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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
In vivo effects of horse and rabbit antithymocyte globulin in patients with severe aplastic anemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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We recently reported that rabbit antithymocyte globulin was markedly inferior to horse antithymocyte globulin as a primary treatment for severe aplastic anemia. Here we expand on our findings in this unique cohort of patients. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin was detectable in plasma for longer periods than horse antithymocyte globulin; rabbit antithymocyte globulin in plasma retained functional capacity to bind to lymphocytes for up to 1 month, horse antithymocyte globulin for only about 2 weeks. In the first week after treatment there were much lower numbers of neutrophils in patients treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin than in patients receiving horse antithymocyte globulin. Both antithymocyte globulins induced a "cytokine storm" in the first 2 days after administration. Compared with horse antithymocyte globulin, rabbit antithymocyte globulin was associated with higher levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 during the first 3 weeks. Besides a much lower absolute number and a lower relative frequency of CD4(+) T cells, rabbit antithymocyte globulin induced higher frequencies of CD4(+)CD38(+), CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells, and B cells than did horse antithymocyte globulin. Serum sickness occurred around 2 weeks after infusion of both types of antithymocyte globulin. Human anti-antithymocyte globulin antibodies, especially of the IgM subtype, correlated with serum sickness, which appeared concurrently with clearance of antithymocyte globulin in blood and with the production of cytokines. In conclusion, rabbit and horse antithymocyte globulins have very different pharmacokinetics and effects on neutrophils, lymphocyte subsets, and cytokine release. These differences may be related to their efficacy in suppressing the immune system and restoring hematopoiesis in bone marrow failure. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00260689.
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An activating NLRC4 inflammasome mutation causes autoinflammation with recurrent macrophage activation syndrome.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Inflammasomes are innate immune sensors that respond to pathogen- and damage-associated signals with caspase-1 activation, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18 secretion, and macrophage pyroptosis. The discovery that dominant gain-of-function mutations in NLRP3 cause the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) and trigger spontaneous inflammasome activation and IL-1? oversecretion led to successful treatment with IL-1-blocking agents. Herein we report a de novo missense mutation (c.1009A > T, encoding p.Thr337Ser) affecting the nucleotide-binding domain of the inflammasome component NLRC4 that causes early-onset recurrent fever flares and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Functional analyses demonstrated spontaneous inflammasome formation and production of the inflammasome-dependent cytokines IL-1? and IL-18, with the latter exceeding the levels seen in CAPS. The NLRC4 mutation caused constitutive caspase-1 cleavage in cells transduced with mutant NLRC4 and increased production of IL-18 in both patient-derived and mutant NLRC4-transduced macrophages. Thus, we describe a new monoallelic inflammasome defect that expands the monogenic autoinflammatory disease spectrum to include MAS and suggests new targets for therapy.
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Global analyses of human immune variation reveal baseline predictors of postvaccination responses.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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A major goal of systems biology is the development of models that accurately predict responses to perturbation. Constructing such models requires the collection of dense measurements of system states, yet transformation of data into predictive constructs remains a challenge. To begin to model human immunity, we analyzed immune parameters in depth both at baseline and in response to influenza vaccination. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell transcriptomes, serum titers, cell subpopulation frequencies, and B cell responses were assessed in 63 individuals before and after vaccination and were used to develop a systematic framework to dissect inter- and intra-individual variation and build predictive models of postvaccination antibody responses. Strikingly, independent of age and pre-existing antibody titers, accurate models could be constructed using pre-perturbation cell populations alone, which were validated using independent baseline time points. Most of the parameters contributing to prediction delineated temporally stable baseline differences across individuals, raising the prospect of immune monitoring before intervention.
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Secretion of interleukin-17 by CD8+ T cells expressing CD146 (MCAM).
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been associated with the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune diseases. CD4+ T cells secreting IL-17 are termed Th17 cells. CD8+ T cells, designated Tc17 cells, are also capable of secreting IL-17. Here we describe a population of Tc17 cells characterized by the expression of surface CD146, an endothelial adhesion molecule. These cells display signatures of a human Tc17 genotype and phenotype. Circulating CD8+CD146+ T cells are present in low levels in healthy adults. Elevations in CD8+CD146+ T cells are found in Behcet's disease and birdshot retinochoroidopathy, which have been reported to have HLA class I associations. Sarcoidosis does not have a class I association and displays an increase in CD4+ CD146+ T cells but not in CD8+CD146+ T cells. CD146 on these cells may facilitate their ability to bind to, and migrate through, endothelium, as has been reported for CD4+CD146+ T cells.
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Ultra-low dose interleukin-2 promotes immune-modulating function of regulatory T cells and natural killer cells in healthy volunteers.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) expands regulatory T cells (Tregs) and natural killer (NK) cells after stem cell transplantation (SCT) and may reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We hypothesized that ultra-low dose (ULD) IL-2 could serve as an immune-modulating agent for stem cell donors to prevent GVHD following SCT. However, the safety, dose level, and immune signatures of ULD IL-2 in immune-competent healthy subjects remain unknown. Here, we have characterized the phenotype and function of Tregs and NK cells as well as the gene expression and cytokine profiles of 21 healthy volunteers receiving 50,000 to 200,000 units/m(2)/day IL-2 for 5 days. ULD IL-2 was well tolerated and induced a significant increase in the frequency of Tregs with increased suppressive function. There was a marked expansion of CD56(bright) NK cells with enhanced interferon-? (IFN-?) production. Serum cytokine profiling demonstrated increase of IFN-? induced protein 10 (IP-10). Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in a highly restricted set of genes, including FOXP3, IL-2RA, and CISH. This is the first study to evaluate global immune-modulating function of ULD IL-2 in healthy subjects and to support the future studies administrating ULD IL-2 to stem cell donors.
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From cellular characteristics to disease diagnosis: uncovering phenotypes with supercells.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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Cell heterogeneity and the inherent complexity due to the interplay of multiple molecular processes within the cell pose difficult challenges for current single-cell biology. We introduce an approach that identifies a disease phenotype from multiparameter single-cell measurements, which is based on the concept of "supercell statistics", a single-cell-based averaging procedure followed by a machine learning classification scheme. We are able to assess the optimal tradeoff between the number of single cells averaged and the number of measurements needed to capture phenotypic differences between healthy and diseased patients, as well as between different diseases that are difficult to diagnose otherwise. We apply our approach to two kinds of single-cell datasets, addressing the diagnosis of a premature aging disorder using images of cell nuclei, as well as the phenotypes of two non-infectious uveitides (the ocular manifestations of Behçets disease and sarcoidosis) based on multicolor flow cytometry. In the former case, one nuclear shape measurement taken over a group of 30 cells is sufficient to classify samples as healthy or diseased, in agreement with usual laboratory practice. In the latter, our method is able to identify a minimal set of 5 markers that accurately predict Behçets disease and sarcoidosis. This is the first time that a quantitative phenotypic distinction between these two diseases has been achieved. To obtain this clear phenotypic signature, about one hundred CD8(+) T cells need to be measured. Although the molecular markers identified have been reported to be important players in autoimmune disorders, this is the first report pointing out that CD8(+) T cells can be used to distinguish two systemic inflammatory diseases. Beyond these specific cases, the approach proposed here is applicable to datasets generated by other kinds of state-of-the-art and forthcoming single-cell technologies, such as multidimensional mass cytometry, single-cell gene expression, and single-cell full genome sequencing techniques.
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Subinfectious hepatitis C virus exposures suppress T cell responses against subsequent acute infection.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is endemic in many countries due to its high propensity for establishing persistence. The presence of HCV-specific T cells in subjects repeatedly exposed to HCV who test negative for HCV RNA and antibodies and who do not have any history of HCV infection has been interpreted as T cell-mediated protection. Here, we show in nonhuman primates that repeated exposure to human plasma with trace amounts of HCV induced HCV-specific T cells without seroconversion and systemic viremia but did not protect upon subsequent HCV challenge. Rather, HCV-specific recall and de novo T cell responses, as well as intrahepatic T cell recruitment and interferon-? (IFN-?) production, were suppressed upon HCV challenge, concomitant with quantitative and qualitative changes in regulatory T cells (Treg cells) that occurred after subinfectious HCV exposure and increased after HCV challenge. In vitro Treg cell depletion restored HCV-specific T cell responses. Thus, T cells primed by trace amounts of HCV do not generate effective recall responses upon subsequent HCV infection. Subinfectious HCV exposure predisposes to Treg cell expansion, which suppresses effector T cells during subsequent infection. Strategies to reverse this exposure-induced immune suppression should be examined to aid in the development of T cell-based vaccines against HCV and other endemic pathogens.
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Globin gene expression in correlation with G protein-related genes during erythroid differentiation.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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The guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. G proteins are also implicated in erythroid differentiation, and some of them are expressed principally in hematopoietic cells. GPCRs-linked NO/cGMP and p38 MAPK signaling pathways already demonstrated potency for globin gene stimulation. By analyzing erythroid progenitors, derived from hematopoietic cells through in vitro ontogeny, our study intends to determine early markers and signaling pathways of globin gene regulation and their relation to GPCR expression.
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Baseline levels and temporal stability of 27 multiplexed serum cytokine concentrations in healthy subjects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cytokines are humoral molecules that elicit regulatory function in immunologic pathways. The level and type of cytokine production has become critical in distinguishing physiologic from pathologic immune conditions. Cytokine profiling has become an important biomarker discovery tool in monitoring of the immune system. However, the variations in cytokine levels in individual subjects over time in healthy individuals have not been extensively studied. In this study, we use multiplex bead arrays to evaluate 27 analytes in paired serum samples taken seven days apart from 144 healthy individuals in order to assess variations over a short time period.
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Cytopenia and leukocyte recovery shape cytokine fluctuations after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is associated with profound changes in levels of various cytokines. Emphasis has been placed on conditioning-associated mucosal damage and neutropenia and associated bacterial translocation as the initiating conditions predisposing to acute graft-versus-host disease. The post-transplant period is, however, also associated with increases in certain homeostatic cytokines. It is unclear how much the homeostatic drive to lymphocyte recovery and the production of cytokines from the engrafting donor immune system determine cytokine fluctuations in the peri- and immediate post-transplant period. The aim of this study was to examine the contributions of the conditioning regimen, donor engraftment, infections, and graft-versus-host disease to fluctuations in cytokines involved in homeostasis and inflammation.
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Phenotypic complexity of T regulatory subsets in patients with B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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Increased numbers of T regulatory (T(reg)) cells are found in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but the nature and function of these T(regs) remains unclear. Detailed characterization of the T(regs) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia has not been performed and the degree of heterogeneity of among these cells has not been studied to date. Using 15-color flow cytometry we show that T(reg) cells, defined using CD4, CD25, and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), can be divided into multiple complex subsets based on markers used for naïve, memory, and effector delineation as well as markers of T(reg) activation. Furthermore FOXP3(+) cells can be identified among CD4(+)CD25(-) as well as CD8(+)CD4(-) populations in increased proportions in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia compared with healthy donors. Significantly different frequencies of naïve and effector T(regs) populations are found in healthy donor controls compared with donors with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A population of CCR7(+)CD39(+) T(regs) was significantly associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This population demonstrated slightly reduced suppressive activity compared with total T(regs) or T(regs) of healthy donors. These data suggest that FOXP3-expressing cells, particularly in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia are much more complex for T(reg) sub-populations and transitions than previously reported. These findings demonstrate the complexity of regulation of T-cell responses in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and illustrate the use of high-dimensional analysis of cellular phenotypes in facilitating understanding of the intricacies of cellular immune responses and their dysregulation in cancer.
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Horse versus rabbit antithymocyte globulin in acquired aplastic anemia.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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In severe acquired aplastic anemia, hematopoietic failure is the result of immune-mediated destruction of bone marrow stem and progenitor cells. Immunosuppressive therapy with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) plus cyclosporine is an effective alternative to stem-cell transplantation and improves blood counts and survival. Although horse ATG is the standard therapy, rabbit ATG is more potent in depleting peripheral-blood lymphocytes and is preferred in other clinical circumstances.
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MCAM-expressing CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood secrete IL-17A and are significantly elevated in inflammatory autoimmune diseases.
J. Autoimmun.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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Th17 cells are a subset of CD4(+) T cells characterized by production of IL-17 and are known to be key participants in inflammatory reactions and various autoimmune diseases. In this study we found that a subset of human CD4(+) T cells expressing MCAM (CD146) have higher mRNA levels of RORC2, IL-23R, IL-26, IL-22, IL-17A, but not IFN-?, compared to CD4(+) T cell not expressing CD146. Upon TCR stimulation with CD3/CD28, CD4(+)CD146(+) T cells secrete significantly more IL-17A, IL-6, and IL-8 than do CD4(+)CD146(-) T cells. Low frequencies of CD4(+)CD146(+) T cells are found in the circulation of healthy adults, but the frequency of these cells is significantly increased in the circulation of patients with inflammatory autoimmune diseases including Behcets, sarcoidosis and Crohns disease. Patterns of gene expression and cytokine secretion in these cells are similar in healthy and disease groups. In Crohns disease, the increase in CD4(+)CD146(+) cells in the circulation correlates with disease severity scores. These data indicate that expression of CD146 on CD4(+) T cells identifies a population of committed human Th17 cells. It is likely the expression of CD146, an endothelial adhesion molecule, facilitates adherence and migration of Th17 cells through the endothelium to sites of inflammation.
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Evaluation of multiplexed cytokine and inflammation marker measurements: a methodologic study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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Chronic inflammation is etiologically related to several cancers. We evaluated the performance [ability to detect concentrations above the assays lower limit of detection, coefficients of variation (CV), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC)] of 116 inflammation, immune, and metabolic markers across two Luminex bead-based commercial kits and three specimen types.
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CD4+ T cells, including Th17 and cycling subsets, are intact in the gut mucosa of HIV-1-infected long-term nonprogressors.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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During acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, there is a massive depletion of CD4(+) T cells in the gut mucosa that can be reversed to various degrees with antiretroviral therapy. Th17 cells have been implicated in mucosal immunity to extracellular bacteria, and preservation of this subset may support gut mucosal immune recovery. However, this possibility has not yet been evaluated in HIV-1-infected long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs), who maintain high CD4(+) T cell counts and suppress viral replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. In this study, we evaluated the immunophenotype and function of CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood and gut mucosa of HIV-uninfected controls, LTNPs, and HIV-1-infected individuals treated with prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART) (VL [viral load]<50). We found that LTNPs have intact CD4(+) T cell populations, including Th17 and cycling subsets, in the gut mucosa and a preserved T cell population expressing gut homing molecules in the peripheral blood. In addition, we observed no evidence of higher monocyte activation in LTNPs than in HIV-infected (HIV(-)) controls. These data suggest that, similar to nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, LTNPs preserve the balance of CD4(+) T cell populations in blood and gut mucosa, which may contribute to the lack of disease progression observed in these patients.
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The lymph node microenvironment promotes B-cell receptor signaling, NF-kappaB activation, and tumor proliferation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), an incurable malignancy of mature B lymphocytes, involves blood, bone marrow, and secondary lymphoid organs such as the lymph nodes (LN). A role of the tissue microenvironment in the pathogenesis of CLL is hypothesized based on in vitro observations, but its contribution in vivo remains ill-defined. To elucidate the effects of tumor-host interactions in vivo, we purified tumor cells from 24 treatment-naive patients. Samples were obtained concurrently from blood, bone marrow, and/or LN and analyzed by gene expression profiling. We identified the LN as a key site in CLL pathogenesis. CLL cells in the LN showed up-regulation of gene signatures, indicating B-cell receptor (BCR) and nuclear factor-?B activation. Consistent with antigen-dependent BCR signaling and canonical nuclear factor-?B activation, we detected phosphorylation of SYK and I?B?, respectively. Expression of BCR target genes was stronger in clinically more aggressive CLL, indicating more effective BCR signaling in this subtype in vivo. Tumor proliferation, quantified by the expression of the E2F and c-MYC target genes and verified with Ki67 staining by flow cytometry, was highest in the LN and was correlated with clinical disease progression. These data identify the disruption of tumor microenvironment interactions and the inhibition of BCR signaling as promising therapeutic strategies in CLL. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00019370.
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High dimensional flow cytometry for comprehensive leukocyte immunophenotyping (CLIP) in translational research.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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New paradigms in translational research are focused on deep understanding of all aspects of the human immune system in response to diseases or perturbations such as vaccination or therapy. To obtain this knowledge, coordinated, comprehensive assessments by genomics, proteomics, and cytomics are necessary. One component of this assessment is comprehensive leukocyte immunophenotyping (CLIP) that not only provides a deep and broad description of the entire immune system at any given moment, but also encompasses all leukocyte lineages, including activation states, functional markers, and signaling molecules. As envisioned, a CLIP panel could study nearly 400 antigens utilizing 17-parameter flow cytometry. The CLIP panel is structured in a manner that tubes are grouped by lineage and, within lineage each of the tubes, while having some redundant markers, characterize distinct populations. To date, a preliminary 10 tube CLIP panel has been developed with the following 17 parameter tubes: T(reg), T(h??), T(h?/?), B(general), B(naive/memory), B(intracellular), NK?, NK?, myeloid/monocyte, and dendritic cells (DC). Together these tubes have the potential to identify over 28,000 subsets of leukocytes. The feasibility of developing these tubes has been demonstrated, as well as their utility in describing complex alterations of the immune system in the context of disease and vaccination. The plethora of data accrued in the preliminary CLIP panel highlights the need for novel data analysis and reduction strategies, while at the same time illustrates the power of CLIP.
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Contrasting roles for TLR ligands in HIV-1 pathogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
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The first line of a hosts response to various pathogens is triggered by their engagement of cellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Binding of microbial ligands to these receptors leads to the induction of a variety of cellular factors that alter intracellular and extracellular environment and interfere directly or indirectly with the life cycle of the triggering pathogen. Such changes may also affect any coinfecting microbe. Using ligands to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 5 and 9, we examined their effect on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication in lymphoid tissue ex vivo. We found marked differences in the outcomes of such treatment. While flagellin (TLR5 agonist) treatment enhanced replication of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR 5)-tropic and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)-tropic HIV-1, treatment with oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) M362 (TLR9 agonist) suppressed both viral variants. The differential effects of these TLR ligands on HIV-1 replication correlated with changes in production of CC chemokines CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and of CXC chemokines CXCL10, and CXCL12 in the ligand-treated HIV-1-infected tissues. The nature and/or magnitude of these changes were dependent on the ligand as well as on the HIV-1 viral strain. Moreover, the tested ligands differed in their ability to induce cellular activation as evaluated by the expression of the cluster of differentiation markers (CD) 25, CD38, CD39, CD69, CD154, and human leukocyte antigen D related (HLA)-DR as well as of a cell proliferation marker, Ki67, and of CCR5. No significant effect of the ligand treatment was observed on apoptosis and cell death/loss in the treated lymphoid tissue ex vivo. Our results suggest that binding of microbial ligands to TLRs is one of the mechanisms that mediate interactions between coinfected microbes and HIV-1 in human tissues. Thus, the engagement of appropriate TLRs by microbial molecules or their mimetic might become a new strategy for HIV therapy or prevention.
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Measurement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 preintegration transcription by using Rev-dependent Rev-CEM cells reveals a sizable transcribing DNA population comparable to that from proviral templates.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
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Preintegration transcription is an early process in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and has been suggested to occur at a low level. The templates have also been suggested to represent a small population of nonintegrated viral DNA, particularly the two-long-terminal-repeat (2-LTR) circles. However, these determinations were made by either using PCR amplification of viral transcripts in bulk cell populations or utilizing the LTR-driving reporter cells that measure the synthesis of Tat. The intrinsic leakiness of LTR often makes the measurement of low-level viral transcription inaccurate. Since preintegration transcription also generates Rev, to eliminate the nonspecificity associated with the use of LTR alone we have developed a novel Rev-dependent indicator cell, Rev-CEM, to measure preintegration transcription based on the amount of Rev generated. In this report, using Rev-CEM cells, we demonstrate that preintegration transcription occurs on a much larger scale than expected. The transcribing population derived from nonintegrated viral DNA was comparable (at approximately 70%) to that derived from provirus in a productive viral replication cycle. Nevertheless, each nonintegrated viral DNA template exhibited a significant reduction in the level of transcriptional activity in the absence of integration. We also performed flow cytometry sorting of infected cells to identify viral templates. Surprisingly, our results suggest that the majority of 2-LTR circles are not active in directing transcription. It is likely that the nonintegrated templates are from the predominant DNA species, such as the full-length, linear DNA. Our results also suggest that a nonintegrating lentiviral vector can be as effective as an integrating vector in directing gene expression in nondividing cells, with the proper choice of an internal promoter.
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Evolution of SIV toward RANTES resistance in macaques rapidly progressing to AIDS upon coinfection with HHV-6A.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2009
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Progression to AIDS is often associated with the evolution of HIV-1 toward increased virulence and/or pathogenicity. Evidence suggests that a virulence factor for HIV-1 is resistance to CCR5-binding chemokines, most notably RANTES, which are believed to play a role in HIV-1 control in vivo. HIV-1 can achieve RANTES resistance either by phenotypic switching from an exclusive CCR5 usage to an expanded coreceptor specificity, or by the acquisition of alternative modalities of CCR5 usage. An infectious agent that might promote the evolution of HIV-1 toward RANTES resistance is human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), which is frequently reactivated in HIV-1-infected patients and is a potent RANTES inducer in lymphoid tissue.
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A highly sensitive and dynamic immunofluorescent cytometric bead assay for the detection of HIV-1 p24.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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Nucleic acid measurements are used to follow HIV-1 viral load in clinical applications while p24 ELISA is commonly used to monitor HIV-1 replication in research settings. Current ELISA assays are expensive and offer a narrow dynamic measurement range. This report describes a simple, sensitive and inexpensive bead-based assay offering a wide dynamic measurement range. This cytometric bead assay allows the detection of p24 concentrations over 4 orders of magnitude from less than 0.4pg to up to 20,000pgml(-1) in a volume of 50microl and can be combined with other measurements.
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Eltrombopag and improved hematopoiesis in refractory aplastic anemia.
N. Engl. J. Med.
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Severe aplastic anemia, which is characterized by immune-mediated bone marrow hypoplasia and pancytopenia, can be treated effectively with immunosuppressive therapy or allogeneic transplantation. One third of patients have disease that is refractory to immunosuppression, with persistent, severe cytopenia and a profound deficit in hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells. Thrombopoietin may increase the number of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells.
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Effect of anticoagulants on multiplexed measurement of cytokine/chemokines in healthy subjects.
Cytokine
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Cytokines are humoral regulatory molecules that act together in immunologic pathways. Monitoring cytokines and their variations within physiologic ranges is critical for biomarker discovery. Therefore, we evaluated the performance characteristics of 72 analytes measured by multiplex cytokine immunoassay, with an emphasis on the differences of analytes measured in serum compared to plasma, and, in plasma, on the impact of anticoagulants on the cytokine measurement.
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HIV-1 is not a major driver of increased plasma IL-6 levels in chronic HIV-1 disease.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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Increased plasma IL-6 levels have been associated with HIV-1 disease progression risk, yet the drivers of IL-6 production in HIV-1 infection are not known. This study was designed to explore the relationship between HIV-1 replication and IL-6 induction.
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Studying the Human Immunome: The Complexity of Comprehensive Leukocyte Immunophenotyping.
Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.
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A comprehensive study of the cellular components of the immune system requires both deep and broad immunophenotyping Immunophenotyping of numerous cell populations in an efficient and practical manner. In this chapter, we describe the technical aspects of studying the human immunome using high-dimensional (15 color) fluorescence-based immunophenotyping Immunophenotyping . We focus on the technical aspects of polychromatic flow cytometry and the initial stages in developing a panel for comprehensive leukocyte immunophenotyping Immunophenotyping (CLIP). We also briefly discuss how this panel is being used and the challenges of encyclopedic analysis of these rich data sets.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.