Disease caused by Bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is notifiable in Norway. An eradication programme started in 1992. The number of herds with restrictions decreased from 2950 in 1994 to zero at the end of 2006. From 2007, the aim of the programme has been surveillance in order to document freedom from the infection. To estimate the probability of freedom from BVDV infection in the Norwegian cattle population by the end of 2011, a scenario tree model of the surveillance program during the years 2007-2011 was used. Three surveillance system components (SSCs) were included in the model: dairy, beef suckler sampled at farms (2007-2010) and beef suckler sampled at slaughterhouses (2011). The design prevalence was set to 0.2% at herd level and to 30% at within-herd level for the whole cattle population. The median probability of freedom from BVDV in Norway at the end of 2011 was 0.996; (0.995-0.997, credibility interval). The results from the scenario tree model support that the Norwegian cattle population is free from BVDV. The highest estimate of the annual sensitivity for the beef suckling SSCs originated from the surveillance at the slaughterhouses in 2011. The change to sampling at the slaughterhouse level further increased the sensitivity of the surveillance.
The genetic element s2m seems to represent one of very few examples of mobile genetic elements in viruses. The function remains obscure and a scattered taxonomical distribution has been reported by numerous groups.
Parasitic salmon lice are potentially harmful to salmonid hosts and farm produced lice pose a threat to wild salmonids. To control salmon lice infections in Norwegian salmonid farming, numbers of lice are regularly counted and lice abundance is reported from all salmonid farms every month. We have developed a stochastic space-time model where monthly lice abundance is modelled simultaneously for all farms. The set of farms is regarded as a network where the degree of contact between farms depends on their seaway distance. The expected lice abundance at each farm is modelled as a function of i) lice abundance in previous months at the same farm, ii) at neighbourhood farms, and iii) other, unspecified sources. In addition, the model includes explanatory variables such as seawater temperature and farm-numbers of fish. The model gives insight into factors that affect salmon lice abundance and contributing sources of infection. New findings in this study were that 66% of the expected salmon lice abundance was attributed to infection within farms, 28% was attributed to infection from neighbourhood farms and 6% to non-specified sources of infection. Furthermore, we present the relative risk of infection between neighbourhood farms as a function of seaway distance, which can be viewed as a between farm transmission kernel for salmon lice. The present modelling framework lays the foundation for development of future scenario simulation tools for examining the spread and abundance of salmon lice on farmed salmonids under different control regimes.
Liver samples from 422 wild moose (Alces alces), 280 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and 73 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) collected by hunters in various localities in Norway, 2002-2003, were analyzed for the essential trace elements cobalt, copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum, selenium (Se), and zinc. Significant differences in hepatic concentrations among species were found for all elements except for Mn, and considerable individual and geographic variations were seen. Roe deer had statistically significant lower Se levels (median: 0.51 ?g Se/g dry weight) than did moose (0.77 ?g Se/g) and reindeer (0.85 ?g Se/g). Moose from two coastal municipalities with high precipitation had considerably higher Se concentrations than those from the other localities studied. Seventy-nine roe deer (28%) and 36 moose (9%) had Se concentrations below that regarded as deficient in domestic ruminants. The Se status in roe deer was lower than previously reported in Europe. Moose had a significantly higher Cu (222 ?g Cu/g dw) than did roe deer (112 ?g Cu/g) and reindeer (105 ?g Cu/g). The Cu status of moose and roe deer in Norway are among the highest reported in Europe. However, a suboptimal Se and Cu status was found in moose from Tvedestrand, a population which has suffered from a reduced condition and productivity. The variability in trace element status among hunted cervids, with no apparent signs of deficiency or toxicity, probably reflects adaptations in these wild ruminant species to cope with this. However, subtle clinical signs and lesions are difficult to detect and further research is needed.
When generating a genetically modified organism (GMO), the primary goal is to give a target organism one or several novel traits by using biotechnology techniques. A GMO will differ from its parental strain in that its pool of transcripts will be altered. Currently, there are no methods that are reliably able to determine if an organism has been genetically altered if the nature of the modification is unknown.
Gene finding is a complicated procedure that encapsulates algorithms for coding sequence modeling, identification of promoter regions, issues concerning overlapping genes and more. In the present study we focus on coding sequence modeling algorithms; that is, algorithms for identification and prediction of the actual coding sequences from genomic DNA. In this respect, we promote a novel multivariate method known as Canonical Powered Partial Least Squares (CPPLS) as an alternative to the commonly used Interpolated Markov model (IMM). Comparisons between the methods were performed on DNA, codon and protein sequences with highly conserved genes taken from several species with different genomic properties.
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