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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
AMPK modulates tissue and organismal aging in a non-cell-autonomous manner.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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AMPK exerts prolongevity effects in diverse species; however, the tissue-specific mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we show that upregulation of AMPK in the adult Drosophila nervous system induces autophagy both in the brain and also in the intestinal epithelium. Induction of autophagy is linked to improved intestinal homeostasis during aging and extended lifespan. Neuronal upregulation of the autophagy-specific protein kinase Atg1 is both necessary and sufficient to induce these intertissue effects during aging and to prolong the lifespan. Furthermore, upregulation of AMPK in the adult intestine induces autophagy both cell autonomously and non-cell-autonomously in the brain, slows systemic aging, and prolongs the lifespan. We show that the organism-wide response to tissue-specific AMPK/Atg1 activation is linked to reduced insulin-like peptide levels in the brain and a systemic increase in 4E-BP expression. Together, these results reveal that localized activation of AMPK and/or Atg1 in key tissues can slow aging in a non-cell-autonomous manner.
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Parkin overexpression during aging reduces proteotoxicity, alters mitochondrial dynamics, and extends lifespan.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Aberrant protein aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction have each been linked to aging and a number of age-onset neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson disease. Loss-of-function mutations in parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions to promote the ubiquitin-proteasome system of protein degradation and also in mitochondrial quality control, have been implicated in heritable forms of Parkinson disease. The question of whether parkin can modulate aging or positively impact longevity, however, has not been addressed. Here, we show that ubiquitous or neuron-specific up-regulation of Parkin, in adult Drosophila melanogaster, increases both mean and maximum lifespan without reducing reproductive output, physical activity, or food intake. Long-lived Parkin-overexpressing flies display an increase in K48-linked polyubiquitin and reduced levels of protein aggregation during aging. Recent evidence suggests that Parkin interacts with the mitochondrial fission/fusion machinery to mediate the turnover of dysfunctional mitochondria. However, the relationships between parkin gene activity, mitochondrial dynamics, and aging have not been explored. We show that the mitochondrial fusion-promoting factor Drosophila Mitofusin, a Parkin substrate, increases in abundance during aging. Parkin overexpression results in reduced Drosophila Mitofusin levels in aging flies, with concomitant changes in mitochondrial morphology and an increase in mitochondrial activity. Together, these findings reveal roles for Parkin in modulating organismal aging and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms linking aging to neurodegeneration.
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Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disease with unresolved pathophysiology. Previously, we observed reduced Coenzyme A levels in a Drosophila model for PKAN. Coenzyme A is required for acetyl-Coenzyme A synthesis and acyl groups from the latter are transferred to lysine residues of proteins, in a reaction regulated by acetyltransferases. The tight balance between acetyltransferases and their antagonistic counterparts histone deacetylases is a well-known determining factor for the acetylation status of proteins. However, the influence of Coenzyme A levels on protein acetylation is unknown. Here we investigate whether decreased levels of the central metabolite Coenzyme A induce alterations in protein acetylation and whether this correlates with specific phenotypes of PKAN models. We show that in various organisms proper Coenzyme A metabolism is required for maintenance of histone- and tubulin acetylation, and decreased acetylation of these proteins is associated with an impaired DNA damage response, decreased locomotor function and decreased survival. Decreased protein acetylation and the concurrent phenotypes are partly rescued by pantethine and HDAC inhibitors, suggesting possible directions for future PKAN therapy development.
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Identification of the Drosophila ortholog of HSPB8: implication of HSPB8 loss of function in protein folding diseases.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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Protein aggregation is a hallmark of many neuronal disorders, including the polyglutamine disorder spinocerebellar ataxia 3 and peripheral neuropathies associated with the K141E and K141N mutations in the small heat shock protein HSPB8. In cells, HSPB8 cooperates with BAG3 to stimulate autophagy in an eIF2?-dependent manner and facilitates the clearance of aggregate-prone proteins (Carra, S., Seguin, S. J., Lambert, H., and Landry, J. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 1437-1444; Carra, S., Brunsting, J. F., Lambert, H., Landry, J., and Kampinga, H. H. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 5523-5532). Here, we first identified Drosophila melanogaster HSP67Bc (Dm-HSP67Bc) as the closest functional ortholog of human HSPB8 and demonstrated that, like human HSPB8, Dm-HSP67Bc induces autophagy via the eIF2? pathway. In vitro, both Dm-HSP67Bc and human HSPB8 protected against mutated ataxin-3-mediated toxicity and decreased the aggregation of a mutated form of HSPB1 (P182L-HSPB1) associated with peripheral neuropathy. Up-regulation of both Dm-HSP67Bc and human HSPB8 protected and down-regulation of endogenous Dm-HSP67Bc significantly worsened SCA3-mediated eye degeneration in flies. The K141E and K141N mutated forms of human HSPB8 that are associated with peripheral neuropathy were significantly less efficient than wild-type HSPB8 in decreasing the aggregation of both mutated ataxin 3 and P182L-HSPB1. Our current data further support the link between the HSPB8-BAG3 complex, autophagy, and folding diseases and demonstrate that impairment or loss of function of HSPB8 might accelerate the progression and/or severity of folding diseases.
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Pantethine rescues a Drosophila model for pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is associated with impairment of pantothenate kinase function. Pantothenate kinase is the first enzyme required for de novo synthesis of CoA, an essential metabolic cofactor. The pathophysiology of PKAN is not understood, and there is no cure to halt or reverse the symptoms of this devastating disease. Recently, we and others presented a PKAN Drosophila model, and we demonstrated that impaired function of pantothenate kinase induces a neurodegenerative phenotype and a reduced lifespan. We have explored this Drosophila model further and have demonstrated that impairment of pantothenate kinase is associated with decreased levels of CoA, mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased protein oxidation. Furthermore, we searched for compounds that can rescue pertinent phenotypes of the Drosophila PKAN model and identified pantethine. Pantethine feeding restores CoA levels, improves mitochondrial function, rescues brain degeneration, enhances locomotor abilities, and increases lifespan. We show evidence for the presence of a de novo CoA biosynthesis pathway in which pantethine is used as a precursor compound. Importantly, this pathway is effective in the presence of disrupted pantothenate kinase function. Our data suggest that pantethine may serve as a starting point to develop a possible treatment for PKAN.
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Stwl modifies chromatin compaction and is required to maintain DNA integrity in the presence of perturbed DNA replication.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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Hydroxyurea, a well-known DNA replication inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and intact checkpoint functions are required to survive DNA replication stress induced by this genotoxic agent. Perturbed DNA synthesis also results in elevated levels of DNA damage. It is unclear how organisms prevent accumulation of this type of DNA damage that coincides with hampered DNA synthesis. Here, we report the identification of stonewall (stwl) as a novel hydroxyurea-hypersensitive mutant. We demonstrate that Stwl is required to prevent accumulation of DNA damage induced by hydroxyurea; yet, Stwl is not involved in S/M checkpoint regulation. We show that Stwl is a heterochromatin-associated protein with transcription-repressing capacities. In stwl mutants, levels of trimethylated H3K27 and H3K9 (two hallmarks of silent chromatin) are decreased. Our data provide evidence for a Stwl-dependent epigenetic mechanism that is involved in the maintenance of the normal balance between euchromatin and heterochromatin and that is required to prevent accumulation of DNA damage in the presence of DNA replication stress.
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Cofilin/Twinstar phosphorylation levels increase in response to impaired coenzyme a metabolism.
PLoS ONE
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Coenzyme A (CoA) is a pantothenic acid-derived metabolite essential for many fundamental cellular processes including energy, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pantothenate kinase (PANK), which catalyses the first step in the conversion of pantothenic acid to CoA, has been associated with a rare neurodegenerative disorder PKAN. However, the consequences of impaired PANK activity are poorly understood. Here we use Drosophila and human neuronal cell cultures to show how PANK deficiency leads to abnormalities in F-actin organization. Cells with reduced PANK activity are characterized by abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin, a conserved actin filament severing protein. The increased levels of phospho-cofilin coincide with morphological changes of PANK-deficient Drosophila S2 cells and human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells. The latter exhibit also markedly reduced ability to form neurites in culture--a process that is strongly dependent on actin remodeling. Our results reveal a novel and conserved link between a metabolic biosynthesis pathway, and regulation of cellular actin dynamics.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.