We present a systematic study for investigating the role of exposed hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles in influencing surface characteristics and mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell behavior using nanocomposites prepared by photo-crosslinking poly(?-caprolactone) diacrylate (PCLDA) with HA. PCLDA530 and PCLDA2000 synthesized from poly(?-caprolactone) diol precursors with nominal molecular weights of 530 and 2000 g mol(-1) were used as the polymer matrices. Crosslinked PCLDA530 was amorphous while crosslinked PCLDA2000 was semi-crystalline. Crosslinked PCLDA/HA composites with different compositions of HA (10%, 20% and 30%) as well as crosslinked PCLDAs were characterized in terms of their composition-dependent physicochemical properties. The tensile, compressive and shear moduli were greatly enhanced by incorporating HA nanoparticles with the polymer matrices. The disk surfaces of original crosslinked PCLDA/HA nanocomposites were removed by cutting using a blade to expose HA nanoparticles that were embedded in the polymer substrates. The composition of HA was much higher on the cut surface, particularly in semi-crystalline crosslinked PCLDA2000/HA nanocomposites. The surface characteristics of original and cut crosslinked PCLDA/HA nanocomposites were compared and correlated with cell behavior on these nanocomposites. MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation were significantly enhanced when the HA composition was increased in original crosslinked PCLDA/HA nanocomposites due to more bioactive HA, higher surface stiffness and rougher topography. More exposed HA on the surface of cut semi-crystalline PCLDA2000/HA nanocomposites resulted in improved hydrophilicity and significantly better MC3T3 cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation compared with the original surfaces. This study suggests that HA nanoparticles may not be fully exploited in polymer/HA nanocomposites where the top polymer surface covers the particles. The removal of this polymer layer can generate more desirable surfaces and osteoconductivity for bone repair and regeneration.
Chaetomium globosum Kunze:Fr is a dermatophytic, dematiaceous fungus that is ubiquitous in soils, grows readily on cellulolytic materials, and is commonly found on water-damaged building materials. Chlorate affects nitrogen metabolism in fungi and is used to study compatibility among anamorphic fungi by inducing nit mutants. The effect of chlorate toxicity on C. globosum was investigated by amending a modified malt extract agar (MEA), oat agar, and carboxymethyl cellulose agar (CMC) with various levels of potassium chlorate (KClO(3)). C. globosum perithecia production was almost completely inhibited (90-100 %) at low levels of KClO(3) (0.1 mM) in amended MEA. Inhibition of perithecia production was also observed on oat agar and CMC at 1 and 10 mM, respectively. However, hyphal growth in MEA was only inhibited 20 % by 0.1-100 mM KClO(3) concentrations. Hyphal growth was never completely inhibited at the highest levels tested (200 mM). Higher levels of KClO(3) were needed on gypsum board to inhibit perithecia synthesis. In additional experiments, KClO(3) did not inhibit C. globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillum expansum, and airborne fungal spore germination. The various fungal spores were not inhibited by KClO(3) at 1-100 mM levels. These results suggest that C. globosum perithecia synthesis is more sensitive to chlorate toxicity than are hyphal growth and spore germination. This research provides basic information that furthers our understanding about perithecia formation and may help in developing control methods for fungal growth on building materials.
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