The nasal mucosa is the first contact with antigens to induce IgA response. The role of this site has rarely been studied. We have shown than intranasal administration with Naegleria fowleri lysates plus Cholera toxin (CT) increased the protection (survival up to 100%) against N. fowleri infection in mice and apparently antibodies IgA and IgG together with polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells avoid the attachment of N. fowleri to apical side of the nasal epithelium. We also observed that nasal immunization resulted in the induction of antigen-specific IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2a) in nasal washes at days 3 and 9 after the challenge and IgA and IgG in the nasal cavity, compared to healthy and infected mice. We found that immunization with both treatments, N. fowleri lysates plus CT or CT alone, increased the expression of the genes for alpha chain, its receptor (pIgR), and it also increased the expression of the corresponding proteins evidenced by the ?65 and ?74kDa bands, respectively. Since the production of pIgR, IgA and IgG antibodies, is up-regulated by some factors, we analyzed the expression of genes for IL-10, IL-6, IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-1? by using RT-PCR of nasal passages. Immunization resulted in an increased expression of IL-10, IL-6, and IFN-? cytokines. We also aimed to examine the possible influences of immunization and challenge on the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?). We observed that the stimulus of immunization inhibits the production of TNF-? compared to the infected group where the infection without immunization causes an increase in it. Thus, it is possible that the coexistence of selected cytokines produced by our immunization model may provide a highly effective immunological environment for the production of IgA, IgG and pIgR as well as a strong activation of the PMN in mucosal effector tissue such as nasal passages.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on metabolic state and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese adolescents. Obese adolescents (n = 26, 10 girls and 16 boys) aged 12.4 ± 2.1 years were assigned to a 12-week regimen of n-3 PUFA intake. Five times per day, subjects received a food supplement consisting of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (3 g per day, 944 mg EPA, and 2,088 mg DHA). Blood parameters were measured, and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were analyzed to determine gene expression at baseline and after 12 weeks. Students t test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to estimate differences in arithmetic means of pre- and post-dietary supplementation for various anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and gene expression parameters. After 12 weeks, n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with decreased body mass index (29.7 ± 4.6 vs. 27.8 ± 4.4 kg/m(2); P < 0.001), waist circumference (93.2 ± 9.9 vs. 90.5 ± 10.0 cm; P < 0.003), hip circumference (102.9 ± 10.9 vs. 101.1 ± 10.9 cm; P < 0.014), and blood triglyceride levels (220.8 ± 27.4 vs. 99.7 ± 32.7 mg/dL; P < 0.001). Fatty acid supplementation/n3 PUFA supplementation was associated with a downregulated expression of the genes encoding PPAR? and PGC-1? (P < 0.001), and an upregulated expression of the genes encoding PPAR? (P < 0.007) and SREBP1 (P < 0.021). The expressions of SOD2 (P < 0.04), CAT (P < 0.001), GPX3 (P < 0.032) and HIF-1? protein also decreased. Our study demonstrated that n-3 PUFA consumption and dietary restriction improved the anthropometric parameters and decreased the triglycerides levels of the adolescents, suggesting a reduction in hypoxia in subcutaneous adipose tissue.
Malnutrition is a common cause of secondary immune deficiency and has been linked to an increased susceptibility to infection in humans. Malnutrition specifically affects T-cell-mediated immune responses. The aim of this study was to assess in lymphocytes from malnourished children the expression levels of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21, molecules that induce the differentiation of T cells related to the immunological cellular response (Th1 response) and the production of cytokines related to the immunological cellular response (Th1 cytokines). We found that the expression levels of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21 were significantly diminished in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children and were coincident with lower plasmatic levels of IL-2 and IFN-? (Th1 cytokines). In this study, we show for the first time that the gene expression and intracellular production of cytokines responsible for Th1 cell differentiation (IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21) are diminished in malnourished children. As expected, this finding was related to lower plasmatic levels of IL-2 and IFN-?. The decreased expression of Th1 cytokines observed in this study may contribute to the deterioration of the immunological Type 1 (cellular) response. We hypothesize that the decreased production of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21 in malnourished children contributes to their inability to eradicate infections.
Cadmium (Cd(2+)) produces toxic effects on various tissues as kidney and liver, so several studies have focused to explore the effect produced by different doses and exposure times of this metal. However, little has been reported about the effect that Cd(2+) shows in the brain in vivo. Hence, this study aimed at comparing the effect of chronic Cd(2+) exposure on antioxidant defense systems of kidney and brain in rats. Six groups of male rats were employed; five were administered for 45 days with different doses of cadmium chloride (0.187, 0.375, 0.562, 0.937 and 1.125?mg/kg; i.p.) and the other was used as control. Free radicals (FRs) were directly quantified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy; malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and catalase (CAT) were also measured. The EPR results showed that there was no increase in FR content in kidney or brain. MDA and GSH levels increased in kidney but not in the brain. The SOD2 activity was not altered, but its expression decreased in both tissues. On the other hand, CAT activity and expression tended to increase at low doses and decrease at high doses in both tissues. Therefore, these results suggest that there exist compensatory mechanisms in both kidney and brain that are capable of avoiding the toxic effects exerted by Cd(2+) at these doses and exposure time.
Although caloric restriction (CR) apparently has beneficial effects on the immune system, its effects on the immunological function of the intestinal mucosa are little known. The present study explored the effect of CR on the innate and adaptive intestinal immunity of mice. Balb/c mice were either fed ad libitum (control) or on alternate days fed ad libitum and fasted (caloric restriction). After 4 months, an evaluation was made of IgA levels in the ileum, the gene expression for IgA and its receptor (pIgR), as well as the expression of two antimicrobial enzymes (lysozyme and phospholipase A2) and several cytokines of the intestinal mucosa. CR increased the gene expression of lysozyme and phospholipase A2. The levels of IgA were diminished in the ileum, which apparently was a consequence of the reduced transport of IgA by pIgR. In ileum, CR increased the gene expression for most cytokines, both pro- and anti-inflammatory. Hence, CR differentially modified the expression of innate and adaptive immunity mediators in the intestine.
It is well known that CR (caloric restriction) reduces oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. However, information concerning the effect of CR on the host response to infection is sparse. In this study, 6-month-old mice that were fed AL (ad libitum) or with a CR diet were infected with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium. EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance; also known as ESR (electron spin resonance)) was used to identify FRs (free radicals). These results were subsequently correlated with SOD (superoxide dismutase) catalytic activity, iNOS [inducible NOS (nitric oxide synthase) or NOSII] expression and NO (nitric oxide) content. EPR analysis of liver samples demonstrated that there was a higher quantity of FRs and iron-nitrosyl complex in infected mice provided with a CR diet as compared with those on an AL diet, indicating that CR was beneficial by increasing the host response to Salmonella Typhimurium. Furthermore, in infected mice on the CR diet, NOSII expression was higher, NO content was greater and spleen colonization was lower, compared with mice on the AL diet. No changes in SOD activity were detected, indicating that the NO produced participated more in the formation of iron-nitrosyl complexes than peroxynitrite. These results suggest that CR exerts a protective effect against Salmonella Typhimurium infection by increasing NO production.
Influenza viruses pose a threat to human health because of their potential to cause global disease. Between mid March and mid April a pandemic influenza A virus emerged in Mexico. This report details 202 cases of infection of humans with the 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1)v which occurred in Mexico City as well as the spread of the virus throughout the entire country.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caloric restriction (CR) in mouse small intestine on the production and secretion of immunoglobulin (Ig) A, the population of lymphocytes in the lamina propria, and the expression of cytokines that mediate and regulate innate and adaptive immunity. One group of young Balb/c mice was fed ad libitum, while the CR group was fed ad libitum and fasted on alternate days. When mice were six months old, IgA levels in the proximal small intestine were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while the number of IgA containing cells, CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells in the duodenal mucosa was determined by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the expression of several intestinal cytokines, the genes for ?-chain IgA, and the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CR decreased the levels of IgA in the intestine, apparently a consequence of a reduced number of IgA(+) cells in the lamina propria that decrease the production and secretion of this Ig, and a reduced secretion of S-IgA into the bile, which in turn discharges into the proximal intestine. Contrarily, CR increased the expression of genes for ?-chain IgA, and the pIgR, indicating that transport of IgA was not a key factor in the decrease of this Ig. Additionally, CR modified the expression of genes for tumor necrosis factor-?, interferon-?, tumor growth factor-?, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-10, all of which regulate the synthesis of IgA and pIgR, the inflammatory response, and the immune response in the intestine.
In March 2009, public health surveillance detected increased numbers of influenza-like illness presenting to hospitals in Mexico City. The aetiological agent was subsequently determined to be a novel influenza A (H1N1) triple reassortant, which has spread worldwide. As a consequence the World Health Organisation has declared the first Influenza pandemic of the 21st century.
The most abundant intestinal immunoglobulin and first line of specific immunological defense against environmental antigens is secretory immunoglobulin A. To better understand the effect of repeated stress on the secretion of intestinal IgA, the effects of restraint stress on IgA concentration and mRNA expression of the gene for the alpha-chain of IgA was assessed in both the duodenum and ileum of the rats. Restraint stress induced an increase in intestinal IgA, which was blocked by an adrenalectomy, suggesting a role of catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Whereas the blocking of glucocorticoid receptors by RU-486 did not affect the increased IgA concentration, it did reduce IgA alpha-chain mRNA expression in both segments, indicating a possible mediation on the part of glucocorticoids in IgA secretion by individual cells. Treatment with corticosterone significantly increased both the IgA concentration and IgA alpha-chain mRNA expression in ileum but not in duodenum, suggesting that glucocorticoids may act directly on IgA-antibody forming cells to increase IgA secretion in the former segment. A probable role by catecholamines was evidenced by the reduction in IgA concentration and IgA alpha-chain mRNA expression in both segments after a chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Additionally, norepinephrine significantly reduced IgA alpha-chain mRNA levels but increased pIgR mRNA expression and IgA concentration in both intestinal segments. We propose that the increased intestinal IgA levels caused by repeated restraint stress is likely due to the effects of catecholamines on the transport of plgA across the epithelium.
Few reports exist on the differences in cell populations or immunological functions between the proximal and distal segments of the small intestine (SI). In the current contribution we analyzed the expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and alpha chains as well as the density of IgA-producing cells from the proximal and distal intestinal segments from Balb/c mice. Furthermore, by using real-time RT-PCR we quantified the expression of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-4 and TGF-beta), Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) involved in pIgR expression in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). In this study, for the first time it has been demonstrated that the expression of the pIgR as well as alpha chain was greater in the proximal than the distal segment of the small intestine of normal mice. Moreover, we found striking differences in the expression of cytokines at the different intestinal compartments. Whereas the expression of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta was higher in lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) of the distal than proximal segment, it was higher in IEC of the proximal than distal segment. In contrast, the expression of the gene for IL-4 was higher in the LPL of the proximal segment and the IEC of the distal segment. Although the overall expression of TNF-alpha, IL-4, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta was higher in the whole mucosa of the distal than proximal segment, we propose that cytokines produced by epithelial cells (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta) autocrinally up-regulate the expression of mRNA for the pIgR. Finally the expression of the GR was higher in the proximal segment, while the expression of the gene for TLR-4 was significantly higher in the IEC of the distal than proximal segment. The higher expression of pIgR found in the proximal segment is probably related to the effect on epithelial cells of the higher production of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta, as well as the higher expression of the glucocorticoid receptors. The increased expression of pIgR in the proximal segment appears primarily responsible for the increased secretory IgA levels in the small intestine of mice. These results confirm and extend previous findings supporting the compartmentalization of the intestinal immune system.
Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays a central role in the inter-organ metabolism of ammonia and hepatic encephalopathy. The main objective of the present work was to disclose the possible effect of exercise on GS mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) within a group of healthy volunteers.
A comparison was made of the effects of levamisole, the bacterial fractions of Staphylococcus, and Freunds adjuvant on the immunization of rats with the excretory and secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. Wistar rats were immunized with the antigen and a saline solution, levamisole (LV), Staphylococcus (ST), or Freunds adjuvant (FA). After immunization, rats were infected, and the parasite burden at muscular phase was calculated for each group. Levels of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies, as well as levels of two cytokines, IL-4 and IFN-?, were evaluated during the immunization and postinfection periods. Differences were found in the kinetics of antibody production between groups (p < 0.01). In all cases, there was reactivity with the main 45-, 50-, and 55-kDa antigens of Trichinella muscle larvae. Immunization with FA and ST enhanced the production of IgG1, but only FA showed a significant increase in the production of IFN-? (p < 0.01), resulting in 86% protection against the infection. In contrast, only 60-70% protection was attained in the ST and LV groups (p < 0.01). These data support the idea that levamisole and Staphylococcus can be used as adjuvant to enhance the humoral response and, at the same time, demonstrate that IFN-? could be involved in protection against Trichinella.
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