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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
AR-V7 and resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone in prostate cancer.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The androgen-receptor isoform encoded by splice variant 7 lacks the ligand-binding domain, which is the target of enzalutamide and abiraterone, but remains constitutively active as a transcription factor. We hypothesized that detection of androgen-receptor splice variant 7 messenger RNA (AR-V7) in circulating tumor cells from men with advanced prostate cancer would be associated with resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone.
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Activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in a subpopulation of murine prostate luminal epithelial cells induces high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Wnt/?-catenin signaling is important for prostate development and cancer in humans. Activation of this pathway in differentiated luminal cells of mice induces high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). Though the cell of origin of prostate cancer has yet to be conclusively identified, a castration-resistant Nkx3.1-expressing cell (CARN) may act as a cell of origin for prostate cancer.
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A Peripheral Circulating TH1 Cytokine Profile Is Inversely Associated with Prostate Cancer Risk in CLUE II.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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TH1 cytokines, such as IFN? and TNF?, and potentially innate cytokines, such as IL6, can potentiate the immune response to tumor. Cytokines, such as IL1?, IL8, and IL10, may suppress anticancer immunity. Thus, we prospectively evaluated the association between peripheral-cytokine concentrations and prostate cancer.
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Selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) as novel therapeutics for prostate cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Mislocalization of proteins is a common feature of cancer cells. Since localization of proteins is tightly linked to its function, cancer cells can inactivate function of a tumor suppressor protein through mislocalization. The nuclear exportin CRM1/XPO 1 is upregulated in many cancers. Targeting XPO 1 can lead to nuclear retention of cargo proteins such as p53, Foxo, and BRCA1 leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We demonstrate that selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) can functionally inactivate XPO 1 in prostate cancer cells. Unlike the potent, but toxic, XPO 1 inhibitor leptomycin B, SINE inhibitors (KPT-185, KPT-330, and KPT-251) cause a decrease in XPO 1 protein level through the proteasomal pathway. Treatment of prostate cancer cells with SINE inhibitors lead to XPO 1 inhibition, as evaluated by RevGFP export assay, leading to nuclear retention of p53 and Foxo proteins, consequently, triggering apoptosis. Our data reveal that treatment with SINE inhibitors at nanomolar concentrations results in decrease in proliferation and colonogenic capacity of prostate cancer cells by triggering apoptosis without causing any cell cycle arrest. We further demonstrate that SINE inhibitors can be combined with other chemotherapeutics like doxorubicin to achieve enhanced growth inhibition of prostate cancer cells. Since SINE inhibitors offer increased bioavailability, reduced toxicity to normal cells, and are orally available they can serve as effective therapeutics against prostate cancer. In conclusion, our data reveals that nucleocytoplasmic transport in prostate cancer can be effectively targeted by SINE inhibitors.
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Investigation of miR-21, miR-141, and miR-221 expression levels in prostate adenocarcinoma for associated risk of recurrence after radical prostatectomy.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate a broad array of cellular and disease processes. Several miRNAs are differentially expressed in cancer and many are being considered as biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes. Here we quantified the expression of three miRNAs, miR-21, miR-141, and miR-221, from prostate cancer surgical specimens and evaluated their association with disease recurrence after primary therapy.
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The role of inflammation in prostate cancer.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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In the United States and in "Westernized" countries, the prevalence of both prostate cancer and prostate inflammation is very high, indicating that the two pathologies could be causally related. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an "enabling" characteristic of human cancer. Prostate cancer incidence is thought to be mediated in part by genetics, but also by environmental exposures, including the same exposures that may contribute to the development of prostatic inflammation. As our understanding of the role of inflammation in cancer deepens, it is increasingly apparent that "inflammation" as a whole is a complex entity that does not always play a negative role in cancer etiology. In fact, inflammation can play potentially dichotomous (both pro and antitumorigenic) roles depending on the nature and the cellular makeup of the immune response. This chapter will focus on reviewing the current state of knowledge on the role of innate and adaptive immune cells within the prostate tumor microenvironment and their seemingly complex role in prostate cancer in preventing versus promoting initiation and progression of the disease.
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Prospective study of human herpesvirus type 8 serostatus and prostate cancer risk in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8), a gamma herpesvirus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, has been proposed as a candidate risk factor for prostate cancer (PCa) because of its detection in benign and malignant prostate specimens, and its relation with histologic prostatic inflammation. We investigated the possible relation between pre-diagnostic HHV-8 infection and PCa risk in a case-control study sampled from the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.
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A comprehensive resequence-analysis of 250 kb region of 8q24.21 in men of African ancestry.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified that a ?1?M region centromeric to the MYC oncogene on chromosome 8q24.21 harbors at least five independent loci associated with prostate cancer risk and additional loci associated with cancers of breast, colon, bladder, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Because GWAS identify genetic markers that may be indirectly associated with disease, fine-mapping based on sequence analysis provides important insights into patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and is critical in defining the optimal variants to nominate for biological follow-up.
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Prostate adenocarcinomas aberrantly expressing p63 are molecularly distinct from usual-type prostatic adenocarcinomas.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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We have described a rare group of prostate adenocarcinomas that show aberrant expression of p63, a protein strongly expressed in prostatic basal cells and absent from usual-type acinar prostate cancers. The partial basal-like immunophenotype of these tumors is intriguing in light of the persistent debate surrounding the cell-of-origin for prostate cancer; however, their molecular phenotype is unknown. We collected 37 of these tumors on radical prostatectomy and biopsy and assessed subsets for a diverse panel of molecular markers. The majority of p63-expressing tumors were positive for the ?Np63 isoform (6/7) by immunofluorescence and p63 mRNA (7/8) by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Despite p63 positivity, these tumors uniformly expressed luminal-type cytokeratin proteins such as CK18 (13/13), CK8 (8/8), and markers of androgen axis signaling commonly seen in luminal cells, including androgen receptor (10/11), NKX3.1 (8/8), and prostein (12/13). Conversely, basal cytokeratins such as CK14 and CK15 were negative in all cases (0/8) and CK5/6 was weakly and focally positive in 36% (4/11) of cases. Pluripotency markers including ?-catenin, Oct4, and c-kit were negative in p63-expressing tumors (0/11). Despite nearly universal expression of androgen receptor and downstream androgen signaling targets, p63-expressing tumors lacked ERG rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization (0/14) and ERG protein expression (0/37). No tumors expressed SPINK1 or showed PTEN protein loss (0/19). Surprisingly, 74% (14/19) of p63-expressing tumors expressed GSTP1 protein at least focally, and 33% (2/6) entirely lacked GSTP1 CpG island hypermethylation by bisulfite sequencing. In contrast to usual prostatic adenocarcinomas, prostate tumors with p63 expression show a mixed luminal/basal immunophenotype, uniformly lack ERG gene rearrangement, and frequently express GSTP1. These data strongly suggest that p63-expressing prostate tumors represent a molecularly distinct subclass and further study of this rare tumor type may yield important insights into the role of p63 in prostatic biology and the prostate cancer cell-of-origin.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 12 September 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.115.
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High prevalence of screen detected prostate cancer in West Africans: implications for racial disparity of prostate cancer.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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To our knowledge the reasons for the high rates of prostate cancer in black American men are unknown. Genetic and lifestyle factors have been implicated. Better understanding of prostate cancer rates in West African men would help clarify why black American men have such high rates since the groups share genetic ancestry and yet have different lifestyles and screening practices. To estimate the prostate cancer burden in West African men we performed a population based screening study with biopsy confirmation in Ghana.
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PTEN loss is associated with upgrading of prostate cancer from biopsy to radical prostatectomy.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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When distinguishing between indolent and potentially harmful prostate cancers, the Gleason score is the most important variable, but may be inaccurate in biopsies due to tumor under-sampling. This study investigated whether a molecular feature, PTEN protein loss, could help identify which Gleason score 6 tumors on biopsy are likely to be upgraded at radical prostatectomy. Seventy one patients with Gleason score 6 tumors on biopsy upgraded to Gleason score 7 or higher at prostatectomy (cases) were compared with 103 patients with Gleason score 6 on both biopsy and prostatectomy (controls). A validated immunohistochemical assay for PTEN was performed, followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect PTEN gene deletion in a subset. PTEN protein loss and clinical-pathologic variables were assessed by logistic regression. Upgraded patients were older than controls (61.8 vs 59.3 years), had higher pre-operative PSA levels (6.5 vs 5.3?ng/ml) and a higher fraction of involved cores (0.42 vs 0.36). PTEN loss by immunohistochemistry was found in 18% (13/71) of upgraded cases compared with 7% (7/103) of controls (P=0.02). Comparison between PTEN immunohistochemistry and PTEN FISH showed the assays were highly concordant, with 97% (65/67) of evaluated biopsies with intact PTEN protein lacking PTEN gene deletion, and 81% (13/16) of the biopsies with PTEN protein loss showing homozygous PTEN gene deletion. Tumors with PTEN protein loss were more likely to be upgraded at radical prostatectomy than those without loss, even after adjusting for age, preoperative PSA, clinical stage and race (odds ratio=3.04 (1.08-8.55; P=0.035)). PTEN loss in Gleason score 6 biopsies identifies a subset of prostate tumors at increased risk of upgrading at radical prostatectomy. These data provide evidence that a genetic event can improve Gleason score accuracy and highlight a path toward the clinical use of molecular markers to augment pathologic grading.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 4 July 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.85.
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MSMB variation and prostate cancer risk: clues towards a possible fungal etiology.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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BACKGROUND. With recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, many prostate cancer risk loci have been identified, including rs10993994, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located near the MSMB gene. Variant allele (T) carriers of this SNP produce less prostate secretory protein 94 (PSP94), the protein product of MSMB, and have an increased risk of prostate cancer (approximately 25% per T allele), suggesting that PSP94 plays a protective role in prostate carcinogenesis, although the mechanisms for such protection are unclear. METHODS. We reviewed the literature on possible mechanisms for PSP94 protection for prostate cancer. RESULTS. One possible mechanism is tumor suppression, as PSP94 has been observed to inhibit cell or tumor growth in in vitro and in vivo models. Another novel mechanism, which we propose in this review article, is that PSP94 may protect against prostate cancer by preventing or limiting an intracellular fungal infection in the prostate. This mechanism is based on the recent discovery of PSP94's fungicidal activity in low-calcium environments (such as the cytosol of epithelial cells), and accumulating evidence suggesting a role for inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. We provide further details of our proposed mechanism in this review article. CONCLUSIONS. To explore this mechanism, future studies should consider screening prostate specimens for fungi using the rapidly expanding number of molecular techniques capable of identifying infectious agents from the entire tree of life.
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Long interspersed element-1 protein expression is a hallmark of many human cancers.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Cancers comprise a heterogeneous group of human diseases. Unifying characteristics include unchecked abilities of tumor cells to proliferate and spread anatomically, and the presence of clonal advantageous genetic changes. However, universal and highly specific tumor markers are unknown. Herein, we report widespread long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) repeat expression in human cancers. We show that nearly half of all human cancers are immunoreactive for a LINE-1-encoded protein. LINE-1 protein expression is a common feature of many types of high-grade malignant cancers, is rarely detected in early stages of tumorigenesis, and is absent from normal somatic tissues. Studies have shown that LINE-1 contributes to genetic changes in cancers, with somatic LINE-1 insertions seen in selected types of human cancers, particularly colon cancer. We sought to correlate this observation with expression of the LINE-1-encoded protein, open reading frame 1 protein, and found that LINE-1 open reading frame 1 protein is a surprisingly broad, yet highly tumor-specific, antigen.
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Rb Loss is Characteristic of Prostatic Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate is likely to become increasingly common with recent advances in pharmacologic androgen suppression. Thus, developing molecular markers of small cell differentiation in prostate cancer will be important to guide diagnosis and therapy of this aggressive tumor.
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Telomere length as a risk factor for hereditary prostate cancer.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences that stabilize the ends of chromosomes. Critically short telomeres are thought to contribute to cancer development by increasing chromosomal instability. We hypothesized that shorter leukocyte telomere length, a surrogate for inherited prostate cell telomere length, would be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) families.
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Biobanking of derivatives from radical retropubic and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy tissues as part of the prostate cancer biorepository network.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The goal of the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) is to develop a biorepository with high-quality, well-annotated specimens obtained in a systematic, reproducible fashion using optimized and standardized protocols, and an infrastructure to facilitate the growth of the resource and its wide usage by the prostate cancer research community. An emerging area of concern in the field of prostate cancer biobanking is an apparent shift in the proportion of surgical procedures performed for prostate cancer treatment from radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) to robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). Our study aimed to determine the potential impact of the RALP procedure on the detection of known prostate cancer biomarkers, and the subsequent suitability of RALP-derived specimens for prostate cancer biomarker studies.
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Prostate cancer cell telomere length variability and stromal cell telomere length as prognostic markers for metastasis and death.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Current prognostic indicators are imperfect predictors of outcome in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Thus, tissue-based markers are urgently needed to improve treatment and surveillance decision-making. Given that shortened telomeres enhance chromosomal instability and such instability is a hallmark of metastatic lesions, we hypothesized that alterations in telomere length in the primary cancer would predict risk of progression to metastasis and prostate cancer death. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 596 surgically treated men who participated in the ongoing Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men who had the combination of more variable telomere length among prostate cancer cells (cell-to-cell) and shorter telomere length in prostate cancer-associated stromal (CAS) cells were substantially more likely to progress to metastasis or die of their prostate cancer. These findings point to the translational potential of this telomere biomarker for prognostication and risk stratification for individualized therapeutic and surveillance strategies.
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Tight correlation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and Polycomb marks in health and disease.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Modifications to DNA and histone tails represent key epigenetic marks involved in establishing and maintaining cell identity and can be dysregulated in human diseases, including cancer. Two such modifications, tri-methylation of lysine-27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) mediated by the Polycomb complex and hydroxymethylation of cytosines on DNA, have recently been shown to be dynamically regulated during differentiation. Here, we show that global levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and H3K27me3 are highly correlated across a variety of somatic tissues. In multiple hierarchically organized tissues, both marks showed almost identical cell-by-cell distribution patterns that exhibited a tight association with differentiation. In particular, tissue stem cell compartments were characterized by low levels of both marks, whereas differentiated cell compartments exhibited high levels of 5hmC and H3K27me3. This pattern of correlation between the two marks could be recapitulated in an in vitro model system of induced differentiation in prostate epithelial cells. While the correlation between 5hmC and H3K27me3 levels is also maintained in human cancers, the degree of correlation is reduced. These findings suggest a previously unappreciated link between 5hmC and H3K27me3 regulation that should be explored in future mechanistic studies.
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Combined treatment effects of radiation and immunotherapy: studies in an autochthonous prostate cancer model.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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To optimize the combination of ionizing radiation and cellular immunotherapy using a preclinical autochthonous model of prostate cancer.
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Tracking the clonal origin of lethal prostate cancer.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Recent controversies surrounding prostate cancer overtreatment emphasize the critical need to delineate the molecular features associated with progression to lethal metastatic disease. Here, we have used whole-genome sequencing and molecular pathological analyses to characterize the lethal cell clone in a patient who died of prostate cancer. We tracked the evolution of the lethal cell clone from the primary cancer to metastases through samples collected during disease progression and at the time of death. Surprisingly, these analyses revealed that the lethal clone arose from a small, relatively low-grade cancer focus in the primary tumor, and not from the bulk, higher-grade primary cancer or from a lymph node metastasis resected at prostatectomy. Despite being limited to one case, these findings highlight the potential importance of developing and implementing molecular prognostic and predictive markers, such as alterations of tumor suppressor proteins PTEN or p53, to augment current pathological evaluation and delineate clonal heterogeneity. Furthermore, this case illustrates the potential need in precision medicine to longitudinally sample metastatic lesions to capture the evolving constellation of alterations during progression. Similar comprehensive studies of additional prostate cancer cases are warranted to understand the extent to which these issues may challenge prostate cancer clinical management.
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A subset of malignant phyllodes tumors harbors alterations in the Rb/p16 pathway.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Breast phyllodes tumors are fibroepithelial neoplasms with variable risk of aggressive local recurrence and distant metastasis, and the molecular pathogenesis is unclear. Here, we systematically study p16 and Rb expression in 34 phyllodes tumors in relation to proliferation. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 10 benign, 10 borderline, and 14 malignant phyllodes (5 cores/tumor) and from 10 fibroadenomas (2 cores/tumor). Tissue microarrays were labeled by immunohistochemistry for p16, Rb, and Ki-67 and by in situ hybridization for high-risk human papillomavirus. Cytoplasmic and nuclear p16 were scored by percentage labeling (0%-100%, diffuse >95%) and intensity. Nuclear Rb was scored by percentage labeling (0%-100%, diffuse >75%) and intensity. p16 and Rb labeling were repeated on whole sections of cases with Rb loss on the tissue microarray. Twenty-nine percent (4/14) malignant phyllodes showed diffuse strong p16 labeling with Rb loss in malignant cells (diffuse p16+/Rb-), whereas 21% (3/14) malignant phyllodes showed the reverse pattern of p16 loss with diffuse strong Rb (p16-/diffuse Rb+). Results were consistent between tissue microarrays and whole sections. No borderline phyllodes, benign phyllodes, or fibroadenoma showed diffuse p16+/Rb- or p16-/diffuse Rb+ phenotypes. No cases contained high-risk human papillomavirus. Average Ki-67 proliferation indices were 15% in malignant phyllodes, 1.7% in borderline phyllodes, 0.5% in benign phyllodes, and 0% in fibroadenoma. Ki-67 was highest in malignant phyllodes with diffuse p16+/Rb- labeling. In summary, 50% malignant phyllodes display evidence of Rb/p16 pathway alterations, likely reflecting p16 or Rb inactivation. These and other mechanisms may contribute to the increased proliferation in malignant phyllodes relative to other fibroepithelial neoplasms.
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Nucleotide resolution analysis of TMPRSS2 and ERG rearrangements in prostate cancer.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements occur in approximately 50% of prostate cancers and therefore represent one of the most frequently observed structural rearrangements in all cancers. However, little is known about the genomic architecture of such rearrangements. We therefore designed and optimized a pipeline involving target capture of TMPRSS2 and ERG genomic sequences coupled with paired-end next-generation sequencing to resolve genomic rearrangement breakpoints in TMPRSS2 and ERG at nucleotide resolution in a large series of primary prostate cancer specimens (n = 83). This strategy showed > 90% sensitivity and specificity in identifying TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements, and allowed identification of intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements involving TMPRSS2 and ERG with known and novel fusion partners. Our results indicate that rearrangement breakpoints show strong clustering in specific intronic regions of TMPRSS2 and ERG. The observed TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements often exhibited complex chromosomal architecture associated with several intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements. Nucleotide resolution analysis of breakpoint junctions revealed that the majority of TMPRSS2 and ERG rearrangements (~88%) occurred at or near regions of microhomology or involved insertions of one or more base pairs. This architecture implicates non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) pathways in the generation of such rearrangements. These analyses have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in generating prostate cancer-specific recurrent rearrangements.
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A mouse model of chronic prostatic inflammation using a human prostate cancer-derived isolate of Propionibacterium acnes.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Prostatic inflammation has been linked to a number of prostatic diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis syndromes, and prostate cancer. Major unanswered questions include what pathogenic mechanisms, such as bacterial infections, may drive the accumulation of inflammatory infiltrates in the human prostate, and how inflammation might contribute to disease. To study this potential link in an in vivo system, we developed a mouse model of long-term bacteria-induced chronic inflammation of the prostate using a human prostatectomy-derived strain of Propionibacterium acnes.
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Dietary Chemoprevention of PhIP Induced Carcinogenesis in Male Fischer 344 Rats with Tomato and Broccoli.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n?=?45) were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet), PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study), or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks). Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS) lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers.
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Infection of Xenotransplanted Human Cell Lines by Murine Retroviruses: A Lesson Brought Back to Light by XMRV.
Front Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Infection of xenotransplanted human cells by xenotropic retroviruses is a known phenomenon in the scientific literature, with examples cited since the early 1970s. However, arguably, until recently, the importance of this phenomenon had not been largely recognized. The emergence and subsequent debunking of Xenotropic Murine leukemia virus-Related Virus (XMRV) as a cell culture contaminant as opposed to a potential pathogen in several human diseases, notably prostate cancer and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, highlighted a potential problem of murine endogenous gammaretroviruses infecting commonly used human cell lines. Subsequent to the discovery of XMRV, many additional cell lines that underwent xenotransplantation in mice have been shown to harbor murine gammaretroviruses. Such retroviral infection poses the threat of not only confounding experiments performed in these cell lines via virus-induced changes in cellular behavior but also the potential infection of other cell lines cultured in the same laboratory. Thus, the possibility of xenotropic retroviral infection of cell lines may warrant additional precautions, such as periodic testing for retroviral sequences in cell lines cultured in the laboratory.
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NCCN Task Force report: Evaluating the clinical utility of tumor markers in oncology.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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The molecular analysis of biomarkers in oncology is rapidly advancing, but the incorporation of new molecular tests into clinical practice will require a greater understanding of the genetic changes that drive malignancy, the assays used to measure the resulting phenotypes and genotypes, and the regulatory processes that new molecular biomarkers must face to be accepted for clinical use. To address these issues and provide an overview of current molecular testing in 6 major malignancies, including glioma, breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and acute myelogenous leukemia, an NCCN Task Force was convened on the topic of evaluating the clinical utility of tumor markers in oncology. The output of this meeting, contained within this report, describes the ways biomarkers have been developed and used; defines common terminology, including prognostic, predictive, and companion diagnostic markers, and analytic validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility; and proposes the use of a combination level of evidence score to aid in the evaluation of novel biomarker tests as they arise. The current state of regulatory oversight and anticipated changes in the regulation of molecular testing are also addressed.
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MYC gene amplification is often acquired in lethal distant breast cancer metastases of unamplified primary tumors.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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In breast cancer, amplification of MYC is consistently observed in aggressive forms of disease and correlates with poor prognosis and distant metastases. However, to date, a systematic analysis of MYC amplification in metastatic breast cancers has not been reported. Specifically, whether the MYC amplification status may change in metastases in comparison to the corresponding primary breast tumor, and potential variability among different metastases within the same patient have also not been assessed. We generated single patient tissue microarrays consisting of both primary breast carcinomas and multiple matched systemic metastases from 15 patients through our previously described rapid autopsy program. In total, the 15 tissue microarrays contained 145 primary tumor spots and 778 spots derived from 180 different metastases. In addition, two separate tissue microarrays were constructed composed of 10 matched primary breast cancers and corresponding solitary metastases sampled not at autopsy but rather in routine surgical resections. These two tissue microarrays totaled 50 primary tumor spots and 86 metastatic tumor spots. For each case, hormone receptor status, HER2/neu, EGFR and CK5/6 expression were assessed, and the cases were characterized as luminal, basal-like or HER2 based on published criteria. Both fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for MYC was performed on all cases. Of the 25 cases, 24 were evaluable. While 4 of 24 primary tumors (16%) demonstrated MYC amplification, an additional 6 (25% of total evaluable cases) acquired MYC amplification in their systemic metastases. Of note, there was remarkably little heterogeneity in MYC copy number among different metastases from the same patient. MYC immunoreactivity was increased in metastases relative to matched primaries in the surgical cohort, although there was no perfect correlation with MYC amplification. In conclusion, amplification of MYC is a frequent event in breast cancer, but occurs more frequently as a diffuse, acquired event in metastatic disease than in the corresponding primary. These observations underscore the importance of MYC in breast cancer progression/metastasis, as well as its relevance as a potential therapeutic target in otherwise incurable metastatic disease.
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Differential epithelium DNA damage response to ATM and DNA-PK pathway inhibition in human prostate tissue culture.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2011
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The ability of cells to respond and repair DNA damage is fundamental for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Ex vivo culturing of surgery-derived human tissues has provided a significant advancement to assess DNA damage response (DDR) in the context of normal cytoarchitecture in a non-proliferating tissue. Here, we assess the dependency of prostate epithelium DDR on ATM and DNA-PKcs, the major kinases responsible for damage detection and repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), respectively. DNA damage was caused by ionizing radiation (IR) and cytotoxic drugs, cultured tissues were treated with ATM and DNA-PK inhibitors, and DDR was assessed by phosphorylation of ATM and its targets H2AX and KAP1, a heterochromatin binding protein. Phosphorylation of H2AX and KAP1 was fast, transient and fully dependent on ATM, but these responses were moderate in luminal cells. In contrast, DNA-PKcs was phosphorylated in both luminal and basal cells, suggesting that DNA-PK-dependent repair was also activated in the luminal cells despite the diminished H2AX and KAP1 responses. These results indicate that prostate epithelial cell types have constitutively dissimilar responses to DNA damage. We correlate the altered damage response to the differential chromatin state of the cells. These findings are relevant in understanding how the epithelium senses and responds to DNA damage.
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Myc enforces overexpression of EZH2 in early prostatic neoplasia via transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2011
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EZH2 is part of the PRC2 polycomb repressive complex that is overexpressed in multiple cancer types and has been implicated in prostate cancer initiation and progression. Here, we identify EZH2 as a target of the MYC oncogene in prostate cancer and show that MYC coordinately regulates EZH2 through transcriptional and post-transcriptional means. Although prior studies in prostate cancer have revealed a number of possible mechanisms of EZH2 upregulation, these changes cannot account for the overexpression EZH2 in many primary prostate cancers, nor in most cases of high grade PIN. We report that upregulation of Myc in the mouse prostate results in overexpression of EZH2 mRNA and protein which coincides with reductions in miR-26a and miR-26b, known regulators of EZH2 in some non-prostate cell types, albeit not in others. Further, in human prostate cancer cells, Myc negatively regulates miR-26a and miR-26b via direct binding to their parental Pol II gene promoters, and forced overexpression of miR-26a and miR-26b in prostate cancer cells results in decreased EZH2 levels and suppressed proliferation. In human clinical samples, miR-26a and miR-26b are downregulated in most primary prostate cancers. As a separate mechanism of EZH2 mRNA upregulation, we find that Myc binds directly to and activates the transcription of the EZH2 promoter. These results link two major pathways in prostate cancer by providing two additional and complementary Myc-regulated mechanisms by which EZH2 upregulation occurs and is enforced during prostatic carcinogenesis. Further, the results implicate EZH2-driven mechanisms by which Myc may stimulate prostate tumor initiation and disease progression.
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Global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine content is significantly reduced in tissue stem/progenitor cell compartments and in human cancers.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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DNA methylation at the 5-position of cytosines (5 mC) represents an important epigenetic modification involved in tissue differentiation and is frequently altered in cancer. Recent evidence suggests that 5 mC can be converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) in an enzymatic process involving members of the TET protein family. Such 5 hmC modifications are known to be prevalent in DNA of embryonic stem cells and in the brain, but the distribution of 5 hmC in the majority of embryonic and adult tissues has not been rigorously explored. Here, we describe an immunohistochemical detection method for 5 hmC and the application of this technique to study the distribution of 5 hmC in a large set of mouse and human tissues. We found that 5 hmC was abundant in the majority of embryonic and adult tissues. Additionally, the level of 5 hmC closely tracked with the differentiation state of cells in hierarchically organized tissues. The highest 5 hmC levels were observed in terminally differentiated cells, while less differentiated tissue stem/progenitor cell compartments had very low 5 hmC levels. Furthermore, 5 hmC levels were profoundly reduced in carcinoma of the prostate, breast and colon compared to normal tissues. Our findings suggest a distinct role for 5 hmC in tissue differentiation, and provide evidence for its large-scale loss in cancers.
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Immunoexpression status and prognostic value of mTOR and hypoxia-induced pathway members in primary and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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The need for effective targeted therapies for renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) has fueled the interest for understanding molecular pathways involved in the oncogenesis of kidney tumors. Aiming to analyze the expression status and prognostic significance of mTOR and hypoxia-induced pathway members in patients with clear cell RCC (ccRCC), tissue microarrays were constructed from 135 primary and 41 metastatic ccRCCs. Immunoexpression levels were compared and correlated with clinicopathologic parameters and outcome. PTEN levels were significantly lower in primary and metastatic ccRCCs compared with benign tissues (P<0.001). Levels of phos-AKT, phos-S6, and 4E-binding protein-1 (4EBP1) were higher in metastatic ccRCC (P?0.001). For phos-S6 and 4EBP1, levels were higher in primary ccRCC compared with benign tissues (P<0.001). c-MYC levels were higher in metastatic ccRCC (P<0.0001), and incremental p27 levels were observed in benign, primary ccRCC, and metastatic ccRCC (P<0.0001). HIF-1? levels were significantly higher in primary and metastatic ccRCCs compared with benign tissues (P<0.0001). In primary ccRCC, levels of all mTOR and hypoxia-induced pathway members were significantly associated with pT stage (P?0.036), p27 levels with Fuhrman grade (P=0.031), and 4EBP1, p27, and HIF-1? levels with tumor size (P?0.025). Tumor size, HIF-1?, and phos-S6 levels were associated with disease-specific survival (DSS) (P?0.032) and tumor progression (P?0.043). In conclusion, both mTOR and hypoxia-induced pathways were activated in primary and metastatic ccRCC. PTEN loss seems to be an early event during tumorigenesis. Tumor size, HIF-1?, and phos-S6 expression were found to be independent predictors of both DSS and tumor progression in primary ccRCC.
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Cell-type independent MYC target genes reveal a primordial signature involved in biomass accumulation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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The functions of key oncogenic transcription factors independent of context have not been fully delineated despite our richer understanding of the genetic alterations in human cancers. The MYC oncogene, which produces the Myc transcription factor, is frequently altered in human cancer and is a major regulatory hub for many cancers. In this regard, we sought to unravel the primordial signature of Myc function by using high-throughput genomic approaches to identify the cell-type independent core Myc target gene signature. Using a model of human B lymphoma cells bearing inducible MYC, we identified a stringent set of direct Myc target genes via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), global nuclear run-on assay, and changes in mRNA levels. We also identified direct Myc targets in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We further document that a Myc core signature (MCS) set of target genes is shared in mouse and human ESCs as well as in four other human cancer cell types. Remarkably, the expression of the MCS correlates with MYC expression in a cell-type independent manner across 8,129 microarray samples, which include 312 cell and tissue types. Furthermore, the expression of the MCS is elevated in vivo in E?-Myc transgenic murine lymphoma cells as compared with premalignant or normal B lymphocytes. Expression of the MCS in human B cell lymphomas, acute leukemia, lung cancers or Ewing sarcomas has the highest correlation with MYC expression. Annotation of this gene signature reveals Mycs primordial function in RNA processing, ribosome biogenesis and biomass accumulation as its key roles in cancer and stem cells.
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PTEN protein loss by immunostaining: analytic validation and prognostic indicator for a high risk surgical cohort of prostate cancer patients.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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Analytically validated assays to interrogate biomarker status in clinical samples are crucial for personalized medicine. PTEN is a tumor suppressor commonly inactivated in prostate cancer that has been mechanistically linked to disease aggressiveness. Though deletion of PTEN, as detected by cumbersome FISH spot counting assays, is associated with poor prognosis, few studies have validated immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays to determine whether loss of PTEN protein is associated with unfavorable disease.
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Humanizing ?-class glutathione S-transferase regulation in a mouse model alters liver toxicity in response to acetaminophen overdose.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) metabolize drugs and xenobiotics. Yet despite high protein sequence homology, expression of ?-class GSTs, the most abundant of the enzymes, varies significantly between species. In mouse liver, hepatocytes exhibit high mGstp expression, while in human liver, hepatocytes contain little or no hGSTP1 mRNA or hGSTP1 protein. ?-class GSTs are known to be critical determinants of liver responses to drugs and toxins: when treated with high doses of acetaminophen, mGstp1/2+/+ mice suffer marked liver damage, while mGstp1/2-/- mice escape liver injury.
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Increased gene copy number of ERG on chromosome 21 but not TMPRSS2-ERG fusion predicts outcome in prostatic adenocarcinomas.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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The role of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in prostate cancer prognostication remains controversial. We evaluated the prognostic role of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in a case-control study nested in The Johns Hopkins retropubic radical prostatectomy cohort. In all, 10 tissue microarrays containing paired tumors and normal tissues obtained from 172 cases (recurrence) and 172 controls (non-recurrence) matched on pathological grade, stage, race/ethnicity, and age at the time of surgery were analyzed. All radical prostatectomies were performed at our institution between 1993 and 2004. Recurrence was defined as biochemical recurrence, development of clinical evidence of metastasis, or death from prostate carcinoma. Each tissue microarray spot was scored for the presence of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion and for ERG gene copy number gains. The odds ratio of recurrence and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from conditional logistic regression. Although the percentage of cases with fusion was slightly lower in cases than in controls (50 vs 57%), the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.20). The presence of fusion due to either deletion or split event was not associated with recurrence. Similarly, the presence of duplicated ERG deletion, duplicated ERG split, or ERG gene copy number gain with a single ERG fusion was not associated with recurrence. ERG gene polysomy without fusion was significantly associated with recurrence (odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.17-3.42). In summary, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion was not prognostic for recurrence after retropubic radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer, although men with ERG gene copy number gain without fusion were twice more likely to recur.
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Androgen receptor expression is usually maintained in initial surgically resected breast cancer metastases but is often lost in end-stage metastases found at autopsy.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in approximately 70% of primary breast carcinomas (PBCs) and is a promising therapeutic target for metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC). Here, we examine AR expression in a population of initial surgically resected metastases and a separate cohort of end-stage metastases harvested at autopsy compared with their matched PBCs. Tissue microarrays of matched PBC and MBC were labeled by immunohistochemistry for AR, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her2 and classified into the following previously described categories: luminal (ER/PR+/Her2-), triple negative (ER/PR/Her2-), Her2 (ER/PR-/Her2+), and luminal loss (ER/PR loss from primary to metastasis). In the cohort of surgically resected metastases (n = 16), AR was expressed in 12 of 16 PBC and maintained in 11 of 12 corresponding MBCs. Of these, 36% showed stronger AR labeling in the metastases and none showed a decrease. In the cohort of metastases harvested at autopsy (n = 16), AR was expressed in 11 of 16 primary carcinomas and maintained in only 5 of 11 corresponding metastases. Of these, none showed increased AR and 80% showed decreased AR labeling. AR expression is overwhelmingly concordant between matched PBC and MBC at initial presentation. These findings validate AR as a therapeutic target in MBC and suggest that AR may need to be reevaluated in metastases even if the primary is negative. However, similar to ER/PR, AR expression is often decreased with a trend toward complete loss in end-stage metastases, suggesting a shift of AR expression between initial and end-stage metastases. This suggests an opportunity for targeted antiandrogen therapy at an earlier stage of disease progression.
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Immunohistochemistry for ERG expression as a surrogate for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion detection in prostatic adenocarcinomas.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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TMPRSS2-ERG fusions have been identified in about one-half of all prostatic adenocarcinomas (PCas). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction have been the most commonly used techniques in this setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of ERG immunoexpression as a surrogate for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in a large series of PCa cases.
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PI3K/mTOR signaling regulates prostatic branching morphogenesis.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Prostatic branching morphogenesis is an intricate event requiring precise temporal and spatial integration of numerous hormonal and growth factor-regulated inputs, yet relatively little is known about the downstream signaling pathways that orchestrate this process. In this study, we use a novel mesenchyme-free embryonic prostate culture system, newly available mTOR inhibitors and a conditional PTEN loss-of-function model to investigate the role of the interconnected PI3K and mTOR signaling pathways in prostatic organogenesis. We demonstrate that PI3K levels and PI3K/mTOR activity are robustly induced by androgen during murine prostatic development and that PI3K/mTOR signaling is necessary for prostatic epithelial bud invasion of surrounding mesenchyme. To elucidate the cellular mechanism by which PI3K/mTOR signaling regulates prostatic branching, we show that PI3K/mTOR inhibition does not significantly alter epithelial proliferation or apoptosis, but rather decreases the efficiency and speed with which the developing prostatic epithelial cells migrate. Using mTOR kinase inhibitors to tease out the independent effects of mTOR signaling downstream of PI3K, we find that simultaneous inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity attenuates prostatic branching and is sufficient to phenocopy combined PI3K/mTOR inhibition. Surprisingly, however, mTORC1 inhibition alone has the reverse effect, increasing the number and length of prostatic branches. Finally, simultaneous activation of PI3K and downstream mTORC1/C2 via epithelial PTEN loss-of-function also results in decreased budding reversible by mTORC1 inhibition, suggesting that the effect of mTORC1 on branching is not primarily mediated by negative feedback on PI3K/mTORC2 signaling. Taken together, our data point to an important role for PI3K/mTOR signaling in prostatic epithelial invasion and migration and implicates the balance of PI3K and downstream mTORC1/C2 activity as a critical regulator of prostatic epithelial morphogenesis.
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Prevalence of the alternative lengthening of telomeres telomere maintenance mechanism in human cancer subtypes.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Approximately 10% to 15% of human cancers lack detectable telomerase activity, and a subset of these maintain telomere lengths by the telomerase-independent telomere maintenance mechanism termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The ALT phenotype, relatively common in subtypes of sarcomas and astrocytomas, has rarely been reported in epithelial malignancies. However, the prevalence of ALT has not been thoroughly assessed across all cancer types. We therefore comprehensively surveyed the ALT phenotype in a broad range of human cancers. In total, two independent sets comprising 6110 primary tumors from 94 different cancer subtypes, 541 benign neoplasms, and 264 normal tissue samples were assessed by combined telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence labeling for PML protein. Overall, ALT was observed in 3.73% (228/6110) of all tumor specimens, but was not observed in benign neoplasms or normal tissues. This is the first report of ALT in carcinomas arising from the bladder, cervix, endometrium, esophagus, gallbladder, kidney, liver, and lung. Additionally, this is the first report of ALT in medulloblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, meningiomas, schwannomas, and pediatric glioblastoma multiformes. Previous studies have shown associations between ALT status and prognosis in some tumor types; thus, further studies are warranted to assess the potential prognostic significance and unique biology of ALT-positive tumors. These findings may have therapeutic consequences, because ALT-positive cancers are predicted to be resistant to anti-telomerase therapies.
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Alterations in nucleolar structure and gene expression programs in prostatic neoplasia are driven by the MYC oncogene.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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Increased nucleolar size and number are hallmark features of many cancers. In prostate cancer, nucleolar enlargement and increased numbers are some of the earliest morphological changes associated with development of premalignant prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions and invasive adenocarcinomas. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce nucleolar alterations in PIN and prostate cancer remain largely unknown. We verify that activation of the MYC oncogene, which is overexpressed in most human PIN and prostatic adenocarcinomas, leads to formation of enlarged nucleoli and increased nucleolar number in prostate luminal epithelial cells in vivo. In prostate cancer cells in vitro, MYC expression is needed for maintenance of nucleolar number, and a nucleolar program of gene expression. To begin to decipher the functional relevance of this transcriptional program in prostate cancer, we examined FBL (encoding fibrillarin), a MYC target gene, and report that fibrillarin is required for proliferation, clonogenic survival, and proper ribosomal RNA accumulation/processing in human prostate cancer cells. Further, fibrillarin is overexpressed in PIN lesions induced by MYC overexpression in the mouse prostate, and in human clinical prostate adenocarcinoma and PIN lesions, where its expression correlates with MYC levels. These studies demonstrate that overexpression of the MYC oncogene increases nucleolar number and size and a nucleolar program of gene expression in prostate epithelial cells, thus providing a molecular mechanism responsible for hallmark nucleolar alterations in prostatic neoplasia.
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Transcription-induced DNA double strand breaks: both oncogenic force and potential therapeutic target?
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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An emerging model of transcriptional activation suggests that induction of transcriptional programs, for instance by stimulating prostate or breast cells with androgens or estrogens, respectively, involves the formation of DNA damage, including DNA double strand breaks (DSB), recruitment of DSB repair proteins, and movement of newly activated genes to transcription hubs. The DSB can be mediated by the class II topoisomerase TOP2B, which is recruited with the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor to regulatory sites on target genes and is apparently required for efficient transcriptional activation of these genes. These DSBs are recognized by the DNA repair machinery triggering the recruitment of repair proteins such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), ATM, and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). If illegitimately repaired, such DSBs can seed the formation of genomic rearrangements like the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion oncogene in prostate cancer. Here, we hypothesize that these transcription-induced, TOP2B-mediated DSBs can also be exploited therapeutically and propose that, in hormone-dependent tumors like breast and prostate cancers, a hormone-cycling therapy, in combination with topoisomerase II poisons or inhibitors of the DNA repair components PARP1 and DNA-PK, could overwhelm cancer cells with transcription-associated DSBs. Such strategies may find particular utility in cancers, like prostate cancer, which show low proliferation rates, in which other chemotherapeutic strategies that target rapidly proliferating cells have had limited success.
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Identification of replication competent murine gammaretroviruses in commonly used prostate cancer cell lines.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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A newly discovered gammaretrovirus, termed XMRV, was recently reported to be present in the prostate cancer cell line CWR22Rv1. Using a combination of both immunohistochemistry with broadly-reactive murine leukemia virus (MLV) anti-sera and PCR, we determined if additional prostate cancer or other cell lines contain XMRV or MLV-related viruses. Our study included a total of 72 cell lines, which included 58 of the 60 human cancer cell lines used in anticancer drug screens and maintained at the NCI-Frederick (NCI-60). We have identified gammaretroviruses in two additional prostate cancer cell lines: LAPC4 and VCaP, and show that these viruses are replication competent. Viral genome sequencing identified the virus in LAPC4 and VCaP as nearly identical to another known xenotropic MLV, Bxv-1. We also identified a gammaretrovirus in the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line EKVX. Prostate cancer cell lines appear to have a propensity for infection with murine gammaretroviruses, and we propose that this may be in part due to cell line establishment by xenograft passage in immunocompromised mice. It is unclear if infection with these viruses is necessary for cell line establishment, or what confounding role they may play in experiments performed with these commonly used lines. Importantly, our results suggest a need for regular screening of cancer cell lines for retroviral "contamination", much like routine mycoplasma testing.
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ERG gene rearrangements are common in prostatic small cell carcinomas.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Small cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare subtype with an aggressive clinical course. Despite the frequent occurrence of ERG gene rearrangements in acinar carcinoma, the incidence of these rearrangements in prostatic small cell carcinoma is unclear. In addition, molecular markers to distinguish prostatic small cell carcinomas from lung and bladder small cell carcinomas may be clinically useful. We examined the occurrence of ERG gene rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization in prostatic, bladder and lung small cell carcinomas. We also examined the expression of ERG, androgen receptor (AR) and NKX3-1 by immunohistochemistry in prostatic cases. Overall, 45% (10/22) of prostatic small cell carcinoma cases harbored ERG rearrangements, whereas no cases of bladder or lung small cell carcinomas showed ERG rearrangement (0/12 and 0/13, respectively). Of prostatic small cell carcinoma cases, 80% (8/10) showed ERG deletion and 20% (2/10) showed ERG translocation. In 83% (5/6) of prostatic small cell carcinoma cases in which a concurrent conventional prostatic acinar carcinoma component was available for analysis, there was concordance for the presence/absence of ERG gene rearrangement between the different subtypes. ERG, AR and NKX3-1 protein expression was detected in a minority of prostatic small cell carcinoma cases (23, 27 and 18%, respectively), while these markers were positive in the majority of concurrent acinar carcinoma cases (66, 83 and 83%, respectively). The presence of ERG rearrangements in nearly half of the prostatic small cell carcinomas is a similar rate of rearrangement to that found in prostatic acinar carcinomas. Furthermore, the high concordance rate of ERG rearrangement between the small cell and acinar components in a given patient supports a common origin for these two subtypes of prostate cancer. Finally, the absence of ERG rearrangement in bladder or lung small cell carcinomas highlights the utility of detecting ERG rearrangement in small cell carcinomas of unknown primary for establishing prostatic origin.
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Chromosome-wide mapping of DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells reveals pervasive methylation of gene-associated and conserved intergenic sequences.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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DNA methylation has been linked to genome regulation and dysregulation in health and disease respectively, and methods for characterizing genomic DNA methylation patterns are rapidly emerging. We have developed/refined methods for enrichment of methylated genomic fragments using the methyl-binding domain of the human MBD2 protein (MBD2-MBD) followed by analysis with high-density tiling microarrays. This MBD-chip approach was used to characterize DNA methylation patterns across all non-repetitive sequences of human chromosomes 21 and 22 at high-resolution in normal and malignant prostate cells.
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Prostate cancer: New answers prompt new questions regarding cell of origin.
Nat Rev Urol
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2010
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Controversies remain regarding the precise cell type from which prostate cancers originate. in the last 2 years, two separate studies have arrived at apparently conflicting models for the cell type involved in prostate cancer initiation. However, these results are not mutually exclusive: there are potential solutions, and alternative views on the initiating cell derivation of prostate tumors also exist.
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DNA damage recognition via activated ATM and p53 pathway in nonproliferating human prostate tissue.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2010
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DNA damage response (DDR) pathways have been extensively studied in cancer cell lines and mouse models, but little is known about how DNA damage is recognized by different cell types in nonmalignant, slowly replicating human tissues. Here, we assess, using ex vivo cultures of human prostate tissue, DDR caused by cytotoxic drugs (camptothecin, doxorubicin, etoposide, and cisplatin) and ionizing radiation (IR) in the context of normal tissue architecture. Using specific markers for basal and luminal epithelial cells, we determine and quantify cell compartment-specific damage recognition. IR, doxorubicin, and etoposide induced the phosphorylation of H2A.X on Ser(139) (?H2AX) and DNA damage foci formation. Surprisingly, luminal epithelial cells lack the prominent ?H2AX response after IR when compared with basal cells, although ATM phosphorylation on Ser(1981) and 53BP1 foci were clearly detectable in both cell types. The attenuated ?H2AX response seems to result from low levels of total H2A.X in the luminal cells. Marked increase in p53, a downstream target of the activated ATM pathway, was detected only in response to camptothecin and doxorubicin. These findings emphasize the diversity of pathways activated by DNA damage in slowly replicating tissues and reveal an unexpected deviation in the prostate luminal compartment that may be relevant in prostate tumorigenesis. Detailed mapping of tissue and cell type differences in DDR will provide an outlook of relevant responses to therapeutic strategies.
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XMRV: a new virus in prostate cancer?
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2010
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Several recent articles have reported the presence of a gammaretrovirus, termed "XMRV" (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) in prostate cancers (PCa). If confirmed, this could have enormous implications for the detection, prevention, and treatment of PCa. However, other articles report failure to detect XMRV in PCa. We tested nearly 800 PCa samples, using a combination of real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The PCR reactions were simultaneously monitored for amplification of a single-copy human gene, to confirm the quality of the sample DNA and its suitability for PCR. Controls showed that the PCR assay could detect the XMRV in a single infected cell, even in the presence of a 10,000-fold excess of uninfected human cells. The IHC used 2 rabbit polyclonal antisera, each prepared against a purified murine leukemia virus (MLV) protein. Both antisera always stained XMRV-infected or -transfected cells, but never stained control cells. No evidence for XMRV in PCa was obtained in these experiments. We discuss possible explanations for the discrepancies in the results from different laboratories. It is possible that XMRV is not actually circulating in the human population; even if it is, the data do not seem to support a causal role for this virus in PCa.
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A case of prostatic adenocarcinoma with aberrant p63 expression: presentation with detailed immunohistochemical study and FISH analysis.
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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Prostate carcinomas showing aberrant diffuse-nuclear p63 expression are extremely rare, and there is only 1 article in the literature reporting a series of 21 such cases. We document an additional case of p63-positive prostatic adenocarcinoma in a 60-year-old man, whose diagnosis was difficult. The patient was found to have an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at a general health check-up and was referred to the hospital. His serum PSA was 4.2 ng/mL. Digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography did not reveal a lesion. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate detected atypical, small prostatic glands suspected for adenocarcinoma at 2 cores. However immunohistochemistry showed nuclear p63 expression in the suspicious glands. Repeat biopsy revealed only high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. In the third transrectal biopsy, finding of the same atypical glands showing perineural invasion facilitated the diagnosis of malignancy. The patient underwent a radical prostatectomy. Five different small tumor foci were seen in the prostate after pathological evaluation, one of which was p63 positive and the others p63 negative. The largest of the classic p63-negative tumors showed a TMPRSS2-ERG translocation by fluorescent in situ hybridization while the p63-positive tumor did not. The authors submit that this subtype (p63-positive prostate adenocarcinoma) should be listed among the recognized rare variants of prostatic adenocarcinoma.
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Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC): extended immunohistochemical profile emphasizing novel RCC markers.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) harbor various TFE3 gene fusions, and are known to underexpress epithelial immunohistochemical (IHC) markers such as cytokeratin and EMA relative to usual adult type RCC; however, their profile in reference to other IHC markers that are differentially expressed in other subtypes of RCC has not been systematically assessed. Few therapeutic targets have been identified in these aggressive cancers. We created 2 tissue microarrays (TMA) containing five 1.4-mm cores from each of 21 Xp11 translocation RCC (all confirmed by TFE3 IHC, 6 further confirmed by genetics), 7 clear cell RCC (CCRCC), and 6 papillary RCC (PRCC). These TMA were labeled for a panel of IHC markers. In contrast to earlier published data, Xp11 translocation RCC frequently expressed renal transcription factors PAX8 (16/21 cases) and PAX2 (14/21 cases), whereas only 1 of 21 cases focally expressed MiTF and only 5 of 21 overexpressed p21. Although experimental data suggest otherwise, Xp11 translocation RCC did not express WT-1 (0/21 cases). Although 24% of Xp11 translocation RCC expressed HIF-1alpha (like CCRCC), unlike CCRCC CA IX expression was characteristically only focal (mean 6% cell labeling) in Xp11 translocation RCC. Other markers preferentially expressed in CCRCC or PRCC, such as HIG-2, claudin 7, and EpCAM, yielded inconsistent results in Xp11 translocation RCC. Xp11 translocation RCC infrequently expressed Ksp-cadherin (3/21 cases) and c-kit (0/21 cases), markers frequently expressed in chromophobe RCC. Using an H-score that is the product of intensity and percentage labeling, Xp11 translocation RCC expressed higher levels of phosphorylated S6, a measure of mTOR pathway activation (mean H score=88), than did CCRCC (mean H score=54) or PRCC (mean H score=44). In conclusion, in contrast to prior reports, Xp11 translocation RCC usually express PAX2 and PAX8 but do not usually express MiTF. Although they may express HIF-1alpha, they only focally express the downstream target CA IX. They inconsistently express markers associated with other RCC subtypes, further highlighting the lack of specificity of the latter markers. TFE3 and Cathepsin K remain the most sensitive and specific markers of these neoplasms. Elevated expression of phosphorylated S6 in Xp11 translocation RCC suggests the mTOR pathway as an attractive potential therapeutic target for these neoplasms.
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NKX3.1 as a marker of prostatic origin in metastatic tumors.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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NKX3.1 is a prostatic tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 8p. Although most studies have shown that staining for NKX3.1 protein is positive in the majority of primary prostatic adenocarcinomas, it has been shown to be downregulated in many high-grade prostate cancers, and completely lost in the majority of metastatic prostate cancers (eg, in 65% to 78% of lesions). A recent study showed that NKX3.1 staining with a novel antibody was highly sensitive and specific for high-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma when compared with high-grade urothelial carcinoma. This raised the question that this antibody may perform better than earlier used antibodies in metastatic prostate tumors. However, the sensitivity and specificity for prostate carcinomas for this antibody in metastatic lesions was not determined. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) are excellent tissue markers of prostate cancer, at times they may be expressed at low levels, focally, or not at all in poorly differentiated primary and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of NKX3.1 as a marker of metastatic adenocarcinoma of prostatic origin. Immunohistochemical staining against NKX3.1, PSA, and PSAP was carried out on a tissue microarray (TMA) (0.6-mm tissue cores) of hormone naïve metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma specimens from lymph nodes, bone, and soft tissue. To determine the specificity of NKX3.1 for prostatic adenocarcinoma, we used TMAs that contained cancers from various sites including the urinary bladder, breast, colon, salivary gland, stomach, pancreas, thyroid, and central nervous system, and standard paraffin sections of cancers from other sites including the adrenal cortex, kidney, liver, lung, and testis. Overall 349 nonprostatic tumors were evaluated. Any nuclear staining for NKX3.1 was considered positive and the percentage of cells with nuclear staining and their mean intensity level were assessed visually. Sensitivity was calculated by considering a case positive if any TMA core was positive. The sensitivity for identifying metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas overall was 98.6% (68/69 cases positive) for NKX3.1, 94.2% (65/69 cores positive) for PSA, and 98.6% (68/69 cores positive) for PSAP. The specificity of NKX3.1 was 99.7% (1/349 nonprostatic tumors positive). The sole positive nonprostatic cancer case was an invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast. NKX3.1 seems to be a highly sensitive and specific tissue marker of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. In the appropriate clinical setting, the addition of IHC staining for NKX3.1, along with other prostate-restricted markers, may prove to be a valuable adjunct to definitively determine prostatic origin in poorly differentiated metastatic carcinomas.
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MYC and Prostate Cancer.
Genes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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Prostate cancer, the majority of which is adenocarcinoma, is the most common epithelial cancer affecting a majority of elderly men in Western nations. Its manifestation, however, varies from clinically asymptomatic insidious neoplasms that progress slowly and do not threaten life to one that is highly aggressive with a propensity for metastatic spread and lethality if not treated in time. A number of somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations occur in prostate cancer cells. Some of these changes, such as loss of the tumor suppressors PTEN and p53, are linked to disease progression. Others, such as ETS gene fusions, appear to be linked more with early phases of the disease, such as invasion. Alterations in chromosome 8q24 in the region of MYC have also been linked to disease aggressiveness for many years. However, a number of recent studies in human tissues have indicated that MYC appears to be activated at the earliest phases of prostate cancer (e.g., in tumor-initiating cells) in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, a key precursor lesion to invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. The initiation and early progression of prostate cancer can be recapitulated in genetically engineered mouse models, permitting a richer understanding of the cause and effects of loss of tumor suppressors and activation of MYC. The combination of studies using human tissues and mouse models paints an emerging molecular picture of prostate cancer development and early progression. This picture reveals that MYC contributes to disease initiation and progression by stimulating an embryonic stem cell-like signature characterized by an enrichment of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and by repressing differentiation. These insights pave the way to potential novel therapeutic concepts based on MYC biology.
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A pharmacodynamic study of rapamycin in men with intermediate- to high-risk localized prostate cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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Given discrepancies between preclinical and clinical observations of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition in prostate cancer, we sought to determine the pharmacodynamic effects of the mTOR/TORC1 inhibitor rapamycin in men with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy.
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Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cellular proliferation and tumor growth in urothelial carcinoma.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling has been associated with aggressive tumor growth in many cancer models, although its role in urothelial carcinoma (UCC) has not been extensively explored. Expression of phosphorylated mTOR (P-mTOR) and a downstream target, ribosomal S6 protein (P-S6), was identified in 74% (90/121) and 55% (66/121) of muscle-invasive UCCs, respectively. P-mTOR intensity and %positive cells were associated with reduced disease-specific survival (P = 0.04, P = 0.08, respectively). Moreover, P-mTOR intensity corresponded to increased pathological stage (P < 0.01), and mTOR activity was associated with cell migration in vitro. In addition, mTOR inhibition via rapamycin administration reduced cell proliferation in UCC cell lines RT4, T24, J82, and UMUC3 in a dose-dependent manner to 6% of control levels and was significant at 1 nmol/L in J82, T24, and RT4 cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P = 0.03, respectively) and at 10 nmol/L in UMUC3 cells (P = 0.03). Reduced proliferation corresponded with reduced P-S6 levels by Western blot, and effects were ablated by pretreatment of cells with mTOR-specific siRNA. No effects of rapamycin on apoptosis were identified by TUNEL labeling or PARP cleavage. Administration of rapamycin to T24-xenografted mice resulted in a 55% reduction in tumor volume (P = 0.03) and a 40% reduction in proliferation (P < 0.01) compared with vehicle-injected mice. These findings indicate that mTOR pathway activation frequently occurs in UCC and that mTOR inhibition may be a potential means to reduce UCC growth.
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Loss of Nkx3.1 expression in bacterial prostatitis: a potential link between inflammation and neoplasia.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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NKX3.1 is a homeodomain protein that functions as a dosage sensitive prostate-specific transcription factor. Diminished NKX3.1 expression is associated with prostate epithelial cell proliferation in vitro and with increasing Gleason grade in patient samples. Mouse Nkx3.1 also functions as a negative regulator of prostate cell growth in prostate cancer models. Identifying biological and environmental factors that modulate NKX3.1 accumulation is therefore central to efforts aimed at elucidating prostate growth control mechanisms. To determine the effect of inflammation on Nxk3.1 accumulation, bacterial prostatitis was induced by intraurethral inoculation of a uropathogenic E. coli strain in mice. Nkx3.1 expression was profoundly reduced in infected prostate lobes and correlated with increased expression of a proliferation marker. Androgen receptor levels were also reduced in concert with Nkx3.1, and a marked increase in the basal cell marker p63 was observed. Analyses of the inflammatory infiltrate revealed a classic acute inflammatory response that attained characteristics of a chronic state within fourteen days postinoculation. Comparison of the four prostate lobes revealed clear differences in the extent of inflammation. These data demonstrate that acute inflammation in response to a bacterial agent in the prostate is associated with a significant diminution in the level of a key regulator of prostate cell proliferation. These observations provide a plausible mechanism whereby prostate inflammation may establish a local environment conducive to epithelial cell growth.
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Human papillomavirus types 16, 18, and 31 serostatus and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was first identified as a risk factor for cervical cancer, several seroepidemiologic and tissue-based studies have investigated HPV in relation to prostate cancer, another common genitourinary malignancy, with mixed results. To further inform this potential association, we conducted a large, prospective investigation of HPV types 16, 18, and 31 in relation to risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Cases were a sample of men diagnosed with prostate cancer after visit 2 or on their end-of-study biopsy (n = 616). Controls were men not diagnosed with prostate cancer during the trial or on their end-of-study biopsy (n = 616). Controls were frequency matched to cases by age, treatment arm, and family history of prostate cancer. Sera from visit 2 were tested for IgG antibodies against HPV types 16, 18, and 31. No associations were observed for weak or strong HPV-16 [odds ratio (OR), 0.94; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.53-1.64 and OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 077-1.48, respectively], HPV-18 (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.27-2.04 and OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.47-1.63, respectively), or HPV-31 seropositivity (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.45-1.28 and OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.80-1.64, respectively) and risk of prostate cancer. Considering this finding in the context of the HPV and prostate cancer literature, HPV does not appear to be associated with risk of prostate cancer, at least by mechanisms proposed to date, and using epidemiologic designs and laboratory techniques currently available.
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MYC overexpression induces prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and loss of Nkx3.1 in mouse luminal epithelial cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Lo-MYC and Hi-MYC mice develop prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic adenocarcinoma as a result of MYC overexpression in the mouse prostate. However, prior studies have not determined precisely when, and in which cell types, MYC is induced. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) to localize MYC expression in Lo-MYC transgenic mice, we show that morphological and molecular alterations characteristic of high grade PIN arise in luminal epithelial cells as soon as MYC overexpression is detected. These changes include increased nuclear and nucleolar size and large scale chromatin remodeling. Mouse PIN cells retained a columnar architecture and abundant cytoplasm and appeared as either a single layer of neoplastic cells or as pseudo-stratified/multilayered structures with open glandular lumina-features highly analogous to human high grade PIN. Also using IHC, we show that the onset of MYC overexpression and PIN development coincided precisely with decreased expression of the homeodomain transcription factor and tumor suppressor, Nkx3.1. Virtually all normal appearing prostate luminal cells expressed high levels of Nkx3.1, but all cells expressing MYC in PIN lesions showed marked reductions in Nkx3.1, implicating MYC as a key factor that represses Nkx3.1 in PIN lesions. To determine the effects of less pronounced overexpression of MYC we generated a new line of mice expressing MYC in the prostate under the transcriptional control of the mouse Nkx3.1 control region. These "Super-Lo-MYC" mice also developed PIN, albeit a less aggressive form. We also identified a histologically defined intermediate step in the progression of mouse PIN into invasive adenocarcinoma. These lesions are characterized by a loss of cell polarity, multi-layering, and cribriform formation, and by a "paradoxical" increase in Nkx3.1 protein. Similar histopathological changes occurred in Hi-MYC mice, albeit with accelerated kinetics. Our results using IHC provide novel insights that support the contention that MYC overexpression is sufficient to transform prostate luminal epithelial cells into PIN cells in vivo. We also identified a novel histopathologically identifiable intermediate step prior to invasion that should facilitate studies of molecular pathway alterations occurring during early progression of prostatic adenocarcinomas.
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Androgen-induced TOP2B-mediated double-strand breaks and prostate cancer gene rearrangements.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can lead to the development of genomic rearrangements, which are hallmarks of cancer. Fusions between TMPRSS2, encoding the transmembrane serine protease isoform 2, and ERG, encoding the v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog, are among the most common oncogenic rearrangements observed in human cancer. We show that androgen signaling promotes co-recruitment of androgen receptor and topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B) to sites of TMPRSS2-ERG genomic breakpoints, triggering recombinogenic TOP2B-mediated DSBs. Furthermore, androgen stimulation resulted in de novo production of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcripts in a process that required TOP2B and components of the DSB repair machinery. Finally, unlike normal prostate epithelium, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia cells showed strong coexpression of androgen receptor and TOP2B. These findings implicate androgen-induced TOP2B-mediated DSBs in generating TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements.
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Intra-individual variation in serum C-reactive protein over 4 years: an implication for epidemiologic studies.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Data on long-term intra-individual variability in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) are needed to determine whether one measurement adequately reflects usual levels in prospective studies of on the etiology of cancer and other chronic diseases; when not reflective, the ability to statistically detect modest to moderate associations is reduced. The authors estimated the size of this source of variability and consequent attenuation of the relative risk (RR).
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Statin drugs, serum cholesterol, and prostate-specific antigen in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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We evaluated the associations of statins and serum cholesterol with PSA to understand whether the inverse associations of statins and low cholesterol with aggressive prostate cancer are explained by detection bias.
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The role of PI 3-kinase p110beta in AKT signally, cell survival, and proliferation in human prostate cancer cells.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
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Class IA PI 3-kinases produce phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 is bound by AKT which facilities its activation by PDK1. Activated AKT promotes cell survival and stimulates cell proliferation. Class IA PI 3-kinases are heterodimers consisting of a regulatory subunit p85 and a catalytic subunit p110. The p110alpha isoform has been shown to be mutated in a number of tumor types. A number of recent studies suggest that the p110beta isoform may be functionally relevant in prostate cancer. In this study we extend this work to include the examination of the expression and functional properties of p110alpha and p110beta in three different prostate cancer cell lines, DU145, LNCaP, PC3, as well as the non-tumorigenic but immortalized RWPE1 prostate epithelial cell line.
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Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is activated by KLK2 in prostate cancer ex vivo models and in prostate-targeted PSA/KLK2 double transgenic mice.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
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Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease secreted as a zymogen. Previously, cell-free biochemical studies have identified various kallikreins (KLK) as candidate activating proteases. In this study, KLK2-mediated activation of PSA in cell-based in vitro, xenograft, and transgenic models was evaluated.
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Phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of neoadjuvant celecoxib in men with clinically localized prostate cancer: evaluation of drug-specific biomarkers.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2009
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Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a potential pharmacologic target for the prevention of various malignancies, including prostate cancer. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial to examine the effect of celecoxib on drug-specific biomarkers from prostate tissue obtained at prostatectomy.
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Human prostate-infiltrating CD8+ T lymphocytes are oligoclonal and PD-1+.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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Prostate-infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CD8(+) PIL) are prevalent in men with prostate cancer (PCa), however, it is unclear whether the presence of such cells reflects a non-specific immune infiltrate or an oligoclonal, antigen-driven adaptive immune response.
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Dual-label centromere and telomere FISH identifies human, rat, and mouse cell contribution to Multispecies recombinant urogenital sinus xenografts.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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Recombinant xenografts of human cells growing in immunocompromised rodents are widely used for studying stem cell biology, tumor biology, and epithelial to mesenchyme transitions. Of critical importance is the correct interpretation of the cellular composition of such xenografts.
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Epigenetic alterations in human prostate cancers.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
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Human prostate cancer cells carry a myriad of genome defects, including both genetic and epigenetic alterations. These changes, which can be maintained through mitosis, generate malignant phenotypes capable of selective growth, survival, invasion, and metastasis. During prostatic carcinogenesis, epigenetic changes arise earlier than genetic defects, linking the appearance of epigenetic alterations in some way to disease etiology. The most common genetic defect thus far described, leading to fusion transcripts between the androgen-regulated gene TMPRSS2 and genes from the ETS family of transcription factors, likely endows prostate cancer cells with the ability to co-opt androgen signaling, the major prostate differentiation pathway, to support the malignant phenotype. Whether epigenetic changes promote the appearance of TMPRSS2-ETS family fusion transcripts or collaborate with fusion transcript expression in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer has not been established. However, a growing list of epigenetic alterations has provided new opportunities for clinical tests that might aid in prostate cancer screening, detection, diagnosis, staging, and risk stratification. The epigenetic changes appear to be more attractive than genetic changes as prostate cancer biomarkers because epigenetic alterations are present in a greater fraction of prostate cancer cases than any of the known genetic defects. In addition, an emerging generation of assay strategies for detection of specific DNA sequences carrying (5-me)C, the major epigenetic genome mark, has pushed somatic epigenetic alterations to the forefront of molecular biomarker assay development for cancer. Finally, a growing portfolio of epigenetic drugs, capable of reversing the phenotypic consequences of somatic epigenetic defects, has entered clinical trials for prostate cancer in the search for a new rational therapy for the disease.
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Anti-inflammatory drugs, antioxidants, and prostate cancer prevention.
Curr Opin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
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Prostate cancer may be the most common preventable cancer among men in the United States (US) and the rest of the developed world. Emerging insights into the molecular pathogenesis of prostate cancer suggest that damage to the prostate epithelium, potentially inflicted by a variety of exposures, triggers procarcinogenic inflammatory processes to promote disease development. In this milieu, the damaged epithelium may generate proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) lesions, which may progress to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) or to prostate cancer. To attenuate prostatic carcinogenesis driven by chronic or recurrent prostate inflammation, rational chemoprevention has thus far featured anti-inflammatory drugs and antioxidants. Results from clinical trials of these approaches have been mixed, emphasizing the need for mechanistic studies of the contribution of inflammation to prostatic carcinogenesis, more extensive analyses of the pharmacology, including distribution of drugs into target tissue, and, rational development of biomarkers to identify patients that are most likely to respond to anti-inflammatory drugs and antioxidants (targeted chemoprevention), alone, or in combination (combination chemoprevention).
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Association of IL10 and other immune response- and obesity-related genes with prostate cancer in CLUE II.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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Chronic intra-prostatic inflammation and obesity are thought to influence prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, variants in genes in these pathways could be associated with prostate cancer risk.
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Acute inflammatory proteins constitute the organic matrix of prostatic corpora amylacea and calculi in men with prostate cancer.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Corpora amylacea (CA) are a frequent microscopic finding in radical prostatectomy specimens from men undergoing treatment for prostate cancer. Although often observed histologically to be associated with inflammation, the contribution of CA to prostatitis-related symptoms of unknown etiology or to prostate carcinogenesis remains unclear. Prostatic calculi (PC), which potentially represent calcified forms of CA, are less common but can cause urological disease including urinary retention and prostatitis. We conducted a comprehensive compositional analysis of CA/PC to gain insight into their biogenesis. Infrared spectroscopy analysis of calculi collected from 23 patients confirmed a prevalence of calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite. This result sets PC apart from most urinary stones, which largely are composed of calcium oxalate. Tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of CA/PC revealed that lactoferrin is the predominant protein component, a result that was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Other proteins identified, including calprotectin, myeloperoxidase, and alpha-defensins, are proteins contained in neutrophil granules. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) suggested the source of lactoferrin to be prostate-infiltrating neutrophils as well as inflamed prostate epithelium; however, IHC for calprotectin suggested prostate-infiltrating neutrophils as a major source of the protein, because it was absent from other prostate compartments. This study represents a definitive analysis of the protein composition of prostatic CA and calculi and suggests that acute inflammation has a role in their biogenesis--an intriguing finding, given the prevalence of CA in prostatectomy specimens and the hypothesized role for inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.