. Hence, an antigen-driven origin of MCL could be envisaged, at least for subsets of cases.
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The complex landscape of genetic alterations in mantle cell lymphoma.
Semin. Cancer Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is genetically characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) which deregulates cyclin D1. Small subsets of cases have been identified with variant CCND1 translocations with the immunoglobulin light chain genes or with alternative translocations involving CCND2 and CCND3. Additionally, double-hit MCL with MYC rearrangements with a highly aggressive clinical course have been reported, but no other frequent recurrent translocations have been identified. In recent years, genome-wide screening of copy number alterations by comparative genomic hybridization and genomic microarray platforms have revealed a characteristic MCL profile of multiple secondary gains and losses as well as regions of copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity that target mainly genes involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, and cell survival pathways. Several aberrations have been found to be associated with worse prognosis, 3q gains and losses of 8p, 9p, and 17p. An increased number of secondary alterations and blastoid morphology have also been shown to be associated with cases with short survival. On the contrary, indolent MCL cases carry only the primary t(11;14) and few or no other additional genomic alterations. Altogether these observations suggest that the genetic background of MCL is an important factor that dictates their different clinical behavior. This review will focus on MCL from a genetic perspective and will present next-generation sequencing technology as a new potential tool to complement the study of complex genomes. The better understanding of genetic alterations of MCL may offer new approaches for more patient-tailored, risk-adapted treatment options.
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Follicular lymphoma grade 3B is a distinct neoplasm according to cytogenetic and immunohistochemical profiles.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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According to the current World Health Organization Classification of Lymphoid Tumours, follicular lymphoma is subclassified into three grades according to the number of centroblasts. Follicular lymphoma grade 3 can be further divided into types A and B. Almost all available genetic data on grade 3B follicular lymphomas have been generated from tumors with an additional diffuse large B-cell lymphoma component. The purely follicular type of follicular lymphoma grade 3B is a rare neoplasm.
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t(4;8)(q27;q24) in Hodgkin lymphoma cells targets phosphodiesterase PDE5A and homeobox gene ZHX2.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells represent the malignant fraction of infiltrated lymph nodes in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Although HRS cells display multiple chromosomal aberrations, few are recurrent and the targeted genes unknown. However, understanding the pathology of HL and developing rational therapies may well require identifying putative deregulated genes. Here, we analyzed the karyotype of the well-defined HL cell line L-1236 by spectral karyotyping and identified multiple abnormalities, therein, notably t(4;8)(q27;q24) which includes two breakpoint regions previously highlighted in HL. Target genes at 4q27 and 8q24 were shortlisted by high density genomic arrays and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Expression analysis of candidate target genes revealed conspicuous activation of phosphodiesterase PDE5A at 4q27 and inhibition of homeobox gene ZHX2 at 8q24. Treatment of L-1236 with PDE5A-inhibitor sildenafil or with siRNA directed against PDE5A and concomitant stimulation with cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) resulted in enhanced apoptosis, indicating PDE5A as an oncogene. Expression profiling of L-1236 cells following siRNA-mediated knockdown of ZHX2 showed inhibition of genes regulating differentiation and apoptosis, suggesting tumor suppressor activity of ZHX2. Downstream genes included STAT1 and several STAT1-target genes, indicating activation of STAT1-signaling by ZHX2 as analyzed by RQ-PCR and western blot. Taken together, we have identified a novel aberration with recurrent breakpoints in HL, t(4;8)(q27;q24), which activate PDE5A and repress ZHX2, deregulating apoptosis, differentiation, and STAT1-signaling in HL cells.
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High microvessel density determines a poor outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus chemotherapy.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease. Gene expression profiling studies have shown that the tumor microenvironment affects survival and that the angiogenesis-related signature is prognostically unfavorable. The contribution of histopathological microvessel density to survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas treated with immunochemotherapy remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to assess the prognostic impact of histopathological microvessel density in two independent series of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy.
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Prognostic significance of immunohistochemical biomarkers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a study from the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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The Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium (LLBC) evaluated the prognostic value of IHC biomarkers in a large series of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Clinical data and tumor samples were retrieved from 12 studies from Europe and North America, with patients treated before or after the rituximab era. Using tissue microarrays from 1514 patients, IHC for BCL2, BCL6, CD5, CD10, MUM1, Ki67, and HLA-DR was performed and scored according to previously validated protocols. Optimal cut points predicting overall survival of patients treated in the rituximab era could only be determined for CD5 (P = .003) and Ki67 (P = .02), whereas such cut points for BCL2, BCL6, HLA-DR, and MUM1 could only be defined in patients not receiving rituximab. A prognostic model for patients treated in the rituximab era identified 4 risk groups using BCL2, Ki67, and International Prognostic Index (IPI) with improved discrimination of low-risk patients. Newly recognized correlations between specific biomarkers and IPI highlight the importance of carefully controlling for clinical and biologic factors in prognostic models. These data demonstrate that the IPI remains the best available index in patients with DLBCL treated with rituximab and chemotherapy.
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Epigenetic activation of SOX11 in lymphoid neoplasms by histone modifications.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Recent studies have shown aberrant expression of SOX11 in various types of aggressive B-cell neoplasms. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to such deregulation, we performed a comprehensive SOX11 gene expression and epigenetic study in stem cells, normal hematopoietic cells and different lymphoid neoplasms. We observed that SOX11 expression is associated with unmethylated DNA and presence of activating histone marks (H3K9/14Ac and H3K4me3) in embryonic stem cells and some aggressive B-cell neoplasms. In contrast, adult stem cells, normal hematopoietic cells and other lymphoid neoplasms do not express SOX11. Such repression was associated with silencing histone marks H3K9me2 and H3K27me3. The SOX11 promoter of non-malignant cells was consistently unmethylated whereas lymphoid neoplasms with silenced SOX11 tended to acquire DNA hypermethylation. SOX11 silencing in cell lines was reversed by the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA but not by the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor AZA. These data indicate that, although DNA hypermethylation of SOX11 is frequent in lymphoid neoplasms, it seems to be functionally inert, as SOX11 is already silenced in the hematopoietic system. In contrast, the pathogenic role of SOX11 is associated with its de novo expression in some aggressive lymphoid malignancies, which is mediated by a shift from inactivating to activating histone modifications.
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NFATc1 affects mouse splenic B cell function by controlling the calcineurin--NFAT signaling network.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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By studying mice in which the Nfatc1 gene was inactivated in bone marrow, spleen, or germinal center B cells, we show that NFATc1 supports the proliferation and suppresses the activation-induced cell death of splenic B cells upon B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation. BCR triggering leads to expression of NFATc1/?A, a short isoform of NFATc1, in splenic B cells. NFATc1 ablation impaired Ig class switch to IgG3 induced by T cell-independent type II antigens, as well as IgG3(+) plasmablast formation. Mice bearing NFATc1(-/-) B cells harbor twofold more interleukin 10-producing B cells. NFATc1(-/-) B cells suppress the synthesis of interferon-? by T cells in vitro, and these mice exhibit a mild clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In large part, the defective functions of NFATc1(-/-) B cells are caused by decreased BCR-induced Ca(2+) flux and calcineurin (Cn) activation. By affecting CD22, Rcan1, CnA, and NFATc1/?A expression, NFATc1 controls the Ca(2+)-dependent Cn-NFAT signaling network and, thereby, the fate of splenic B cells upon BCR stimulation.
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Accurate classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma into germinal center and activated B-cell subtypes using a nuclease protection assay on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into cell-of-origin (COO) subtypes based on gene expression profiles has well-established prognostic value. These subtypes, termed germinal center B cell (GCB) and activated B cell (ABC) also have different genetic alterations and overexpression of different pathways that may serve as therapeutic targets. Thus, accurate classification is essential for analysis of clinical trial results and planning new trials by using targeted agents. The current standard for COO classification uses gene expression profiling (GEP) of snap frozen tissues, and a Bayesian predictor algorithm. However, this is generally not feasible. In this study, we investigated whether the qNPA technique could be used for accurate classification of COO by using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. We analyzed expression levels of 14 genes in 121 cases of R-CHOP-treated DLBCL that had previously undergone GEP by using the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarray and had matching FFPE blocks. Results were evaluated by using the previously published algorithm with a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. These results were compared with COO classification based on frozen tissue GEP profiles. For each case, a probability statistic was generated indicating the likelihood that the classification by using qNPA was accurate. When data were dichotomized into GCB or non-GCB, overall accuracy was 92%. The qNPA technique accurately categorized DLBCL into GCB and ABC subtypes, as defined by GEP. This approach is quantifiable, applicable to FFPE tissues with no technical failures, and has potential for significant impact on DLBCL research and clinical trial development.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.