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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sex differences in perceived risk and testing experience of HIV in an urban fishing setting in Ghana.
Int J Equity Health
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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IntroductionUnderstanding sex differences in willingness to test and testing experience could aid the design of focus interventions to enhance uptake and engagement with care, treatment and support services. This study determined differences in perceived risk of acquiring HIV, willingness to test and HIV testing experience in an urban fishing community.MethodsA cross-sectional community survey was conducted in 2013 among men and women in two fishing communities (Chorkor and James Town) in Accra. In all, 554 subjects (¿18 years) were involved, 264 in Chorkor and 290 in James Town. Data on demographic characteristics, perceived risk for HIV and willingness to test for HIV and testing experience were collected with a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Chi square test were used for the analysis at 95% significant level, using SPSS version 21.ResultsOf 554 subjects, 329 (59.4%) were females, and median age was 32 years. Overall, only 91(40.4%) men and 118(35.9%) women perceived themselves to be at risk of acquiring HIV. A significant proportion of women were willing to test for HIV compared to men (86.3% vs. 80.0%, P¿=¿0.048). Women were more likely to have ever tested for HIV compared to men (42.2 % vs. 28.6%, P¿=¿0.001) and more women had tested within 12 months prior to survey than men (49.6% vs. 40.6%, P¿=¿0.230). Of the number who had tested for HIV infection, a higher proportion of men tested voluntarily 42(65.6%), while a higher proportion of women tested as part of healthcare service received 96(69.1%); (P =0.001; indicating women vs. men).ConclusionSex differences in risk perception and willingness to test need more focused public education and behaviour change communication strategies to achieve high coverage. Community-based strategies could improve HIV testing among men whilst more access to testing in health settings should be available to women in these communities.
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Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33.
Zhaoming Wang, Bin Zhu, Mingfeng Zhang, Hemang Parikh, Jinping Jia, Charles C Chung, Joshua N Sampson, Jason W Hoskins, Amy Hutchinson, Laurie Burdette, Abdisamad Ibrahim, Christopher Hautman, Preethi S Raj, Christian C Abnet, Andrew A Adjei, Anders Ahlbom, Demetrius Albanes, Naomi E Allen, Christine B Ambrosone, Melinda Aldrich, Pilar Amiano, Christopher Amos, Ulrika Andersson, Gerald Andriole, Irene L Andrulis, Cecilia Arici, Alan A Arslan, Melissa A Austin, Dalsu Baris, Donald A Barkauskas, Bryan A Bassig, Laura E Beane Freeman, Christine D Berg, Sonja I Berndt, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Richard B Biritwum, Amanda Black, William Blot, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Boffetta, Kelly Bolton, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Paige M Bracci, Paul Brennan, Louise A Brinton, Michelle Brotzman, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Julie E Buring, Mary Ann Butler, Qiuyin Cai, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Federico Canzian, Guangwen Cao, Neil E Caporaso, Alfredo Carrato, Tania Carreon, Angela Carta, Gee-Chen Chang, I-Shou Chang, Jenny Chang-Claude, Xu Che, Chien-Jen Chen, Chih-Yi Chen, Chung-Hsing Chen, Constance Chen, Kuan-Yu Chen, Yuh-Min Chen, Anand P Chokkalingam, Lisa W Chu, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Graham A Colditz, Joanne S Colt, David Conti, Michael B Cook, Victoria K Cortessis, E David Crawford, Olivier Cussenot, Faith G Davis, Immaculata De Vivo, Xiang Deng, Ti Ding, Colin P Dinney, Anna Luisa Di Stefano, W Ryan Diver, Eric J Duell, Joanne W Elena, Jin-Hu Fan, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Maria Feychting, Jonine D Figueroa, Adrienne M Flanagan, Joseph F Fraumeni, Neal D Freedman, Brooke L Fridley, Charles S Fuchs, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Steven Gallinger, Yu-Tang Gao, Susan M Gapstur, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Reina Garcia-Closas, Julie M Gastier-Foster, J Michael Gaziano, Daniela S Gerhard, Carol A Giffen, Graham G Giles, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Edward L Giovannucci, Michael Goggins, Nalan Gokgoz, Alisa M Goldstein, Carlos González, Richard Gorlick, Mark H Greene, Myron Gross, H Barton Grossman, Robert Grubb, Jian Gu, Peng Guan, Christopher A Haiman, Göran Hallmans, Susan E Hankinson, Curtis C Harris, Patricia Hartge, Claudia Hattinger, Richard B Hayes, Qincheng He, Lee Helman, Brian E Henderson, Roger Henriksson, Judith Hoffman-Bolton, Chancellor Hohensee, Elizabeth A Holly, Yun-Chul Hong, Robert N Hoover, H Dean Hosgood, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Ann W Hsing, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Nan Hu, Wei Hu, Zhibin Hu, Ming-Shyan Huang, David J Hunter, Peter D Inskip, Hidemi Ito, Eric J Jacobs, Kevin B Jacobs, Mazda Jenab, Bu-Tian Ji, Christoffer Johansen, Mattias Johansson, Alison Johnson, Rudolf Kaaks, Ashish M Kamat, Aruna Kamineni, Margaret Karagas, Chand Khanna, Kay-Tee Khaw, Christopher Kim, In-Sam Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Yeul Hong Kim, Young-Chul Kim, Young Tae Kim, Chang Hyun Kang, Yoo Jin Jung, Cari M Kitahara, Alison P Klein, Robert Klein, Manolis Kogevinas, Woon-Puay Koh, Takashi Kohno, Laurence N Kolonel, Charles Kooperberg, Christian P Kratz, Vittorio Krogh, Hideo Kunitoh, Robert C Kurtz, Nilgun Kurucu, Qing Lan, Mark Lathrop, Ching C Lau, Fernando Lecanda, Kyoung-Mu Lee, Maxwell P Lee, Loic Le Marchand, Seth P Lerner, Donghui Li, Linda M Liao, Wei-Yen Lim, Dongxin Lin, Jie Lin, Sara Lindstrom, Martha S Linet, Jolanta Lissowska, Jianjun Liu, Börje Ljungberg, Josep Lloreta, Daru Lu, Jing Ma, Nuria Malats, Satu Mannisto, Neyssa Marina, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Keitaro Matsuo, Katherine A McGlynn, Roberta Mckean-Cowdin, Lorna H McNeill, Robert R McWilliams, Beatrice S Melin, Paul S Meltzer, James E Mensah, Xiaoping Miao, Dominique S Michaud, Alison M Mondul, Lee E Moore, Kenneth Muir, Shelley Niwa, Sara H Olson, Nick Orr, Salvatore Panico, Jae Yong Park, Alpa V Patel, Ana Patiño-García, Sofia Pavanello, Petra H M Peeters, Beata Peplonska, Ulrike Peters, Gloria M Petersen, Piero Picci, Malcolm C Pike, Stefano Porru, Jennifer Prescott, Xia Pu, Mark P Purdue, You-Lin Qiao, Preetha Rajaraman, Elio Riboli, Harvey A Risch, Rebecca J Rodabough, Nathaniel Rothman, Avima M Ruder, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Marc Sanson, Alan Schned, Fredrick R Schumacher, Ann G Schwartz, Kendra L Schwartz, Molly Schwenn, Katia Scotlandi, Adeline Seow, Consol Serra, Massimo Serra, Howard D Sesso, Gianluca Severi, Hongbing Shen, Min Shen, Sanjay Shete, Kouya Shiraishi, Xiao-Ou Shu, Afshan Siddiq, Luis Sierrasesúmaga, Sabina Sierri, Alan Dart Loon Sihoe, Debra T Silverman, Matthias Simon, Melissa C Southey, Logan Spector, Margaret Spitz, Meir Stampfer, Pär Stattin, Mariana C Stern, Victoria L Stevens, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Daniel O Stram, Sara S Strom, Wu-Chou Su, Malin Sund, Sook Whan Sung, Anthony Swerdlow, Wen Tan, Hideo Tanaka, Wei Tang, Ze-Zhang Tang, Adonina Tardón, Evelyn Tay, Philip R Taylor, Yao Tettey, David M Thomas, Roberto Tirabosco, Anne Tjonneland, Geoffrey S Tobias, Jorge R Toro, Ruth C Travis, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Rebecca Troisi, Ann Truelove, Ying-Huang Tsai, Margaret A Tucker, Rosario Tumino, David Van Den Berg, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Kala Visvanathan, Ulla Vogel, Chaoyu Wang, Chengfeng Wang, Junwen Wang, Sophia S Wang, Elisabete Weiderpass, Stephanie J Weinstein, Nicolas Wentzensen, William Wheeler, Emily White, John K Wiencke, Alicja Wolk, Brian M Wolpin, Maria Pik Wong, Margaret Wrensch, Chen Wu, Tangchun Wu, Xifeng Wu, Yi-Long Wu, Jay S Wunder, Yong-Bing Xiang, Jun Xu, Hannah P Yang, Pan-Chyr Yang, Yasushi Yatabe, Yuanqing Ye, Edward D Yeboah, Zhihua Yin, Chen Ying, Chong-Jen Yu, Kai Yu, Jian-Min Yuan, Krista A Zanetti, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Wei Zheng, Baosen Zhou, Lisa Mirabello, Sharon A Savage, Peter Kraft, Stephen J Chanock, Meredith Yeager, Maria Terese Landi, Jianxin Shi, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Laufey T Amundadottir.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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A comprehensive resequence-analysis of 250 kb region of 8q24.21 in men of African ancestry.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified that a ?1?M region centromeric to the MYC oncogene on chromosome 8q24.21 harbors at least five independent loci associated with prostate cancer risk and additional loci associated with cancers of breast, colon, bladder, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Because GWAS identify genetic markers that may be indirectly associated with disease, fine-mapping based on sequence analysis provides important insights into patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and is critical in defining the optimal variants to nominate for biological follow-up.
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High prevalence of screen detected prostate cancer in West Africans: implications for racial disparity of prostate cancer.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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To our knowledge the reasons for the high rates of prostate cancer in black American men are unknown. Genetic and lifestyle factors have been implicated. Better understanding of prostate cancer rates in West African men would help clarify why black American men have such high rates since the groups share genetic ancestry and yet have different lifestyles and screening practices. To estimate the prostate cancer burden in West African men we performed a population based screening study with biopsy confirmation in Ghana.
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A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer.
Ali Amin Al Olama, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Sonja I Berndt, David V Conti, Fredrick Schumacher, Ying Han, Sara Benlloch, Dennis J Hazelett, Zhaoming Wang, Ed Saunders, Daniel Leongamornlert, Sara Lindstrom, Sara Jugurnauth-Little, Tokhir Dadaev, Malgorzata Tymrakiewicz, Daniel O Stram, Kristin Rand, Peggy Wan, Alex Stram, Xin Sheng, Loreall C Pooler, Karen Park, Lucy Xia, Jonathan Tyrer, Laurence N Kolonel, Loic Le Marchand, Robert N Hoover, Mitchell J Machiela, Merideth Yeager, Laurie Burdette, Charles C Chung, Amy Hutchinson, Kai Yu, Chee Goh, Mahbubl Ahmed, Koveela Govindasami, Michelle Guy, Teuvo L J Tammela, Anssi Auvinen, Tiina Wahlfors, Johanna Schleutker, Tapio Visakorpi, Katri A Leinonen, Jianfeng Xu, Markus Aly, Jenny Donovan, Ruth C Travis, Tim J Key, Afshan Siddiq, Federico Canzian, Kay-Tee Khaw, Atsushi Takahashi, Michiaki Kubo, Paul Pharoah, Nora Pashayan, Maren Weischer, Borge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Peter Klarskov, Martin Andreas Røder, Peter Iversen, Stephen N Thibodeau, Shannon K McDonnell, Daniel J Schaid, Janet L Stanford, Suzanne Kolb, Sarah Holt, Beatrice Knudsen, Antonio Hurtado Coll, Susan M Gapstur, W Ryan Diver, Victoria L Stevens, Christiane Maier, Manuel Luedeke, Kathleen Herkommer, Antje E Rinckleb, Sara S Strom, Curtis Pettaway, Edward D Yeboah, Yao Tettey, Richard B Biritwum, Andrew A Adjei, Evelyn Tay, Ann Truelove, Shelley Niwa, Anand P Chokkalingam, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Cezary Cybulski, Dominika Wokołorczyk, Wojciech Kluźniak, Jong Park, Thomas Sellers, Hui-Yi Lin, William B Isaacs, Alan W Partin, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Christa Stegmaier, Constance Chen, Edward L Giovannucci, Jing Ma, Meir Stampfer, Kathryn L Penney, Lorelei Mucci, Esther M John, Sue A Ingles, Rick A Kittles, Adam B Murphy, Hardev Pandha, Agnieszka Michael, Andrzej M Kierzek, William Blot, Lisa B Signorello, Wei Zheng, Demetrius Albanes, Jarmo Virtamo, Stephanie Weinstein, Barbara Nemesure, John Carpten, Cristina Leske, Suh-Yuh Wu, Anselm Hennis, Adam S Kibel, Benjamin A Rybicki, Christine Neslund-Dudas, Ann W Hsing, Lisa Chu, Phyllis J Goodman, Eric A Klein, S Lilly Zheng, Jyotsna Batra, Judith Clements, Amanda Spurdle, Manuel R Teixeira, Paula Paulo, Sofia Maia, Chavdar Slavov, Radka Kaneva, Vanio Mitev, John S Witte, Graham Casey, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Daniella Seminara, Elio Riboli, Freddie C Hamdy, Gerhard A Coetzee, Qiyuan Li, Matthew L Freedman, David J Hunter, Kenneth Muir, Henrik Grönberg, David E Neal, Melissa Southey, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, , Michael B Cook, Hidewaki Nakagawa, Fredrik Wiklund, Peter Kraft, Stephen J Chanock, Brian E Henderson, Douglas F Easton, Rosalind A Eeles, Christopher A Haiman.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of > 10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease.
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A genome-wide association study of prostate cancer in West African men.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Age-adjusted mortality rates for prostate cancer are higher for African-American men compared with those of European ancestry. Recent data suggest that West African men also have elevated risk for prostate cancer relative to European men. Genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer could account for part of this difference. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of prostate cancer in West African men in the Ghana Prostate Study. Association testing was performed using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age and genetic ancestry for 474 prostate cancer cases and 458 population-based controls on the Illumina HumanOmni-5 Quad BeadChip. The most promising association was at 10p14 within an intron of a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA RP11-543F8.2) 360 kb centromeric of GATA3 (p = 1.29E-7). In sub-analyses, SNPs at 5q31.3 were associated with high Gleason score (?7) cancers, the strongest of which was a missense SNP in PCDHA1 (rs34575154, p = 3.66E-8), and SNPs at Xq28 (rs985081, p = 8.66E-9) and 6q21 (rs2185710, p = 5.95E-8) were associated with low Gleason score (<7) cancers. We sought to validate our findings in silico in the African Ancestry Prostate Cancer GWAS Consortium, but only one SNP, at 10p14, replicated at p < 0.05. Of the 90 prostate cancer loci reported from studies of men of European, Asian or African-American ancestry, we were able to test 81 in the Ghana Prostate Study, and 10 of these replicated at p < 0.05. Further genetic studies of prostate cancer in West African men are needed to confirm our promising susceptibility loci.
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Intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine against malaria and anemia in pregnant women.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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The effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) against malaria and anemia is unclear because of the spread of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. This study evaluates the effectiveness of IPTp-SP among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. A cross-sectional study comparing malaria and anemia prevalence among pregnant women using IPTp-SP with non-IPTp-SP users was conducted during June-August 2009. A total of 363 pregnant women (202 of IPTp users and 161 non-IPTp users) were recruited. A total of 15.3% of IPTp users had malaria compared with 44.7% of non-IPTp users (P < 0.001). A total of 58.4% of non-IPTp users were anemic compared with 22.8% of IPTp users (P < 0.001). When we controlled for other variables, the difference in the prevalence of malaria (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval = 0.08-0.37) and anemia (odds ratio = 0.20, 95% confidence interval = 0.12-0.34) remained significant. The recommended IPTp-SP regimen is useful in preventing malaria and anemia among pregnant women in Ghana.
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High prevalence of polyclonal hypergamma-globulinemia in adult males in Ghana, Africa.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Chronic antigenic stimulation is associated with hypergamma-globulinemia. Higher rates of hypergamma-globulinemia in tropical populations are maintained even with migration to temperate regions. We conducted a population-based screening study to assess the prevalence and risk factors for hypergamma-globulinemia in Ghana, Africa. 917 Ghanaian males (50-74 years) underwent in-person interviews and health examinations. Serum from all persons was analyzed by electrophoresis performed on agarose gel; serum with a discrete/localized band was subjected to immunofixation. 54 persons with monoclonal proteins were excluded and 17 samples were insufficient for analysis. Using logistic regression and Chi-square statistics we analyzed patterns of hypergamma-globulinemia. Among 846 study subjects, the median ?-globulin level was 1.86 g/dL. On the basis of a U.S. reference, 616 (73%) had hypergamma-globulinemia (>1.6 g/dL) and 178 (21%) had ?-globulin levels >2.17 gm/dl. On multivariate analyses, lower education status (P = 0.0013) and never smoking (P = 0.038) were associated with increased ?-globulin levels. Self-reported history of syphilis was associated with hypergamma-globulinemia. We conclude that three quarters of this population-based adult Ghanaian male sample had hypergamma-globulinemia with ?-globulin levels >1.6 g/dL. Future studies are needed to uncover genetic and environmental underpinnings of our finding, and to define the relationship between hypergamma-globulinemia, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and multiple myeloma.
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Unexpected elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase levels and hepatitis E virus infection among persons who work with pigs in accra, Ghana.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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Several studies have suggested that elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and asparte aminotransferase (AST) may be markers of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. Thus, individuals with elevated ALT and AST may have ongoing subclinical infection of HEV. We estimated the prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and serum ALT and AST levels among persons who work with pigs in Accra, Ghana.
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Identification of Intrinsic Airway Acidification in Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
Glob J Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
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Exhaled breath condensate acidification reflects the presence of airway acidification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an organism particularly sensitive to acidity. We aimed to determine if there is evidence of airway acidification in a cross section of patients with active tuberculosis.We enrolled 51 subjects with active tuberculosis in Ghana and Thailand, and compared them to control subjects. We collected exhaled breath condensate, and assayed for pH after gas standardization.Exhaled breath condensate pH from the control group revealed a median of 7.9 (7.7 - 8.0, n = 21), significantly higher than the active pulmonary tuberculosis patients who had a median pH of 7.4 (7.0 - 7.7; n = 51; p=0.002). Presence or absence of antibiotic therapy did not affect EBC pH values.These exhaled breath condensate data support the theory that airways become acidic in active tuberculosis infection. This may be a mechanism of immune response and pathology not previously considered.
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Elevated levels of IL-10 and G-CSF associated with asymptomatic malaria in pregnant women.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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In sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 30 million pregnant women are at risk of contracting malaria annually. Nearly 36% of healthy pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care tested positive for Plasmodium falciparum HRP-II antigen in Ghana. We tested the hypothesis that asymptomatic HRP II positive pregnant women expressed a unique Th1 and Th2 phenotype that differs from healthy controls. Plasma from healthy (n = 15) and asymptomatic (n = 25) pregnant women were evaluated for 27 biomarkers (IL-1b, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL- 17, Eotaxin, bFGF-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, PDGF-bb, RANTES, TNF, and VEGF) associated with Th1 and Th2 cytokine homeostasis. IL-10 and G-CSF levels were elevated in the asymptomatic group when compared with the healthy group (P = .031 and .041, resp.). The median ratios of IL-1beta:5, IL-1beta:10, IL-1beta:G-CSF, IL-1beta:Eotaxin, IL-12:G-CSF, IL-15:10, IL-17:G-CSF, IL-17:Eotaxin, TNF:IL-4, TNF:IL-5, and TNF:G-CSF were significantly different among the two groups. Thus, asymptomatic malaria carriage may be linked to circulating levels of IL-10 and G-CSF.
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Bacterial contamination of blood and blood components in three major blood transfusion centers, Accra, Ghana.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2009
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Reports from studies conducted in several countries indicate a high incidence of bacterial contamination of donor blood. The prevalence of bacterial contamination of blood and its products in Ghana is not known. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bacterial contamination of blood and its products at the three major blood transfusion centers in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Stored whole blood and its products were cultured on different media, and isolates were identified using standard biochemical and bacteriological methods. The susceptibility of the isolates to selected antimicrobial agents was also determined by the disc diffusion method. The overall prevalence rate was 9% (28/303; whole blood, 13% [24/192]; plasma, 3% [2/79]; platelet, 9% [2/22]). The Gram-positive bacteria isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, S. aureus, and Bacillus spp., and the Gram-negative organisms were Yersinia enterocolitica, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The Gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to cloxacillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin but resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, cefuroxime, and cotrimoxazole, while the Gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to amikacin and gentamicin but resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime (except Y. enterocolitica), and cotrimoxazole. Our results suggest that bacterial contamination of blood and its products is prevalent in Ghana.
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Hepatitis E virus infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana.
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Pregnancy outcomes among patients with sickle cell disease at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana: retrospective cohort study.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Pregnancy in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients is associated with increased risk of maternal and fetal mortality. This study determines pregnancy outcomes among women with SCD delivering at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Nine hundred sixty (960) medical records of pregnant women (131 HbSS, 112 HbSC, and 717 comparison group) from 2007 to 2008 were reviewed. The HbSS women were at increased risk of eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 10.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.60-30.96, P < 0.001), intrauterine growth restriction (AOR = 4.00, 95% CI = 1.38-11.64, P = 0.011), and placenta previa (AOR = 22.03, 95% CI = 9.87-49.14, P < 0.001) compared with the comparison group. The HbSC women had increased risk for intrauterine fetal death (AOR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.15-9.96, P = 0.027) and decreased risk of delivering low birth weight babies (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06-0.73, P = 0.014). Women with SCD in Ghana are at a greater risk of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy compared with women without hemoglobinopathies. Improved maternal and fetal outcomes in Ghanaian women with SCD can be achieved through effective intervention by health care providers with thorough knowledge about predisposing factors toward adverse outcomes.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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