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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Differential maternal feeding practices, eating self-regulation, and adiposity in young twins.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Restrictive feeding is associated with childhood obesity; however, this could be due to other factors that drive children to overeat and parents to restrict (eg, child genetics). Using a twin design to better control for confounders, we tested differences in restrictive feeding within families in relation to differences in twins' self-regulatory eating and weight status.
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Parental feeding practices and associations with child weight status. Swedish validation of the Child Feeding Questionnaire finds parents of 4-year-olds less restrictive.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) assesses parental feeding attitudes, beliefs and practices concerned with child feeding and obesity proneness. The questionnaire has been developed in the U.S., and validation studies in other countries are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the CFQ in Sweden and the associations between parenting practices and children's weight status. Based on records from the Swedish population register, all mothers of 4-year-olds (n?=?3007) from the third largest city in Sweden, Malmö, were contacted by mail. Those who returned the CFQ together with a background questionnaire (n?=?876) received the CFQ again to enable test-retest evaluation; 564 mothers completed the CFQ twice. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test whether the original 7-factor model was supported. Good fit (CFI?=?0.94, TLI?=?0.95, RMSEA?=?0.04, SRMR?=?0.05) was obtained after minor modifications such as dropping 2 items on restriction and adding 3 error covariances. The internal reliability and the 2-week test-retest reliability were good. The scores on restriction were the lowest ever reported. When the influence of parenting practices on child BMI (dependent variable) was examined in a structural equation model (SEM), child BMI had a positive association with restriction and a negative association with pressure to eat. Restriction was positively influenced by concern about child weight. The second SEM treated parenting practices as dependent variables. Parental foreign origin and child BMI had direct effects on restriction, while pressure to eat was also influenced by parental education. While the results of the study support the usefulness of the CFQ in Sweden, carefully designed cross-cultural comparisons are needed to explain why the levels of restrictive feeding in Swedish families are the lowest reported.
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Child food neophobia is heritable, associated with less compliant eating, and moderates familial resemblance for BMI.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2013
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The heritability of food neophobia, the tendency to avoid new foods, was tested in 4-7-year-old twins. We also examined whether food neophobia is associated with parent-child feeding relations or child body fat.
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Epigenetic mechanisms elicited by nutrition in early life.
Nutr Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have identified links among early nutrition, epigenetic processes and diseases also in later life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrition may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrition may also represent a vital determinant of adult health by making an impact on the development and function of gut microbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota composition and function in early life seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity and overall health status. In this regard probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal microbiota balance, may be effective in preventing the development of chronic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epigenetic mechanisms elicited by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous health-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues.
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From fatness to leaness: where did we go wrong?
Int J Pediatr Obes
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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In humans, using adipose tissue to store fat represents the most effective means to store energy. On the whole and over an extended period of time, intake of energy has exceeded energy expenditure and where previously the excess of energy was regularly turned over through physical activity, this crucial circle has now been broken. In this way obesity ascribed to either overeating or under-activity. Central adiposity poses a major risk for chronic diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, and possibly mortality. Predictors and potential factors underlying the development of excess adiposity were well studied and established with emphasis on fat mass.
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Obesity duration is associated to pulmonary function impairment in obese subjects.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Obesity is associated with pulmonary function disturbances. We hypothesized that lung function decreases with increasing duration of obesity. We evaluated pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 188 nonsmoking subjects with primary obesity (aged 8-76 years; 36% with systemic hypertension). Duration of obesity was assessed by questionnaire in adults, and by height and weight growth patterns in children. Asthma and/or other allergic diseases were investigated by standardized questionnaires. BMI and BMI-standard deviation scores (SDS) were 38.7 and 2.4 kg/m(2), respectively. Forty-six percent of patients were atopic. Among subjects with ever asthma (33%), 20 had current asthma (11% of the total). Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s, total lung capacity (TLC), and functional residual capacity (FRC) were 103, 104, 95, and 76% predicted, respectively. Mean duration of obesity was 8.3 years. Compared with subjects who had been obese for ?5 years, patients who had been obese for >15 years had significantly lower values on PFTs (P < 0.05). In subjects with systemic hypertension, PFTs were lower than in patients without hypertension (P < 0.01). Duration of obesity was significantly related to all PFTs (P ? 0.001). In a multiple regression analysis where duration and severity of obesity, hypertension, atopy, asthma, and family history of atopic diseases were independent variables, duration of obesity was a predictor of lower PFTs (P < 0.01). Of the remaining variables, only hypertension contributed to lower lung volumes. In obese individuals, lung function was significantly lower in subjects with greater years of obesity. Fat loss programs should be encouraged to prevent late pulmonary function impairment.
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Scaling of body composition to height: relevance to height-normalized indexes.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Body weight scales to height with a power of ?2, thus forming the basis of body mass index (weight/height(2)). The corresponding scaling of body composition to height has not been established in a representative sample of US adults.
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Are adult body circumferences associated with height? Relevance to normative ranges and circumferential indexes.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2010
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Weight scales as height squared, which is an observation that forms the basis of body mass index (weight/height(2)). If, and how, circumferences, including waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC), scale to height remains unclear, but this is an important consideration when developing normative ranges or applying WC/height and HC/height as risk indexes.
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Evaluation of the overweight/obese child--practical tips for the primary health care provider: recommendations from the Childhood Obesity Task Force of the European Association for the Study of Obesity.
Obes Facts
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents is on the rise. The majority of overweight or obese children are treated by primary health care providers including paediatricians, family practitioners, dieticians, nurses, and school health services - and not by specialists. The majority of obese children have no underlying medical disorder causing their obesity yet a significant proportion might suffer from obesity-related co-morbidities. This text is aimed at providing simple and practical tools for the identification and management of children with or at risk of overweight and obesity in the primary care setting. The tips and tools provided are based on data from the recent body of work that has been published in this field, official statements of several scientific societies along with expert opinion provided by the members of the Childhood Obesity Task Force (COTF) of the European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO). We have attempted to use an evidence-based approach while allowing flexibility for the practicing clinician in domains where evidence is currently lacking and ensuring that treating the obese child involves the entire family as well.
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Sustained self-regulation of energy intake: initial hunger improves insulin sensitivity.
J Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Background. Excessive energy intake has been implicated in diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and obesity. Dietary restraint has been unsuccessful as a method for the self-regulation of eating. Recognition of initial hunger (IH) is easily learned, can be validated by associated blood glucose (BG) concentration, and may improve insulin sensitivity. Objective. To investigate whether the initial hunger meal pattern (IHMP) is associated with improved insulin sensitivity over a 5-month period. Methods. Subjects were trained to recognize and validate sensations of IH, then adjust food intake so that initial hunger was present pre-meal at each meal time (IHMP). The purpose was to provide meal-by-meal subjective feedback for self-regulation of food intake. In a randomised trial, we measured blood glucose and calculated insulin sensitivity in 89 trained adults and 31 not-trained controls, before training in the IHMP and 5 months after training. Results. In trained subjects, significant decreases were found in insulin sensitivity index, insulin and BG peaks, glycated haemoglobin, mean pre-meal BG, standard deviation of diary BG (BG as recorded by subjects 7-day diary), energy intake, BMI, and body weight when compared to control subjects. Conclusion. The IHMP improved insulin sensitivity and other cardiovascular risk factors over a 5-month period.
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Ten putative contributors to the obesity epidemic.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2009
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The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative putative contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors. Considering the role of such putative etiological factors of obesity may lead to comprehensive, cause specific, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this global epidemic.
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Behind and beyond the pediatric metabolic syndrome.
Ital J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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The growing use of the Metabolic Syndrome in pediatric age need a critical approach, on the basis of recent concerns on definition and usefulness for individual management in clinical practice. We reviewed these aspects from a pediatric point of view, providing a set of questions about what the Metabolic Syndrome means in a clinical setting. The new proposed pediatric definition by IDF was discussed, by outlying how it does not fully consider the peculiarities of children and adolescents. The comparison between two cases of obese children was used in order to show how this diagnosis could be confusing for a correct management. We stressed the need for health-related limits for each component of the Metabolic Syndrome instead of percentile-derived cut-points, as well as the opportunity to extend the estimation to other family or individual risk factors by means of a multiple-items screening form. In conclusion, Metabolic Syndrome use in pediatric age suffers at present from important limitations (i.e., adult derived definition, possibility to rule-in but not to rule-out the individual metabolic risk, instability of MetS during adolescence, poor usefulness of the diagnosis for specific treatment). Consequently, a prudent use of Metabolic Syndrome for children and adolescents seems to be the best and honest position for paediatricians, waiting for long term, longitudinal follow-up studies that could clarify the entire question.
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Obesity and functional impairment: influence of comorbidity, joint pain, and mental health.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2009
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To examine the relationship between obesity and functional impairment and the influence of comorbidity, joint pain, and mental health on this association, we used US adult respondents (N = 430,912) to the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS-07). Functional impairment was indicated if a respondent was either (i) limited in any way or in any activities because of physical, mental, or emotional problems, or (ii) had any health problem that required using special equipment such as a cane, wheelchair, special bed, or special telephone. Approximately 62.8% of respondents were overweight or obese and 20.3% were functionally impaired. The unadjusted relationship between obesity and functional impairment revealed a classical J-shaped pattern with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) compared to the normal weight group: 1.63 (1.54-1.73), 1.22 (1.20-1.25), 1.77 (1.73-1.81), 2.43 (2.36-2.51), and 4.12 (3.97-4.27) for underweight, overweight, obesity class I, II, and III, respectively. Although inclusion of different combinations of sociodemographic and medical covariates substantially attenuated the unadjusted association, the collective inclusion of all covariates in a single model did not eliminate the significant J-shaped association resulting in the following corresponding adjusted odds ratios: 1.19 (1.13-1.25), 1.01 (0.99-1.04), 1.23 (1.19-1.27), 1.38 (1.32-1.44), and 1.92 (1.82-2.02). The attenuation was mostly influenced by medical comorbidity. In conclusion, functional impairment is associated with obesity, primarily due to medical comorbidity conditions. The significant residual association highlights the importance of sustainable obesity prevention and treatment at both the individual and public level as functional impairment can create burdens at individual, familial, and societal levels.
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Pediatric obesity: looking into treatment.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases during adolescence. This short review outlines the treatment of pediatric obesity that may have applications in the primary care setting. It examines current information on eating behavior, sedentary behavior, and details studies of multidisciplinary, behavior-based, obesity treatment programs. We also report the less common and more aggressive forms of treatment, such as medication and bariatric surgery. We emphasize that health care providers have the potential to improve outcomes by performing early identification, helping families create the best possible home environment, and by providing structured guidance to obese children and their families.
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Sports camp with six months of support from a local sports club as a treatment for childhood obesity.
Scand J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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Although childhood obesity is becoming increasingly prevalent, treatment options are limited and the continued development of effective treatment strategies is necessary. It is equally important to explore involvement of other resources in society, such as sports associations. This study was designed to investigate the possibility of reducing the degree of obesity in obese children by focusing on physical activity as an intervention.
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Increased sweetened beverage intake is associated with reduced milk and calcium intake in 3- to 7-year-old children at multi-item laboratory lunches.
J Am Diet Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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Dietary survey data show that intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is negatively associated with intake of milk, but these findings have yet to be confirmed by laboratory feeding studies. The objectives of the present study were to analyze childrens intake across two laboratory-based ad libitum lunches to (a) investigate the relationships between intake of sweetened beverages, milk, and calcium, and (b) explore relationships between beverage consumption and child age and weight status. Data were extracted from a cohort of 126 3- to 7-year-old twins from diverse ethnic backgrounds who participated in a cross-sectional study (conducted from November 1999 to September 2002) designed to determine the genetic and environmental contributions to eating and body weight. At two visits, children ate ad libitum from lunches that offered a variety of sugar-sweetened and calcium-rich beverages. Total beverage and nutrient intakes were computed from the test meals. Weight, height, and waist circumference were assessed on the final visit. Regression analyses tested the associations among intake of sweetened beverages, calcium, and milk (primary aim), and whether these variables were associated with child age and weight status (secondary aim). Sweetened beverage intake was negatively correlated with both milk (P<0.01) and calcium (P<0.01) intakes, and these relationships remained after controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity (P<0.01). Child age was negatively associated with milk intake (r=-0.22, P<0.01) but positively associated with intake of sweetened beverages (r=0.27, P<0.01). Results support the notion that sugar-sweetened beverages displace milk in a single meal, and this phenomenon may vary with child age. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, future investigations are needed to determine the long-term implications of this consumption pattern. The possibility that limiting sweetened beverages may help optimize dietary calcium during childhood is a topic that merits further research.
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Differences between brain mass and body weight scaling to height: potential mechanism of reduced mass-specific resting energy expenditure of taller adults.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Adult resting energy expenditure (REE) scales as height( approximately 1.5), whereas body weight (BW) scales as height( approximately 2). Mass-specific REE (i.e., REE/BW) is thus lower in tall subjects compared with their shorter counterparts, the mechanism of which is unknown. We evaluated the hypothesis that high-metabolic-rate brain mass scales to height with a power significantly less than that of BW, a theory that if valid would provide a potential mechanism for height-related REE effects. The hypothesis was tested by measuring brain mass on a large (n = 372) postmortem sample of Thai men. Since brain mass-body size relations may be influenced by age, the hypothesis was secondarily explored in Thai men age < or =45 yr (n = 299) and with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in Korean men (n = 30) age > or =20<30 yr. The scaling of large body compartments was examined in a third group of Asian men living in New York (NY, n = 28) with MRI and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Brain mass scaled to height with a power (mean +/- SEE; 0.46 +/- 0.13) significantly smaller (P < 0.001) than that of BW scaled to height (2.36 +/- 0.19) in the whole group of Thai men; brain mass/BW scaled negatively to height (-1.94 +/- 0.20, P < 0.001). Similar results were observed in younger Thai men, and results for brain mass/BW vs. height were directionally the same (P = 0.09) in Korean men. Skeletal muscle and bone scaled to height with powers similar to that of BW (i.e., approximately 2-3) in the NY Asian men. Models developed using REE estimates in Thai men suggest that brain accounts for most of the REE/BW height dependency. Tall and short men thus differ in relative brain mass, but the proportions of BW as large compartments appear independent of height, observations that provide a potential mechanistic basis for related differences in REE and that have implications for the study of adult energy requirements.
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Body composition at 6 months of life: comparison of air displacement plethysmography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
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Body composition assessment during infancy is important because it is a critical period for obesity risk development, thus valid tools are needed to accurately, precisely, and quickly determine both fat and fat-free mass. The purpose of this study was to compare body composition estimates using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) at 6 months old. We assessed the agreement between whole body composition using DXA and ADP in 84 full-term average-for-gestational-age boys and girls using DXA (Lunar iDXA v11-30.062; Infant whole body analysis enCore 2007 software, GE, Fairfield, CT) and ADP (Infant Body Composition System v3.1.0, COSMED USA, Concord, CA). Although the correlations between DXA and ADP for %fat (r = 0.925), absolute fat mass (r = 0.969), and absolute fat-free mass (r = 0.945) were all significant, body composition estimates by DXA were greater for both %fat (31.1 ± 3.6% vs. 26.7 ± 4.7%; P < 0.001) and absolute fat mass (2,284 ± 449 vs. 1,921 ± 492 g; P < 0.001), and lower for fat-free mass (5,022 ± 532 vs. 5,188 ± 508 g; P < 0.001) vs. ADP. Inter-method differences in %fat decreased with increasing adiposity and differences in fat-free mass decreased with increasing infant age. Estimates of body composition determined by DXA and ADP at 6 months of age were highly correlated, but did differ significantly. Additional work is required to identify the technical basis for these rather large inter-method differences in infant body composition.
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Percentage of body fat cutoffs by sex, age, and race-ethnicity in the US adult population from NHANES 1999-2004.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
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To date, there is no consensus regarding adult cutoffs of percentage of body fat or estimated cutoffs on the basis of nationally representative samples with rigorous body-composition measurements.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.