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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rhinovirus-induced IL-25 in asthma exacerbation drives type 2 immunity and allergic pulmonary inflammation.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Rhinoviruses (RVs), which are the most common cause of virally induced asthma exacerbations, account for much of the burden of asthma in terms of morbidity, mortality, and associated cost. Interleukin-25 (IL-25) activates type 2-driven inflammation and is therefore potentially important in virally induced asthma exacerbations. To investigate this, we examined whether RV-induced IL-25 could contribute to asthma exacerbations. RV-infected cultured asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells exhibited a heightened intrinsic capacity for IL-25 expression, which correlated with donor atopic status. In vivo human IL-25 expression was greater in asthmatics at baseline and during experimental RV infection. In addition, in mice, RV infection induced IL-25 expression and augmented allergen-induced IL-25. Blockade of the IL-25 receptor reduced many RV-induced exacerbation-specific responses including type 2 cytokine expression, mucus production, and recruitment of eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils, and T and non-T type 2 cells. Therefore, asthmatic epithelial cells have an increased intrinsic capacity for expression of a pro-type 2 cytokine in response to a viral infection, and IL-25 is a key mediator of RV-induced exacerbations of pulmonary inflammation.
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GRAF1a is a brain-specific protein promoting lipid droplet clustering and growth and enriched at lipid droplet junctions.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Lipid droplets are found in all cell types. Normally present at low levels in the brain, they accumulate in tumours and are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about the mechanisms controlling their homeostasis in the brain. We have found that the longest GRAF1 isoform, GRAF1a, is enriched in the brains of neonates. Endogenous GRAF1a is found on lipid droplets in oleic-acid fed primary glial cells. Exclusive localization requires a GRAF1a-specific hydrophobic segment and two membrane-binding regions, a BAR and a PH domain. Overexpression of GRAF1a promotes lipid droplet clustering, inhibits droplet mobility and severely perturbs lipolysis following the chase of fatty acid-overloaded cells. Under these conditions, GRAF1a concentrates at the interface between lipid droplets. Although GRAF1 knockout mice do not show any gross abnormal phenotype, the total lipid droplet volume that accumulates in GRAF1(-/-) primary glia upon incubation with fatty acids is reduced compared to GRAF1(+/+) cells. These results provide additional insights into the mechanisms contributing to lipid droplet growth in non-adipocyte cells, and suggest that proteins with membrane sculpting BAR domains play a role in droplet homeostasis.
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Innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and immunity.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were first described as playing important roles in the development of lymphoid tissues and more recently in the initiation of inflammation at barrier surfaces in response to infection or tissue damage. It has now become apparent that ILCs play more complex roles throughout the duration of immune responses, participating in the transition from innate to adaptive immunity and contributing to chronic inflammation. The proximity of ILCs to epithelial surfaces and their constitutive strategic positioning in other tissues throughout the body ensures that, in spite of their rarity, ILCs are able to regulate immune homeostasis effectively. Dysregulation of ILC function might result in chronic pathologies such as allergies, autoimmunity, and inflammation. A new role for ILCs in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis has started to emerge, underlining their importance in fundamental physiological processes beyond infection and immunity.
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Type-2 innate lymphoid cells in human allergic disease.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Recent decades have seen allergic diseases become endemic in a number of developed countries. Understanding the inflammatory processes that dictate these allergic responses is therefore important.
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IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin mediate immune pathology in response to chronic airborne allergen exposure.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Humans are frequently exposed to various airborne allergens in the atmospheric environment. These allergens may trigger a complex network of immune responses in the airways, resulting in asthma and other chronic airway diseases. In this study, we investigated the immunological mechanisms involved in the pathological changes induced by chronic exposure to multiple airborne allergens. Naive mice were exposed intranasally to a combination of common airborne allergens, including the house dust mite, Alternaria, and Aspergillus, for up to 8 wk. These allergens acted synergistically and induced robust eosinophilic airway inflammation, specific IgE Ab production, type 2 cytokine response, and airway hyperresponsiveness in 4 wk, followed by airway remodeling in 8 wk. Increased lung infiltration of T cells, B cells, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells was observed. CD4(+) T cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells contributed to the sources of IL-5 and IL-13, suggesting involvement of both innate and adaptive immunity in this model. The lung levels of IL-33 increased quickly within several hours after allergen exposure and continued to rise throughout the chronic phase of inflammation. Mice deficient in IL-33R (Il1rl1(-/-)) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (Tslpr(-/-)) showed significant reduction in airway inflammation, IgE Ab levels, and airway hyperresponsiveness. In contrast, mice deficient in IL-25R or IL-1R showed minimal differences as compared with wild-type animals. Thus, chronic exposure to natural airborne allergens triggers a network of innate and adaptive type 2 immune responses and airway pathology, and IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin most likely play key roles in this process.
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MHCII-mediated dialog between group 2 innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) T cells potentiates type 2 immunity and promotes parasitic helminth expulsion.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) release interleukin-13 (IL-13) during protective immunity to helminth infection and detrimentally during allergy and asthma. Using two mouse models to deplete ILC2s in vivo, we demonstrate that T helper 2 (Th2) cell responses are impaired in the absence of ILC2s. We show that MHCII-expressing ILC2s interact with antigen-specific T cells to instigate a dialog in which IL-2 production from T cells promotes ILC2 proliferation and IL-13 production. Deletion of MHCII renders IL-13-expressing ILC2s incapable of efficiently inducing Nippostrongylus brasiliensis expulsion. Thus, during transition to adaptive T cell-mediated immunity, the ILC2 and T cell crosstalk contributes to their mutual maintenance, expansion and cytokine production. This interaction appears to augment dendritic-cell-induced T cell activation and identifies a previously unappreciated pathway in the regulation of type-2 immunity.
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Antibacterial inhibitors of Gram-positive thymidylate kinase: structure-activity relationships and chiral preference of a new hydrophobic binding region.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Thymidylate kinase (TMK), an essential enzyme in bacterial DNA biosynthesis, is an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel antibacterial agents, and we continue to explore TMK inhibitors with improved potency, protein binding, and pharmacokinetic potential. A structure-guided design approach was employed to exploit a previously unexplored region in Staphylococcus aureus TMK via novel interactions. These efforts produced compound 39, with 3 nM IC50 against S. aureus TMK and 2 ?g/mL MIC against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This compound exhibits a striking inverted chiral preference for binding relative to earlier compounds and also has improved physical properties and pharmacokinetics over previously published compounds. An example of this new series was efficacious in a murine S. aureus infection model, suggesting that compounds like 39 are options for further work toward a new Gram-positive antibiotic by maintaining a balance of microbiological potency, low clearance, and low protein binding that can result in lower efficacious doses.
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TH9 cells that express the transcription factor PU.1 drive T cell-mediated colitis via IL-9 receptor signaling in intestinal epithelial cells.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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The molecular checkpoints that drive inflammatory bowel diseases are incompletely understood. Here we found more T cells expressing the transcription factor PU.1 and interleukin 9 (IL-9) in patients with ulcerative colitis. In an animal model, citrine reporter mice had more IL-9-expressing mucosal T cells in experimental oxazolone-induced colitis. IL-9 deficiency suppressed acute and chronic colitis. Mice with PU.1 deficiency in T cells were protected from colitis, whereas treatment with antibody to IL-9 suppressed colitis. Functionally, IL-9 impaired intestinal barrier function and prevented mucosal wound healing in vivo. Thus, our findings suggest that the TH9 subset of helper T cells serves an important role in driving ulcerative colitis by regulating intestinal epithelial cells and that TH9 cells represent a likely target for the treatment of chronic intestinal inflammation.
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Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals T helper cells synthesizing steroids de novo to contribute to immune homeostasis.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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T helper 2 (Th2) cells regulate helminth infections, allergic disorders, tumor immunity, and pregnancy by secreting various cytokines. It is likely that there are undiscovered Th2 signaling molecules. Although steroids are known to be immunoregulators, de novo steroid production from immune cells has not been previously characterized. Here, we demonstrate production of the steroid pregnenolone by Th2 cells in vitro and in vivo in a helminth infection model. Single-cell RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR analysis suggest that pregnenolone synthesis in Th2 cells is related to immunosuppression. In support of this, we show that pregnenolone inhibits Th cell proliferation and B cell immunoglobulin class switching. We also show that steroidogenic Th2 cells inhibit Th cell proliferation in a Cyp11a1 enzyme-dependent manner. We propose pregnenolone as a "lymphosteroid," a steroid produced by lymphocytes. We speculate that this de novo steroid production may be an intrinsic phenomenon of Th2-mediated immune responses to actively restore immune homeostasis.
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Transcriptome analysis identifies Bacillus anthracis genes that respond to CO2 through an AtxA-dependent mechanism.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Upon infection of a mammalian host, Bacillus anthracis responds to host cues, and particularly to elevated temperature (37°C) and bicarbonate/CO2 concentrations, with increased expression of virulence factors that include the anthrax toxins and extracellular capsular layer. This response requires the presence of the pXO1 virulence plasmid-encoded pleiotropic regulator AtxA. To better understand the genetic basis of this response, we utilized a controlled in vitro system and Next Generation sequencing to determine and compare RNA expression profiles of the parental strain and an isogenic AtxA-deficient strain in a 2 × 2 factorial design with growth environments containing or lacking carbon dioxide.
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The IL-13/IL-4R? axis is involved in tuberculosis-associated pathology.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Human tuberculosis (TB) is a leading global health threat and still constitutes a major medical challenge. However, mechanisms governing tissue pathology during post-primary TB remain elusive, partly because genetically or immunologically tractable animal models are lacking. In human TB, the demonstration of a large relative increase in interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 expression, which correlates with lung damage, indicates that a subversive T helper (TH)2 component in the response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may undermine protective immunity and contribute to reactivation and tissue pathology. Up to now, there has been no clear evidence regarding whether IL-4/IL-13-IL-4 receptor-? (R?)-mediated mechanisms may in fact cause reactivation and pathology. Unfortunately, the virtual absence of centrally necrotizing granulomas in experimental murine TB is associated with a poor induction of a TH2 immune response. We therefore hypothesize that, in mice, an increased production of IL-13 may lead to a pathology similar to human post-primary TB. In our study, aerosol Mtb infection of IL-13-over-expressing mice in fact resulted in pulmonary centrally necrotizing granulomas with multinucleated giant cells, a hypoxic rim and a perinecrotic collagen capsule, with an adjacent zone of lipid-rich, acid-fast bacilli-containing foamy macrophages, thus strongly resembling the pathology in human post-primary TB. Granuloma necrosis (GN) in Mtb-infected IL-13-over-expressing mice was associated with the induction of arginase-1-expressing macrophages. Indirect blockade of the endogenous arginase inhibitor l-hydroxyarginine in Mtb-infected wild-type mice resulted in a strong arginase expression and precipitated a similar pathology of GN. Together, we here introduce an experimental TB model that displays many features of centrally necrotizing granulomas in human post-primary TB and demonstrate that IL-13/IL-4R?-dependent mechanisms leading to arginase-1 expression are involved in TB-associated tissue pathology. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
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Aberrant production of IL-13 by T cells promotes exocrinopathy in Id3 knockout mice.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Elevated levels of the cytokine IL-13 has been found to be associated with autoimmune diseases, including Sjögren's Syndrome. However, whether IL-13 plays a causative role in disease development is not known and cannot be easily studied in humans. Our previous work has shown that levels of IL-13 are elevated in Id3 knockout mice, which has been established as a model for primary Sjögren's Syndrome. Here, we utilized an IL-13 reporter to determine the source of the elevated IL-13 levels observed in Id3 knockout mice and assess its contribution to SS pathology. Our results indicate that T cells, notably CD4 and ?? T cells, in Id3 knockout mice acquire IL-13 competency at an elevated rate well before disease symptoms become apparent. We also show that T cells developing early in life are more predisposed to produce IL-13. Finally, analysis of Id3 and IL-13 double deficient mice demonstrated that IL-13 plays an essential role in the deterioration of gland function. Our study provides crucial genetic evidence that enhanced IL-13 production by T cells can play a causative role in the exocrinopathy observed in Id3 knockout mice.
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Vaginal epithelial cell-derived S100 alarmins induced by Candida albicans via pattern recognition receptor interactions are sufficient but not necessary for the acute neutrophil response during experimental vaginal candidiasis.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida albicans, affects women worldwide. Animal and clinical studies suggest that the immunopathogenic inflammatory condition of VVC is initiated by S100 alarmins in response to C. albicans, which stimulate polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) migration to the vagina. The purpose of this study was to extend previous in vitro data and determine the requirement for the alarmin S100A8 in the PMN response and to evaluate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate the response. For the former, PMN migration was evaluated in vitro or in vivo in the presence or absence of S100 alarmins initiated by several approaches. For the latter, vaginal epithelial cells were evaluated for PRR expression and C. albicans-induced S100A8 and S100A9 mRNAs, followed by evaluation of the PMN response in inoculated PRR-deficient mice. Results revealed that, consistent with previously reported in vitro data, eukaryote-derived S100A8, but not prokaryote-derived recombinant S100A8, induced significant PMN chemotaxis in vivo. Conversely, a lack of biologically active S100A8 alarmin, achieved by antibody neutralization or by using S100A9(-/-) mice, had no effect on the PMN response in vivo. In PRR analyses, whereas Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and SIGNR1-deficient vaginal epithelial cells showed a dramatic reduction in C. albicans-induced S100A8/S100A9 mRNAs in vitro, inoculated mice deficient in these PRRs showed PMN migration similar to that in wild-type controls. These results suggest that S100A8 alarmin is sufficient, but not necessary, to induce PMN migration during VVC and that the vaginal PMN response to C. albicans involves PRRs in addition to SIGNR1 and TLR4, or other induction pathways.
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Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are critical for the initiation of adaptive T helper 2 cell-mediated allergic lung inflammation.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Naive CD4(+) T cell differentiation into distinct subsets of T helper (Th) cells is a pivotal process in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. Allergens predominantly stimulate Th2 cells, causing allergic inflammation. However, why allergens induce Th2 cell differentiation is not well understood. Here we show that group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are required to mount a robust Th2 cell response to the protease-allergen papain. Intranasal administration of papain stimulated ILC2s and Th2 cells, causing allergic lung inflammation and elevated immunoglobulin E titers. This process was severely impaired in ILC2-deficient mice. Whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) was dispensable for papain-induced Th2 cell differentiation, ILC2-derived IL-13 was critical as it promoted migration of activated lung dendritic cells into the draining lymph node where they primed naive T cells to differentiate into Th2 cells. Papain-induced ILC2 activation and Th2 cell differentiation was IL-33-dependent, suggesting a common pathway in the initiation of Th2 cell responses to allergen.
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Chitin activates parallel immune modules that direct distinct inflammatory responses via innate lymphoid type 2 and ?? T cells.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Chitin, a polysaccharide constituent of many allergens and parasites, initiates innate type 2 lung inflammation through incompletely defined pathways. We show that inhaled chitin induced expression of three epithelial cytokines, interleukin-25 (IL-25), IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), which nonredundantly activated resident innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) to express IL-5 and IL-13 necessary for accumulation of eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs). In the absence of all three epithelial cytokines, ILC2s normally populated the lung but failed to increase IL-5 and IL-13. Although eosinophils and AAMs were attenuated, neutrophil influx remained normal without these epithelial cytokines. Genetic ablation of ILC2s, however, enhanced IL-1?, TNF?, and IL-23 expression, increased activation of IL-17A-producing ?? T cells, and prolonged neutrophil influx. Thus, chitin elicited patterns of innate cytokines that targeted distinct populations of resident lymphoid cells, revealing divergent but interacting pathways underlying the tissue accumulation of specific types of inflammatory myeloid cells.
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Prostaglandin D2 activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells through chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Activation of the group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) population leads to production of the classical type 2 cytokines, thus promoting type 2 immunity. Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells (CRTH2), a receptor for prostaglandin D? (PGD?), is expressed by human ILC2s. However, the function of CRTH2 in these cells is unclear.
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Signs & symptoms of Dextromethorphan exposure from YouTube.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Detailed data on the recreational use of drugs are difficult to obtain through traditional means, especially for substances like Dextromethorphan (DXM) which are available over-the-counter for medicinal purposes. In this study, we show that information provided by commenters on YouTube is useful for uncovering the toxicologic effects of DXM. Using methods of computational linguistics, we were able to recreate many of the clinically described signs and symptoms of DXM ingestion at various doses, using information extracted from YouTube comments. Our study shows how social networks can enhance our understanding of recreational drug effects.
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IL-25 and type 2 innate lymphoid cells induce pulmonary fibrosis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Disease conditions associated with pulmonary fibrosis are progressive and have a poor long-term prognosis with irreversible changes in airway architecture leading to marked morbidity and mortalities. Using murine models we demonstrate a role for interleukin (IL)-25 in the generation of pulmonary fibrosis. Mechanistically, we identify IL-13 release from type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) as sufficient to drive collagen deposition in the lungs of challenged mice and suggest this as a potential mechanism through which IL-25 is acting. Additionally, we demonstrate that in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis there is increased pulmonary expression of IL-25 and also observe a population ILC2 in the lungs of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. Collectively, we present an innate mechanism for the generation of pulmonary fibrosis, via IL-25 and ILC2, that occurs independently of T-cell-mediated antigen-specific immune responses. These results suggest the potential of therapeutically targeting IL-25 and ILC2 for the treatment of human fibrotic diseases.
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A role for IL-25 and IL-33-driven type-2 innate lymphoid cells in atopic dermatitis.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s, nuocytes, NHC) require RORA and GATA3 for their development. We show that human ILC2s express skin homing receptors and infiltrate the skin after allergen challenge, where they produce the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. Skin-derived ILC2s express the IL-33 receptor ST2, which is up-regulated during activation, and are enriched in lesional skin biopsies from atopic patients. Signaling via IL-33 induces type 2 cytokine and amphiregulin expression, and increases ILC2 migration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that E-cadherin ligation on human ILC2 dramatically inhibits IL-5 and IL-13 production. Interestingly, down-regulation of E-cadherin is characteristic of filaggrin insufficiency, a cardinal feature of atopic dermatitis (AD). ILC2 may contribute to increases in type 2 cytokine production in the absence of the suppressive E-cadherin ligation through this novel mechanism of barrier sensing. Using Rag1(-/-) and ROR?-deficient mice, we confirm that ILC2s are present in mouse skin and promote AD-like inflammation. IL-25 and IL-33 are the predominant ILC2-inducing cytokines in this model. The presence of ILC2s in skin, and their production of type 2 cytokines in response to IL-33, identifies a role for ILC2s in the pathogenesis of cutaneous atopic disease.
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New kids on the block: group 2 innate lymphoid cells and type 2 inflammation in the lung.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Inflammatory diseases of the lung are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Allergic lung inflammation often stems from the overproduction of type 2 cytokines. The resulting type 2 inflammation is frequently caused by an inappropriate immune response to relatively harmless allergens and often associates with asthma. Until recently, the primary contributors of type 2 cytokines were believed to be T helper (Th) 2 cells. This concept was challenged by the discovery of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in the lung, which represent a major source of type 2 cytokines during the acute inflammatory phase. Recent advances in our understanding of the regulation and development of ILC2 have redrawn the roadmap of type 2 inflammation. Indeed, ILC2s appear to be critical for the induction of adaptive immunity and, thus, play a central role for immune regulation. As one of the first responders in the entire Th2 cascade, ILC2 might serve as the early tile in a Th2 domino effect. As such, ILC2s present an attractive target for future drug development.
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Cutting edge: IL-25 elicits innate lymphoid type 2 and type II NKT cells that regulate obesity in mice.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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The cellular composition of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and release of cytokines by such cells within VAT has been implicated in regulating obesity and metabolic homeostasis. We show the importance of IL-25-responsive innate cells, which release the Th2 cytokine IL-13, in regulating weight and glucose homeostasis in mouse models of diet-induced obesity. Treating obese mice with IL-25 induces weight loss and improves glucose tolerance, and is associated with increased infiltration of innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2), type I and type II NKT cells, eosinophils, and alternatively activated macrophages into the VAT. By depleting ILC2 in obese Rag1(-/-) mice, we observe exacerbated weight gain and glucose intolerance. Conversely, transferring ILC2 or type I or type II NKT cells into obese mice induces transient weight loss and stabilizes glucose homeostasis. Our data identify a mechanism whereby IL-25 eliciting IL-13-producing innate cells regulates inflammation in adipose tissue and prevents diet-induced obesity.
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The IL-33/ST2 axis is associated with human visceral leishmaniasis and suppresses Th1 responses in the livers of BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania donovani.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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During visceral leishmaniasis, the control of hepatic parasite burden is mainly due to granuloma assembly in a microenvironment consisting of both Th1 and Th2 components. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) dosages, quantitative PCR (qPCR), immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry, we studied the role of interleukin-33 (IL-33), a recently described cytokine signaling through the ST2 receptor, during visceral leishmaniasis. We showed that a higher level of IL-33 was detected in the serum of patients with visceral leishmaniasis than in that from healthy donors and demonstrated the presence of IL-33(+) cells in a liver biopsy specimen from a patient. Similarly, in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with L. donovani, a higher level of IL-33 was detected in the serum, as well as the presence of IL-33(+) cells and ST2(+) cells in the mouse liver. In ST2(-/-) BALB/c mice, better control of the hepatic parasite burden and reduced hepatomegaly were observed. This was associated with strong induction of Th1 cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-?] and IL-12) compared to the level in wild-type (WT) mice and better recruitment of myeloid cells associated with strongly induced chemokines (CCL2 and CXCL2) and receptors (CCR2 and CXCR2). Conversely, BALB/c mice treated twice weekly with recombinant IL-33 showed a dramatically reduced induction of Th1 cytokines and delayed inhibition of monocyte and neutrophil recruitment in the liver, which was associated with reduced KC/CXCL1 and CXCR2 expression. Taken together, our results suggest that IL-33 could be a new deleterious regulator of the hepatic immune response against Leishmania donovani, via the repression of the Th1 response and myeloid cell recruitment.
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Interleukin-33-dependent innate lymphoid cells mediate hepatic fibrosis.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Liver fibrosis is a consequence of chronic liver diseases and thus a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Clinical evidence and animal studies suggest that local tissue homeostasis is disturbed due to immunological responses to chronic hepatocellular stress. Poorly defined stress-associated inflammatory networks are thought to mediate gradual accumulation of extracellular-matrix components, ultimately leading to fibrosis and liver failure. Here we have reported that hepatic expression of interleukin-33 (IL-33) was both required and sufficient for severe hepatic fibrosis in vivo. We have demonstrated that IL-33s profibrotic effects related to activation and expansion of liver resident innate lymphoid cells (ILC2). We identified ILC2-derived IL-13, acting through type-II IL-4 receptor-dependent signaling via the transcription factor STAT6 and hepatic stellate-cell activation, as a critical downstream cytokine of IL-33-dependent pathologic tissue remodeling and fibrosis. Our data reveal key immunological networks implicated in hepatic fibrosis and support the concept of modulation of IL-33 bioactivity for therapeutic purposes.
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IL-33 is more potent than IL-25 in provoking IL-13-producing nuocytes (type 2 innate lymphoid cells) and airway contraction.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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IL-25 and IL-33 belong to distinct cytokine families, but experimental mouse studies suggest their immunologic functions in type 2 immunity are almost entirely overlapping. However, only polymorphisms in the IL-33 pathway (IL1RL1 and IL33) have been significantly associated with asthma in large-cohort genome-wide association studies.
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Leveraging social networks for toxicovigilance.
J Med Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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The landscape of drug abuse is shifting. Traditional means of characterizing these changes, such as national surveys or voluntary reporting by frontline clinicians, can miss changes in usage the emergence of novel drugs. Delays in detecting novel drug usage patterns make it difficult to evaluate public policy aimed at altering drug abuse. Increasingly, newer methods to inform frontline providers to recognize symptoms associated with novel drugs or methods of administration are needed. The growth of social networks may address this need. The objective of this manuscript is to introduce tools for using data from social networks to characterize drug abuse. We outline a structured approach to analyze social media in order to capture emerging trends in drug abuse by applying powerful methods from artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, graph theory, and agent-based modeling. First, we describe how to obtain data from social networks such as Twitter using publicly available automated programmatic interfaces. Then, we discuss how to use artificial intelligence techniques to extract content useful for purposes of toxicovigilance. This filtered content can be employed to generate real-time maps of drug usage across geographical regions. Beyond describing the real-time epidemiology of drug abuse, techniques from computational linguistics can uncover ways that drug discussions differ from other online conversations. Next, graph theory can elucidate the structure of networks discussing drug abuse, helping us learn what online interactions promote drug abuse and whether these interactions differ among drugs. Finally, agent-based modeling relates online interactions to psychological archetypes, providing a link between epidemiology and behavior. An analysis of social media discussions about drug abuse patterns with computational linguistics, graph theory, and agent-based modeling permits the real-time monitoring and characterization of trends of drugs of abuse. These tools provide a powerful complement to existing methods of toxicovigilance.
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Innate lymphoid cells in immunity and disease.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) comprises of natural killer (NK) cells, Ror?t-dependent ILCs (lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, ILC22, and ILC17), and type 2 ILCs. Apart from a common requirement for inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) expression and common ?-chain (?c) signaling, the differentiation of ILC populations is regulated by distinct transcription factors. ILCs play fundamental roles in processes such as cytotoxicity, lymphoid organogenesis, intestinal homeostasis, immunity against infections, and wound healing. However, the dysregulation of ILCs has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here, we will review the recent advances in ILC development and their roles in immunity and disease, with a primary focus on type 2 ILCs.
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Development and function of group 2 innate lymphoid cells.
Curr. Opin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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The innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family has recently expanded with the discovery of type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2). These cells arise from lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and, under the control of the transcriptional regulators ROR? and Gata3, they mature to give rise to IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 producing ILC2. These cells are critical components of the innate immune response to parasitic worm infections and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergy. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular regulation of ILC2 development and function now present the opportunity to develop new genetic models to assess ILC2 immune function and to investigate possible therapeutic interventions.
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Supporting GP advanced rural skills training.
Aust J Rural Health
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The aim of this study was to: investigate doctors experiences of support during GP advanced rural skills training, and identify strategies to improve support.
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Transcriptional analysis of the three Nlrp1 paralogs in mice.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Signals of danger and damage in the cytosol of cells are sensed by NOD-like receptors (NLRs), which are components of multiprotein complexes called inflammasomes. Inflammasomes activate caspase-1, resulting in IL-1-beta and IL-18 secretion and an inflammatory response. To date, the only known activator of rodent Nlrp1 is anthrax lethal toxin (LT), a protease secreted by the bacterial pathogen Bacillus anthracis. Although susceptibility of mouse macrophages to LT has been genetically linked to Nlrp1b, mice harbor two additional Nlrp1 paralogs in their genomes (Nlrp1a and Nlrp1c). However, little is known about their expression profile and sequence in different mouse strains. Furthermore, simultaneous expression of these paralogs may lead to competitional binding of Nlrp1b interaction partners needed for inflammasome activation, thus influencing macrophages susceptibility to LT. To more completely understand the role(s) of Nlrp1 paralogs in mice, we surveyed for their expression in a large set of LT-resistant and sensitive mouse macrophages. In addition, we provide sequence comparisons for Nlrp1a and report on previously unrecognized splice variants of Nlrp1b.
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Innate lymphoid cells--a proposal for uniform nomenclature.
Nat. Rev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a family of developmentally related cells that are involved in immunity and in tissue development and remodelling. Recent research has identified several distinct members of this family. Confusingly, many different names have been used to characterize these newly identified ILC subsets. Here, we propose that ILCs should be categorized into three groups based on the cytokines that they can produce and the transcription factors that regulate their development and function.
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The transcription factor T-bet is essential for the development of NKp46+ innate lymphocytes via the Notch pathway.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) serve important roles in regulating the intestinal microbiota and defense against pathogens. Whether NKp46+ ILCs arise directly from lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells or represent a separate lineage remains controversial. We report here that the transcription factor T-bet (encoded by Tbx21) was essential for the development of NKp46+ ILCs but not of LTi cells or nuocytes. Deficiency in interleukin 22 (IL-22)-producing NKp46+ ILCs resulted in greater susceptibility of Tbx21-/- mice to intestinal infection. Haploinsufficient T-bet expression resulted in lower expression of the signaling molecule Notch, and Notch signaling was necessary for the transition of LTi cells into NKp46+ ILCs. Furthermore, NKp46+ ILCs differentiated solely from the CD4- LTi population, not the CD4+ LTi population. Our results pinpoint the regulation of Notch signaling by T-bet as a distinct molecular pathway that guides the development of NKp46+ ILCs.
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Innate lymphoid cells--how did we miss them?
Nat. Rev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are newly identified members of the lymphoid lineage that have emerging roles in mediating immune responses and in regulating tissue homeostasis and inflammation. Here, we review the developmental relationships between the various ILC lineages that have been identified to date and summarize their functions in protective immunity to infection and their pathological roles in allergic and autoimmune diseases.
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IL-33-responsive lineage- CD25+ CD44(hi) lymphoid cells mediate innate type 2 immunity and allergic inflammation in the lungs.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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Innate immunity provides the first line of response to invading pathogens and a variety of environmental insults. Recent studies identified novel subsets of innate lymphoid cells that are capable of mediating immune responses in mucosal organs. In this paper, we describe a subset of lymphoid cells that is involved in innate type 2 immunity in the lungs. Airway exposure of naive BALB/c or C57BL/6J mice to IL-33 results in a rapid (<12 h) production of IL-5 and IL-13 and marked airway eosinophilia independently of adaptive immunity. In the lungs of nonsensitized naive mice, IL-33-responsive cells were identified that have a lymphoid morphology, lack lineage markers, highly express CD25, CD44, Thy1.2, ICOS, Sca-1, and IL-7R? (i.e., Lin(-)CD25(+)CD44(hi) lymphoid cells), and require IL-7R? for their development. Airway exposure of naive mice to a clinically relevant ubiquitous fungal allergen, Alternaria alternata, increases bronchoalveolar lavage levels of IL-33, followed by IL-5 and IL-13 production and airway eosinophilia without T or B cells. This innate type 2 response to the allergen is nearly abolished in mice deficient in IL-33R (i.e., ST2), and the Lin(-)CD25(+)CD44(hi) lymphoid cells in the lungs are required and sufficient to mediate the response. Thus, a subset of innate immune cells that responds to IL-33 and vigorously produces Th2-type cytokines is present in mouse lungs. These cells may provide a novel mechanism for type 2 immunity in the airways and induction of allergic airway diseases such as asthma.
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Insights into the initiation of type 2 immune responses.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Type 2 immune responses, characterized by the differentiation of CD4+ T helper type 2 (Th2) cells and the production of the type 2 cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, are associated with parasitic helminth infections and inflammatory conditions such as asthma and allergies. Until recently the initiating factors associated with type 2 responses had been poorly understood. This review addresses the recent advances in identifying the diverse range of antigens/allergens associated with type 2 responses and the function, expression and sources of type-2-initiating cytokines (thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25 and IL-33). We also discuss the latest findings regarding innate lymphoid cells, such as nuocytes, as early sources of type 2 cytokines and their importance in protective immunity to helminth infections. These developments represent major breakthroughs in our understanding of type 2 immunity, and highlight the increased complexity existing between the innate and adaptive arms of these responses. These additional steps in the type 2 immune pathway also offer potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
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Interleukin-33 is expressed in differentiated osteoblasts and blocks osteoclast formation from bone marrow precursor cells.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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Since the hematopoetic system is located within the bone marrow, it is not surprising that recent evidence has demonstrated the existence of molecular interactions between bone and immune cells. While interleukin 1 (IL-1) and IL-18, two cytokines of the IL-1 family, have been shown to regulate differentiation and activity of bone cells, the role of IL-33, another IL-1 family member, has not been addressed yet. Since we observed that the expression of IL-33 increases during osteoblast differentiation, we analyzed its possible influence on bone formation and observed that IL-33 did not affect matrix mineralization but enhanced the expression of Tnfsf11, the gene encoding RANKL. This finding led us to analyze the skeletal phenotype of Il1rl1-deficient mice, which lack the IL-33 receptor ST2. Unexpectedly, these mice displayed normal bone formation but increased bone resorption, thereby resulting in low trabecular bone mass. Since this finding suggested a negative influence of IL-33 on osteoclastogenesis, we next analyzed osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow precursor cells and observed that IL-33 completely abolished the generation of TRACP(+) multinucleated osteoclasts, even in the presence of RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Although our molecular studies revealed that IL-33 treatment of bone marrow cells caused a shift toward other hematopoetic lineages, we further observed a direct negative influence of IL-33 on the osteoclastogenic differentiation of RAW264.7 macrophages, where IL-33 repressed the expression of Nfatc1, which encodes one of the key transciption factors of osteoclast differentiation. Taken together, these findings have uncovered a previously unknown function of IL-33 as an inhibitor of bone resorption.
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Nuocytes: expanding the innate cell repertoire in type-2 immunity.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Activation and differentiation of the Th1 cell population lead to their production of the classical type-1 cytokines IFN-?, IL-2, and TNF-?, thus promoting type-1 immunity. This is thought to occur via the ligation of TLRs by bacterial and viral products, which in turn, drive production of the essential Th1 cell differentiation factor, IL-12, by dendritic cells (DCs). Concurrent studies have been able to identify the effector cytokines produced by Th2 cells (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13) as being essential for parasitic immunity and also as essential factors in allergic asthma. However, the factors that are critical for initiation of the type-2 response remained obscure. Recently however, two critical observations have led to a more detailed understanding of the innate type-2 response. First, two novel, type-2-inducing cytokines-IL-25 and IL-33-were identified as being necessary for the up-regulation of the type-2 effector cytokines, mirroring the role of IL-12 in the type-1 response. Second, studies focused on target cell populations of IL-25 and IL-33 have identified novel, innate cell populations, which potentially bridge the gap between presentation of the type-2-inducing cytokine and the later adaptive Th2 cell response. In this review, we will discuss these new type-2 innate cell populations, in particular, the recently discovered nuocyte population, which are required for type-2 responses against helminthic parasites.
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Innate lymphoid cells responding to IL-33 mediate airway hyperreactivity independently of adaptive immunity.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Asthma has been considered an immunologic disease mediated by T(H)2 cells and adaptive immunity. However, clinical and experimental observations suggest that additional pathways might regulate asthma, particularly in its nonallergic forms, such as asthma associated with air pollution, stress, obesity, and infection.
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Protein kinase A activity and anchoring are required for ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest of the gynecological malignancies, due in part to its clinically occult metastasis. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms governing EOC dissemination and invasion may provide new targets for antimetastatic therapies or new methods for detection of metastatic disease. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is often dysregulated in EOC. Furthermore, PKA activity and subcellular localization by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are important regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. Thus, we sought to study the role of PKA and AKAP function in both EOC cell migration and invasion. Using the plasma membrane-directed PKA biosensor, pmAKAR3, and an improved migration/invasion assay, we show that PKA is activated at the leading edge of migrating SKOV-3 EOC cells, and that inhibition of PKA activity blocks SKOV-3 cell migration. Furthermore, we show that while the PKA activity within the leading edge of these cells is mediated by anchoring of type-II regulatory PKA subunits (RII), inhibition of anchoring of either RI or RII PKA subunits blocks cell migration. Importantly, we also show--for the first time--that PKA activity is up-regulated at the leading edge of SKOV-3 cells during invasion of a three-dimensional extracellular matrix and, as seen for migration, inhibition of either PKA activity or AKAP-mediated PKA anchoring blocks matrix invasion. These data are the first to demonstrate that the invasion of extracellular matrix by cancer cells elicits activation of PKA within the invasive leading edge and that both PKA activity and anchoring are required for matrix invasion. These observations suggest a role for PKA and AKAP activity in EOC metastasis.
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Endogenous IL-13 plays a crucial role in liver granuloma maturation during Leishmania donovani infection, independent of IL-4R?-responsive macrophages and neutrophils.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Previous studies comparing interleukin 4 receptor ? (IL-4R?)(-/-) and interleukin 4 (IL-4)(-/-) BALB/c mice have indicated that interleukin 13 (IL-13), whose receptor shares the IL-4R? subunit with IL-4, plays a protective role during visceral leishmaniasis. We demonstrate that IL-13(-/-) BALB/c mice were less able to control hepatic growth of Leishmania donovani compared with wild-type mice. This correlated with significantly retarded granuloma maturation in IL-13(-/-) mice, defective interferon ? (IFN-?) production, and elevated IL-4 and interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels. L. donovani-infected IL-13(-/-) mice also responded poorly to sodium stibogluconate-mediated chemotherapy compared with wild-type BALB/c mice. Because murine lymphocytes do not have IL-13 receptors, we examined the ability of macrophage/neutrophil-specific IL-4R?(-/-) mice to control primary infection with L. donovani and to respond to chemotherapy. Macrophage/neutrophil-specific IL-4R?(-/-) mice were as resistant to leishmaniasis as wild-type mice, and chemotherapy retained its efficacy. Consequently, in L. donovani infected BALB/c mice, IL-13 promotes hepatic granuloma formation and controls parasite burdens independently of direct effects on macrophages/neutrophils.
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Uncoupling of GTP hydrolysis from eIF6 release on the ribosome causes Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Removal of the assembly factor eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) is critical for late cytoplasmic maturation of 60S ribosomal subunits. In mammalian cells, the current model posits that eIF6 release is triggered following phosphorylation of Ser 235 by activated protein kinase C. In contrast, genetic studies in yeast indicate a requirement for the ortholog of the SBDS (Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome) gene that is mutated in the inherited leukemia predisposition disorder Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). Here, by isolating late cytoplasmic 60S ribosomal subunits from Sbds-deleted mice, we show that SBDS and the GTPase elongation factor-like 1 (EFL1) directly catalyze eIF6 removal in mammalian cells by a mechanism that requires GTP binding and hydrolysis by EFL1 but not phosphorylation of eIF6 Ser 235. Functional analysis of disease-associated missense variants reveals that the essential role of SBDS is to tightly couple GTP hydrolysis by EFL1 on the ribosome to eIF6 release. Furthermore, complementary NMR spectroscopic studies suggest unanticipated mechanistic parallels between this late step in 60S maturation and aspects of bacterial ribosome disassembly. Our findings establish a direct role for SBDS and EFL1 in catalyzing the translational activation of ribosomes in all eukaryotes, and define SDS as a ribosomopathy caused by uncoupling GTP hydrolysis from eIF6 release.
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Innate lymphoid cells mediate influenza-induced airway hyper-reactivity independently of adaptive immunity.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Patients with asthma, a major public health problem, are at high risk for serious disease from influenza virus infection, but the pathogenic mechanisms by which influenza A causes airway disease and asthma are not fully known. We show here in a mouse model that influenza infection acutely induced airway hyper-reactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma, independently of T helper type 2 (T(H)2) cells and adaptive immunity. Instead, influenza infection induced AHR through a previously unknown pathway that required the interleukin 13 (IL-13)-IL-33 axis and cells of the non-T cell, non-B cell innate lymphoid type called natural helper cells. Infection with influenza A virus, which activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulted in much more production of IL-33 by alveolar macrophages, which in turn activated natural helper cells producing substantial IL-13.
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ST2 deletion enhances innate and acquired immunity to murine mammary carcinoma.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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ST2 is a member of the IL-1 receptor family and IL-33 was recently identified as its natural ligand. The IL-33/ST2 pathway regulates Th1/Th2 immune responses in autoimmune and inflammatory conditions, but the role of ST2 signaling in tumor growth and metastasis has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate whether ST2 gene deletion affects tumor appearance, growth, and metastasis, and antitumor immunity in an experimental metastatic breast cancer model. Deletion of ST2 in BALB/c mice bearing mammary carcinoma attenuated tumor growth and metastasis, which was accompanied by increased serum levels of IL-17, IFN-?, and TNF-? and decreased IL-4. Tumor-bearing ST2-/- mice had significantly higher percentages of activated CD27high CD11bhigh NK cells, CD69+ and KLRG- NK cells and higher cytotoxic activity of splenocytes, NK cells, and CD8+ T cells in vitro. A significantly higher number of NK cells expressing IFN-? were found in ST2-/- mice compared with WT recipients. In vivo depletion of CD8+ or NK cells revealed a key role for NK cells in enhanced antitumor immunity in ST2-/- mice. We report for the first time that suppressed breast cancer progression and metastasis in mice lacking ST2 corresponds mainly with enhanced cytotoxic activity of NK cells, and increased systemic Th1/Th17 cytokines.
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Impaired basophil induction leads to an age-dependent innate defect in type 2 immunity during helminth infection in mice.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Parasitic-infection studies on rhesus macaque monkeys have shown juvenile animals to be more susceptible to infection than adults, but the immunological mechanism for this is not known. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent genesis of helminth-induced type 2 immune responses using adult (6-8-wk-old) and juvenile (21-28-d-old) mice. Following infection with the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, juvenile mice had increased susceptibility to infection relative to adult mice. Juvenile mice developed a delayed type 2 immune response with decreased Th2 cytokine production, IgE Ab responses, mouse mast cell protease 1 levels, and intestinal goblet cell induction. This innate immune defect in juvenile mice was independent of TLR signaling, dendritic cells, or CD4(+) cell function. Using IL-4-eGFP mice, it was demonstrated that the numbers of IL-4-producing basophil and eosinophils were comparable in young and adult naive mice; however, following helminth infection, the early induction of these cells was impaired in juvenile mice relative to older animals. In nonhelminth models, there was an innate in vivo defect in activation of basophils, but not eosinophils, in juvenile mice compared with adult animals. The specific role for basophils in this innate defect in helminth-induced type 2 immunity was confirmed by the capacity of adoptively transferred adult-derived basophils, but not eosinophils, to restore the ability of juvenile mice to expel N. brasiliensis. The defect in juvenile mice with regard to helminth-induced innate basophil-mediated type 2 response is relevant to allergic conditions.
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Innate IL-13-producing nuocytes arise during allergic lung inflammation and contribute to airways hyperreactivity.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 are thought to be central to the allergic asthmatic response. Previous work supposed that the essential source of these cytokines was CD4(+) T(H)2 cells. However, more recent studies have suggested that other innate production of type 2 cytokines might be as important.
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IL-33 activates B1 cells and exacerbates contact sensitivity.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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B1 B cells produce natural IgM and play a critical role in the early defense against bacterial and viral infection. The polyreactive IgM also contributes to the clearance of apoptotic products and plays an important role in autoimmune pathogenesis. However, the mechanism of activation and proliferation of B1 cells remains obscure. In this study, we report that IL-33, a new member of IL-1 family, activates B1 cells, which express the IL-33 receptor ?, ST2. IL-33 markedly activated B1 cell proliferation and enhanced IgM, IL-5, and IL-13 production in vitro and in vivo in a ST2-dependent manner. The IL-33-activated B1 cell functions could be largely abolished by IL-5 neutralization and partially reduced by T cell or mast cell deficiency in vivo. ST2-deficient mice developed less severe oxazolone-induced contact sensitivity (CS) than did wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, IL-33 treatment significantly exacerbated CS in WT mice with enhanced B1 cell proliferation and IgM and IL-5 production. Moreover, IL-33-activated B1 cells from WT mice could adoptively transfer enhanced CS in ST2(-/-) mice challenged with IL-33. Thus, we demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, a hitherto unrecognized mechanism of B1 cell activation and IL-33 function, and suggest that IL-33 may play an important role in delayed-type hypersensitivity.
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Nuocytes and beyond: new insights into helminth expulsion.
Trends Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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T helper 2 (Th2) responses, characterized by the expression of the type-2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, are essential for the control of parasitic helminth infections and also drive the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma. Such responses are initiated, maintained and regulated, in part, by an array of innate effector cells and cytokines. However, relatively little is known about how the initiation of type-2 immune responses occurs in vivo. The recent discovery, using helminth models, of several novel innate immune cells capable of shaping type-2 immune responses allows us to reflect on the progress made in this area. It also affords us the opportunity to highlight the diversity of immune responses that can be driven by innate cells responding rapidly to early cytokine cues.
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IL-9 production by regulatory T cells recruits mast cells that are essential for regulatory T cell-induced immune suppression.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2010
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Both mast cells (MCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) have gained attention as immunosuppressive cell populations. To investigate a possible interaction, we used the Th1- and Th17-dependent model of nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NTS), in which both MCs and Tregs have been shown to play a protective role. Transfer of wild-type (wt) Tregs into wt recipients almost completely prevents development of NTS and leads to a profound increase of MCs in the renal draining lymph nodes (LNs). By contrast, transfer of wt Tregs into animals deficient in MCs, which are characterized by an exaggerated susceptibility to NTS, no longer exhibited protective effects. Blocking the pleiotropic cytokine IL-9, known to be involved in MC recruitment and proliferation, by means of a mAb in mice receiving Tregs abrogated protection from NTS. Moreover, transfer of IL-9-deficient Tregs also failed to protect from NTS. In the absence of Treg-derived IL-9, MCs fail to accumulate in the LNs, despite the fact that IL-9 deficiency does not alter the general suppressive activity of Tregs. In summary, to our knowledge, we provide the first direct in vivo evidence that the nephroprotective, anti-inflammatory effects of Tregs critically depend on IL-9-mediated attraction of MCs into kidney-draining LNs.
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New insights into 5q- syndrome as a ribosomopathy.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2010
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Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of acquired clonal bone marrow disorders, characterised by ineffective hematopoiesis. The mechanisms underlying many of these blood disorders have remained elusive due to the difficulty in pinpointing specific gene mutations or haplo-insufficencies, which can occur within large deleted regions. However, there is an increasing interest in the classification of some of these diseases as ribosomopathies. Indeed, studies have implicated Ribosomal Protein (RP) S14 as a strong candidate for haploinsufficiency in 5q- syndrome, a particular form of MDS. Recently, two novel mouse models have provided evidence for the involvement of both RPS14 and the p53 pathway, and specific miRNAs in 5q- syndrome. In this review we will discuss: 5q- syndrome mouse models, the possible mechanisms underlying this blood disorder with respect to the candidate genes and comparisons with other ribosomopathies and the involvement of the p53 pathway in these diseases.
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Advances in the 5q- syndrome.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2010
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The 5q- syndrome is the most distinct of all the myelodysplastic syndromes with a clear genotype/phenotype relationship. The significant progress made during recent years has been based on the determination of the commonly deleted region and the demonstration of haploinsufficiency for the ribosomal gene RPS14. The functional screening of all the genes in the commonly deleted region determined that RPS14 haploinsufficiency is the probable cause of the erythroid defect in the 5q- syndrome. A mouse model of the human 5q- syndrome has now been created by chromosomal engineering involving a large-scale deletion of the Cd74-Nid67 interval (containing RPS14). A variety of lines of evidence support the model of ribosomal deficiency causing p53 activation and defective erythropoiesis, including most notably the crossing of the "5q- mice" with p53-deficient mice, thereby ameliorating the erythroid progenitor defect. Emerging evidence supports the notion that the p53 activation observed in the mouse model may also apply to the human 5q- syndrome. Other mouse modeling data suggest that haploinsufficiency of the microRNA genes miR-145 and miR-146a may contribute to the thrombocytosis seen in the 5q- syndrome. Lenalidomide has become an established therapy for the 5q- syndrome, although its precise mode of action remains uncertain.
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Interleukin-33 induces protective effects in adipose tissue inflammation during obesity in mice.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Chronic low-grade inflammation involving adipose tissue likely contributes to the metabolic consequences of obesity. The cytokine interleukin (IL)-33 and its receptor ST2 are expressed in adipose tissue, but their role in adipose tissue inflammation during obesity is unclear.
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Aromaticity of substituted fulvene derivatives: substituent-dependent ring currents.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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Fulvene is a non-aromatic molecule, but variation of the electron-donating/withdrawing power of substituents exo to the five-membered ring can drive the system between the extremes of aromatic and antiaromatic, as judged by prediction of fully developed diatropic and paratropic ring currents through ab initio calculations made at the ipsocentric 6-31G**/CTOCD-DZ CHF level.
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ISCOMATRIX() vaccines: Safety in human clinical studies.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
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ISCOMATRIX() adjuvant is a component of a variety of developmental vaccines. To evaluate the safety profile of ISCOMATRIX() adjuvant we have pooled and analyzed the safety data obtained from a number of vaccine development programs. Overall, the ISCOMATRIX() vaccines from studies included in the analysis were found to be safe and well tolerated, with no vaccine related deaths or Serious Adverse Events. A greater proportion of subjects who received ISCOMATRIX() vaccines experienced local and systemic reactogenicity compared with subjects who received placebo or active comparator, however this reactogenicity was generally mild, self-limiting and of short duration. Similar safety profiles were seen for each of these vaccines. To date, the ISCOMATRIX() vaccines have not been associated with events suggestive of autoimmune or allergic disorders. Specifically, analysis of the ISCOMATRIX() adjuvant adverse event database showed that there was no clustering of symptoms to suggest an allergic or autoimmune syndrome. Additionally, there were no reported autoimmune diagnoses and no events of anaphylaxis per se reported in any of the studies. Generally ISCOMATRIX() adjuvant did not adversely affect safety laboratory parameters and there was no clinically significant difference observed between studies or treatment groups. Studies using ISCOMATRIX() vaccines are ongoing and we continue to proactively analyze the safety of ISCOMATRIX() adjuvant.
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Tim-1 is induced on germinal centre B cells through B-cell receptor signalling but is not essential for the germinal centre response.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-1 (Tim-1) has been proposed to be an important T-cell immunoregulatory molecule since its expression on activated T cells was discovered. To study the role of Tim-1 on T cells in vitro and in vivo we generated both Tim-1-deficient mice and several lines of Tim-1 transgenic mice with Tim-1 expression on either T cells, or B and T cells. We demonstrate that neither deficiency nor over-expression of Tim-1 on B and T cells results in modulation of their proliferation in vitro. More surprisingly, T helper type 2 cells generated either from Tim-1-deficient mice or Tim-1 transgenic mice did not show enhancement of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-10 production. Furthermore, using a Schistosoma mansoni egg challenge as a potent T helper type 2 response inducer we also show that Tim-1 is not essential for T- and B-cell responses in vivo. However, we observe induction of Tim-1 on B cells following B-cell receptor (BCR), but not Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation in vitro. We show that the induction of Tim-1 on B cells following BCR stimulation is phosphoinositide-3 kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB pathway dependent. More importantly, we conclude that Tim-1 is predominantly expressed on germinal centre B cells in vivo although the percentage of germinal centre B cells in wild-type and Tim-1-deficient mice is comparable. Identification of Tim-1 as a marker for germinal centre B cells will contribute to the interpretation and future analysis of the effects of the anti-Tim-1 antibodies in vivo.
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Interleukin-33 attenuates sepsis by enhancing neutrophil influx to the site of infection.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory condition following bacterial infection with a high mortality rate and limited therapeutic options. Here we show that interleukin-33 (IL-33) reduces mortality in mice with experimental sepsis from cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). IL-33-treated mice developed increased neutrophil influx into the peritoneal cavity and more efficient bacterial clearance than untreated mice. IL-33 reduced the systemic but not the local proinflammatory response, and it did not induce a T helper type 1 (T(H)1) to T(H)2 shift. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 is crucial for recruitment of neutrophils from the circulation to the site of infection. Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in neutrophils downregulates CXCR2 expression and impairs neutrophil migration. We show here that IL-33 prevents the downregulation of CXCR2 and inhibition of chemotaxis induced by the activation of TLR4 in mouse and human neutrophils. Furthermore, we show that IL-33 reverses the TLR4-induced reduction of CXCR2 expression in neutrophils via the inhibition of expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2), a serine-threonine protein kinase that induces internalization of chemokine receptors. Finally, we find that individuals who did not recover from sepsis had significantly more soluble ST2 (sST2, the decoy receptor of IL-33) than those who did recover. Together, our results indicate a previously undescribed mechanism of action of IL-33 and suggest a therapeutic potential of IL-33 in sepsis.
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Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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Innate immunity provides the first line of defence against invading pathogens and provides important cues for the development of adaptive immunity. Type-2 immunity-responsible for protective immune responses to helminth parasites and the underlying cause of the pathogenesis of allergic asthma-consists of responses dominated by the cardinal type-2 cytokines interleukin (IL)4, IL5 and IL13 (ref. 5). T cells are an important source of these cytokines in adaptive immune responses, but the innate cell sources remain to be comprehensively determined. Here, through the use of novel Il13-eGFP reporter mice, we present the identification and functional characterization of a new innate type-2 immune effector leukocyte that we have named the nuocyte. Nuocytes expand in vivo in response to the type-2-inducing cytokines IL25 and IL33, and represent the predominant early source of IL13 during helminth infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. In the combined absence of IL25 and IL33 signalling, nuocytes fail to expand, resulting in a severe defect in worm expulsion that is rescued by the adoptive transfer of in vitro cultured wild-type, but not IL13-deficient, nuocytes. Thus, nuocytes represent a critically important innate effector cell in type-2 immunity.
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IL-33 exacerbates autoantibody-induced arthritis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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Rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis comprises dysregulation in both innate and adaptive immunity. There is therefore intense interest in the factors that integrate these immunologic pathways in rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, we report that IL-33, a novel member of the IL-1 family, can exacerbate anti-glucose-6-phosphate isomerase autoantibody-induced arthritis (AIA). Mice lacking ST2 (ST2(-/-)), the IL-33 receptor alpha-chain, developed attenuated AIA and reduced expression of articular proinflammatory cytokines. Conversely, treatment of wild-type mice with rIL-33 significantly exacerbated AIA and markedly enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production. However, IL-33 failed to increase the severity of the disease in mast cell-deficient or ST2(-/-) mice. Furthermore, mast cells from wild-type, but not ST2(-/-), mice restored the ability of ST2(-/-) recipients to mount an IL-33-mediated exacerbation of AIA. IL-33 also enhanced autoantibody-mediated mast cell degranulation in vitro and in synovial tissue in vivo. Together these results demonstrate that IL-33 can enhance autoantibody-mediated articular inflammation via promoting mast cell degranulation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Because IL-33 is derived predominantly from synovial fibroblasts, this finding provides a novel mechanism whereby a host tissue-derived cytokine can regulate effector adaptive immune response via enhancing innate cellular activation in inflammatory arthritis.
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C-type lectin SIGN-R1 has a role in experimental colitis and responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2010
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Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) function to maintain the balance between controlled responses to pathogens and uncontrolled innate immune activation leading to inflammation. In the context of commensal bacteria and the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease, although a role for the TLRs is known, there is a less defined function for C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). We demonstrate that mice deficient ((-/-)) in the CLR specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing nonintegrin homolog-related 1 (SIGN-R1) (CD209b) have reduced susceptibility to experimental colitis, with a reduction in the disease severity, colon damage, and levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6. To determine whether SIGN-R1(-/-) mice had a systemic defect in innate activation, we examined the responsiveness of macrophages from SIGN-R1(-/-) mice to TLR ligands. SIGN-R1(-/-) peritoneal macrophages, but not bone marrow-derived macrophages, have a specific defect in IL-1beta and IL-18 production, but not other cytokines, in response to the TLR4 ligand LPS. In vivo SIGN-R1(-/-) mice had significantly reduced susceptibility to LPS-induced shock. To address the synergistic relationship between SIGN-R1 and TLR4 in the context of experimental colitis, SIGN-R1/TLR4(-/-) mice were generated. SIGN-R1/TLR4(-/-) mice displayed reduced susceptibility to experimental colitis relative to severity of disease observed in wild-type or TLR4(-/-) mice. The in vivo use of a blocking mAb confirmed a functional role for SIGN-R1 in LPS-induced shock and experimental colitis. These data indicate a role for SIGN-R1 in the regulation of inflammation in a model of experimental colitis and illustrate that SIGN-R1 is a critical innate factor in response to LPS.
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A p53-dependent mechanism underlies macrocytic anemia in a mouse model of human 5q- syndrome.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2009
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The identification of the genes associated with chromosomal translocation breakpoints has fundamentally changed understanding of the molecular basis of hematological malignancies. By contrast, the study of chromosomal deletions has been hampered by the large number of genes deleted and the complexity of their analysis. We report the generation of a mouse model for human 5q- syndrome using large-scale chromosomal engineering. Haploinsufficiency of the Cd74-Nid67 interval (containing Rps14, encoding the ribosomal protein S14) caused macrocytic anemia, prominent erythroid dysplasia and monolobulated megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. These effects were associated with defective bone marrow progenitor development, the appearance of bone marrow cells expressing high amounts of the tumor suppressor p53 and increased bone marrow cell apoptosis. Notably, intercrossing with p53-deficient mice completely rescued the progenitor cell defect, restoring common myeloid progenitor and megakaryocytic-erythroid progenitor, granulocyte-monocyte progenitor and hematopoietic stem cell bone marrow populations. This mouse model suggests that a p53-dependent mechanism underlies the pathophysiology of the 5q- syndrome.
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A randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study to determine the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an HPV-16 therapeutic vaccine in HIV-positive participants with oncogenic HPV infection of the anus.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2009
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Study aimed to assess safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of novel therapeutic HPV-16 E6E7 ISCOMATRIX vaccine for treatment of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men who have sex with men with moderate immunosuppression.
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Exaggerated IL-17 response to epicutaneous sensitization mediates airway inflammation in the absence of IL-4 and IL-13.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by local and systemic T(H)2 responses to cutaneously introduced allergens and is a risk factor for asthma. Blockade of T(H)2 cytokines has been suggested as therapy for AD.
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A further application of the active time model to multiple concurrent variable-interval schedules.
Behav. Processes
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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In this experiment we show that the active time model (ATM) accurately predicts probe data from multiple concurrent VI VI schedules. Subjects were trained under a concurrent VI 30-s VI 60-s and a concurrent VI 60-s VI 120-s schedule. Two types of unreinforced probes were then conducted. The first paired the two VI 60-s stimuli. These stimuli, while equivalent in their associated absolute rates of reinforcement, differed in their relative rates of reinforcement. The second probe paired the VI 30-s stimulus with the relatively rich VI 60-s stimulus. In contrast with the first probe, these stimuli differed in their absolute rates of reinforcement, while being similar in their relative rates. During the first set of probes, birds preferred the VI 60-s stimulus trained with the VI 120-s schedule. During the second set of probes, birds were indifferent to the two stimuli. These results are less extreme than others reported in the literature. Nonetheless, we found that ATM accurately fit individual subject data in both sets of probes. In contrast a variant of scalar expectancy theory did not fit the data at either the individual or group level.
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IL-33 enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production from mouse macrophages by regulating lipopolysaccharide receptor complex.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
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Bacterial LPS triggers monocytes and macrophages to produce several inflammatory cytokines and mediators. However, once exposed to LPS, they become hyporesponsive to a subsequent endotoxin challenge. This phenomenon is defined as LPS desensitization or tolerance. Previous studies have identified some components of the biochemical pathways involved in negative modulation of LPS responses. In particular, it has been shown that the IL-1R-related protein ST2 could be implicated in LPS tolerance. The natural ligand of ST2 was recently identified as IL-33, a new member of the IL-1 family. In this study, we investigated whether IL-33 triggering of ST2 was able to induce LPS desensitization of mouse macrophages. We found that IL-33 actually enhances the LPS response of macrophages and does not induce LPS desensitization. We demonstrate that this IL-33 enhancing effect of LPS response is mediated by the ST2 receptor because it is not found in ST2 knockout mice. The biochemical consequences of IL-33 pretreatment of mouse macrophages were investigated. Our results show that IL-33 increases the expression of the LPS receptor components MD2 (myeloid differentiation protein 2) and TLR-4, the soluble form of CD14 and the MyD88 adaptor molecule. In addition, IL-33 pretreatment of macrophages enhances the cytokine response to TLR-2 but not to TLR-3 ligands. Thus, IL-33 treatment preferentially affects the MyD88-dependent pathway activated by the TLR.
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Bioluminescence imaging of human embryonic stem cells transplanted in vivo in murine and chick models.
Cloning Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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Research into the behavior, efficacy, and biosafety of stem cells with a view to clinical transplantation requires the development of noninvasive methods for in vivo imaging of cells transplanted into animal models. This is particularly relevant for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), because transplantation of undifferentiated hESCs leads to tumor formation. The present study aimed to monitor hESCs in real time when injected in vivo. hESCs were stably transfected to express luciferase, and luciferase expression was clearly detected in the undifferentiated and differentiated state. When transfected hESCs were injected into chick embryos, bioluminescence could be detected both ex and in ovo. In the SCID mouse model, undifferentiated hESCs were detectable after injection either into the muscle layer of the peritoneum or the kidney capsule. Tumors became detectable between days 10-30, with approximately a 3 log increase in the luminescence signal by day 75. The growth phase occurred earlier in the kidney capsule and then reached a plateau, whilst tumors in the peritoneal wall grew steadily throughout the period analysed. These results show the widespread utility of bioluminescent for in vivo imaging of hESCs in a variety of model systems for preclinical research into regenerative medicine and cancer biology.
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The cytokine interleukin-33 mediates anaphylactic shock.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2009
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Anaphylactic shock is characterized by elevated immunoglobulin-E (IgE) antibodies that signal via the high affinity Fc epsilon receptor (Fc epsilonRI) to release inflammatory mediators. Here we report that the novel cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33) potently induces anaphylactic shock in mice and is associated with the symptom in humans. IL-33 is a new member of the IL-1 family and the ligand for the orphan receptor ST2. In humans, the levels of IL-33 are substantially elevated in the blood of atopic patients during anaphylactic shock, and in inflamed skin tissue of atopic dermatitis patients. In murine experimental atopic models, IL-33 induced antigen-independent passive cutaneous and systemic anaphylaxis, in a T cell-independent, mast cell-dependent manner. In vitro, IL-33 directly induced degranulation, strong eicosanoid and cytokine production in IgE-sensitized mast cells. The molecular mechanisms triggering these responses include the activation of phospholipase D1 and sphingosine kinase1 to mediate calcium mobilization, Nuclear factor-kappaB activation, cytokine and eicosanoid secretion, and degranulation. This report therefore reveals a hitherto unrecognized pathophysiological role of IL-33 and suggests that IL-33 may be a potential therapeutic target for anaphylaxis, a disease of considerable unmet medical need.
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IL-25: a key requirement for the regulation of type-2 immunity.
Biofactors
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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It has been well-established that type-2 immunity, characterized by eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus production, and B cell class switching to IgE, is highly dependent on the production of the type-2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, by T helper 2 (Th2) cells. However, it is less clear how the type-2 cytokine effector response is induced and in addition what innate cell type produces the initiating factor. Recent reports highlight IL-25 as a type-2 inducing factor, with IL-25 administration resulting in severe gut and lung type-2 pathologies. The expression of IL-25 is also necessary for initiation of a robust type-2 response both at the genesis of the response, as with helminth infection, and during the response, as has been shown in experimental allergic asthma. It is also apparent that, as well as directly controlling type-2 immunity via IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, IL-25 may also interact with other cytokines and their receptors, such as IL-17A and the IL-17RA receptor. Here, we review the role of IL-25 as an important factor in controlling the initiation and severity of the type-2 response, and as an alternative therapeutic target to the type-2 cytokine family, for the treatment of allergic asthma. (c) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
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A critical role of SHP-1 in regulation of type 2 inflammation in the lung.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. Type 2 T helper (Th) cell-dominated inflammation in the lung is a hallmark of asthma. Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 is a negative regulator in the signaling pathways of many growth factor and cytokine receptors. However, a direct role of SHP-1 in the IL-4/IL-13 signaling pathway has not been established. In this study, we sought to define the function of SHP-1 in the lung by characterizing the pulmonary inflammation of viable motheaten (mev) mice, and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. Pulmonary histology, physiology, and cytokine expression of mev mice were analyzed to define the nature of the inflammation, and the gene-deletion approach was used to identify critical molecules involved. In mev mice, we observed spontaneous Th2-like inflammatory responses in the lung, including eosinophilia, mucus metaplasia, airway epithelial hypertrophy, pulmonary fibrosis, and increased airway resistance and airway hyperresponsiveness. The pulmonary phenotype was accompanied by up-regulation of Th2 cytokines and chemokines. Selective deletion of IL-13 or signal transducer and activator of transcription 6, key genes in the Th2 signaling pathway, significantly reduced, but did not completely eliminate, the inflammation in the lung. These findings suggest that SHP-1 plays a critical role in regulating the IL-4/IL-13 signaling pathway and in maintaining lung homeostasis.
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IL-9 promotes IL-13-dependent paneth cell hyperplasia and up-regulation of innate immunity mediators in intestinal mucosa.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2009
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IL-9 contributes to lung inflammatory processes such as asthma, by promoting mast cell differentiation, B cell activation, eosinophilia, and mucus production by lung epithelial cells. The observation that IL-9 overexpressing mice show increased mast cell numbers in the intestinal mucosa suggests that this cytokine might also play a role in intestinal inflammation. In colons from IL-9 transgenic mice, the expression of Muc2, a major intestinal mucin gene, was up-regulated, together with that of CLCA3 chloride channel and resistin like alpha, which are goblet cell-associated genes. Additional IL-9 up-regulated genes were identified and included innate immunity genes such as angiogenin 4 and the PLA2g2a phospholipase A(2), which are typical Paneth cell markers. Histochemical staining of Paneth cells by phloxine/tartrazine showed that IL-9 induces Paneth cell hyperplasia in Lieberkühn glands of the small intestine, and in the colonic mucosa, where this cell type is normally absent. Expression of Paneth cell markers, including angiogenin 4, PLA2g2a, and cryptdins, was induced in the colon of wild-type mice after two to four daily administrations of IL-9. By crossing IL-9 transgenic mice with IL-13(-/-) mice, or by injecting IL-9 into IL-4R(-/-) mice, we showed that IL-13 was required for the up-regulation of these Paneth cell-specific genes by IL-9. Taken together, our data indicate that Paneth cell hyperplasia and expression of their various antimicrobial products contribute to the immune response driven by TH2 cytokines, such as IL-9 and IL-13 in the intestinal mucosa.
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Pulmonary suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 induced by IL-13 regulates allergic asthma phenotype.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2009
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Th2 cytokines play an important role in allergic diseases. These cytokines activate signal transduction pathways, including Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling. Although the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family protein, a negative regulator of the Janus kinase/STAT signaling pathway, contributes to helper T cell differentiation during immune responses, the role of SOCS proteins within the structural cells of a target organ has not been clarified in allergy.
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