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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reduced Specificity in Episodic Future Thinking in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
Clin Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the most common disorders following trauma, has been associated with a tendency to remember past personal memories in a nonspecific, overgeneral way. The present study investigated whether such a bias also applies to projections of future personal events. Trauma survivors (N = 50) generated brief descriptions of imagined future experiences in response to positive and negative cues in a future-based Autobiographical Memory Test. Survivors with PTSD imagined fewer specific future events in response to positive, but not to negative, cues, compared to those without PTSD. This effect was independent of comorbid major depression. Reduced memory specificity in response to positive cues was related to appraisals of foreshortened future and permanent change. Training to enhance specificity of future projections may be helpful in PTSD and protect against potentially toxic effects of autobiographical memory overgenerality.
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The use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to predict the occurrence 6 months later of paranoid thinking and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by self-report and interviewer methods: a study of individuals who have been physically assaulted.
Psychol Assess
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Presentation of social situations via immersive virtual reality (VR) has the potential to be an ecologically valid way of assessing psychiatric symptoms. In this study we assess the occurrence of paranoid thinking and of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to a single neutral VR social environment as predictors of later psychiatric symptoms assessed by standard methods. One hundred six people entered an immersive VR social environment (a train ride), presented via a head-mounted display, 4 weeks after having attended hospital because of a physical assault. Paranoid thinking about the neutral computer-generated characters and the occurrence of PTSD symptoms in VR were assessed. Reactions in VR were then used to predict the occurrence 6 months later of symptoms of paranoia and PTSD, as assessed by standard interviewer and self-report methods. Responses to VR predicted the severity of paranoia and PTSD symptoms as assessed by standard measures 6 months later. The VR assessments also added predictive value to the baseline interviewer methods, especially for paranoia. Brief exposure to environments presented via virtual reality provides a symptom assessment with predictive ability over many months. VR assessment may be of particular benefit for difficult to assess problems, such as paranoia, that have no gold standard assessment method. In the future, VR environments may be used in the clinic to complement standard self-report and clinical interview methods.
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A randomized controlled trial of 7-day intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy for PTSD and emotion-focused supportive therapy.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are usually delivered once or twice a week over several months. It is unclear whether they can be successfully delivered over a shorter period of time. This clinical trial had two goals: to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of a 7-day intensive version of cognitive therapy for PTSD and to investigate whether cognitive therapy has specific treatment effects by comparing intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy with an equally credible alternative treatment.
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Faces in a crowd: high socially anxious individuals estimate that more people are looking at them than low socially anxious individuals.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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People with social anxiety disorder are afraid of being scrutinized by others and often feel that they are the excessive focus of other people's attention. This study investigated whether, when compared to low socially anxious individuals, high socially anxious individuals overestimate the proportion of people in a crowd who are observing them. It was hypothesized that any potential overestimation would be modulated by self-focused attention.
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Does rumination mediate the relationship between emotion regulation ability and posttraumatic stress disorder?
Eur J Psychotraumatol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Trauma-related rumination has been suggested to be involved in the maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This view has empirically been supported by extensive evidence using cross-sectional, prospective, and experimental designs. However, it is unclear why trauma survivors engage in rumination despite its negative consequences. The current study aimed to explore the hypothesis that low emotion regulation ability underlies trauma-related rumination.
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Capturing intrusive re-experiencing in trauma survivors daily lives using ecological momentary assessment.
J Abnorm Psychol
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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Intrusive memories are common following traumatic events and among the hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most studies assess summarized accounts of intrusions retrospectively. We used an ecological momentary approach and index intrusive memories in trauma survivors with and without PTSD using electronic diaries. Forty-six trauma survivors completed daily diaries for 7 consecutive days recording a total of 294 intrusions. Participants with PTSD experienced only marginally more intrusions than those without PTSD, but experienced them with more "here and now quality," and responded with more fear, helplessness, anger, and shame than those without PTSD. Most frequent intrusion triggers were stimuli that were perceptually similar to stimuli from the trauma. Individuals with PTSD experienced diary-prompted voluntary trauma memories with the same sense of nowness and vividness as involuntary intrusive trauma memories. The findings contribute to a better understanding of everyday experiences of intrusive reexperiencing in trauma survivors with PTSD and offer clinical treatment implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Active elimination of the marine biotoxin okadaic acid by P-glycoprotein through an in-vitro gastrointestinal barrier.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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The consumption of okadaic acid (OA) contaminated shellfish can induce acute toxic symptoms in humans such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain; carcinogenic and embryotoxic effects have also been described. Toxicokinetic studies with mice have shown that high cytotoxic doses of OA can pass the gastrointestinal barrier presumably by paracellular passage. However, in-vitro studies using human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers to represent the intestinal barrier have shown that at low-dose exposure OA is transported against a concentration gradient suggesting an active efflux mechanism. Since P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transports a wide variety of substrates, we investigated its possible influence on the observed elimination of OA. We used two different cellular transwell models: (i) Caco-2 cell monolayer endogenously expressing human P-gp and simulating the intestinal barrier and (ii) MDCK-II cell monolayer stably over-expressing P-gp. Our study demonstrates clearly that OA at non-cytotoxic concentrations passes the monolayer barrier only to a low degree, and that it is actively eliminated by P-gp over the apical membrane. Therefore, our in-vitro data indicate that humans appear to have efficient defense mechanisms to protect themselves against low-dose contaminated shellfish by exhibiting a low bioavailability as a result of active elimination of OA by P-gp.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stimulate human CYP3A4 promoter activity via PXR.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is mediated mainly by cytochrome P??? monooxygenases (CYP) CYP1A1, 1A2 and 1B1. Several PAH are known to induce these CYP via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling. Recently, it was shown that the PAH benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) can induce CYP3A4 as well. The induction was suggested to be mediated by the pregnane X receptor (PXR) rather than AhR. Metabolism by CYP3A4 is only known for dihydrodiol metabolites of PAH but not for their parent compounds. In the present study, a CYP3A4 reporter gene assay, requiring the overexpression of PXR, was used to investigate whether the PAH parent compounds BaP, benzo[c]phenanthrene (BcP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBalP) as well as their corresponding phase I metabolites, the respective dihydrodiols and diol epoxides, can induce CYP3A4 promoter activity. BaP, BcP and their dihydrodiols were found to significantly activate the CYP3A4 promoter. Moreover, activation of PXR by all four compounds was detected by using a PXR transactivation assay, supporting that PXR mediates CYP3A4 induction by PAH. Taken together, these results show that both PAH parent compounds as well as their phase I metabolites induce CYP3A4 promoter via the transcription factor PXR.
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Implementation of cognitive therapy for PTSD in routine clinical care: effectiveness and moderators of outcome in a consecutive sample.
Behav Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Trauma-focused psychological treatments are recommended as first-line treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), but clinicians may be concerned that the good outcomes observed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) may not generalize to the wide range of traumas and presentations seen in clinical practice. This study investigated whether Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD) can be effectively implemented into a UK National Health Service Outpatient Clinic serving a defined ethnically mixed urban catchment area.
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Internet-delivered cognitive therapy for social anxiety disorder: a development pilot series.
Behav Cogn Psychother
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Randomized controlled trials have established that individual cognitive therapy based on the Clark and Wells (1995) model is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder that is superior to a range of alternative psychological and pharmacological interventions. Normally the treatment involves up to 14 weekly face-to-face therapy sessions.
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Trans fatty acids affect cellular viability of human intestinal Caco-2 cells and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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Trans fatty acids (TFA) are hypothesized to have an impact not only on coronary heart diseases but also on the development of colon cancer. To analyze if TFA exhibit cellular and molecular effects which could be involved in colon tumor progression, cells of the human colorectal adenocarcinoma-derived cell line Caco-2 were treated with various TFA isomers differing in the number and position of trans double bonds. The TFA tested in this study did not increase cellular proliferation but displayed growth-inhibitory effects at concentrations higher than 500 ?M. In case of the TFA isomer C18:3 t9, t11, t13, an IC50 value of 23 ?M was estimated for cytotoxicity indicating a high cytotoxic potential of this compound. In addition to the cytotoxicity studies, the TFA isomers were tested for their ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) by taking advantage of a PPAR-dependent reporter gene assay. In contrast to PPAR? that was not activated by the TFA isomers tested in this study, the substances were shown to moderately activate PPAR?, and strong activation was observed for PPAR?. The putative impact of TFA on colon cancer development with respect to PPAR? activation is being discussed.
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Cognitive change predicts symptom reduction with cognitive therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.
J Consult Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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There is a growing body of evidence for the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies to date have investigated the mechanisms by which TF-CBT leads to therapeutic change. Models of PTSD suggest that a core treatment mechanism is the change in dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its aftermath. If this is the case, then changes in appraisals should predict a change in symptoms. The present study investigated whether cognitive change precedes symptom change in Cognitive Therapy for PTSD, a version of TF-CBT.
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A community study of the psychological effects of the Omagh car bomb on adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The main aims of the study were to assess psychological morbidity among adults nine months after a car bomb explosion in the town of Omagh, Northern Ireland and to identify predictors of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.
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How Disorder-Specific are Depressive Attributions? A Comparison of Individuals with Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Healthy Controls.
Cognit Ther Res
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
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Depressed individuals tend to assign internal, stable, and global causes to negative events. The present study investigated the specificity of this effect to depression and compared depressive attributional styles of individuals with major depression (MD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and healthy controls. We indexed attributional style using the depressive attributions questionnaire in 164 participants. Additionally, we assessed appraisals characteristic of PTSD using the post-traumatic cognitions inventory (PTCI), depressive rumination, trauma history, and depression and PTSD symptom severity. Individuals with MD endorsed a depressive attributional style to a greater extent than both individuals with PTSD, who were not depressed, and healthy controls. Depressive attributional style was associated with the severity of depressive and PTSD symptoms, number and distress of traumatic experiences, frequency of rumination, and post-traumatic cognitions. Depressive attributions and PTCI appraisals independently predicted MD and PTSD symptom severity. They may thus be useful in predicting MD and PTSD, and should be targeted in psychological treatments of these conditions.
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The factor structure of the Autobiographical Memory Test in recent trauma survivors.
Psychol Assess
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), which is widely used to measure overgeneral autobiographical memory in individuals with depression and a trauma history. Its factor structure and internal consistency have not been explored in a clinical sample. This study examined the psychometric properties of the AMT in a sample of recent trauma survivors (N = 194), who completed the AMT 2 weeks after a trauma. Participants were also assessed with structured clinical interviews for current acute stress disorder and current and past major depressive disorder. Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory were used to analyze the AMT in the whole sample. The factor structure of the AMT was also compared for (a) individuals with and without lifetime major depressive disorder and (b) individuals with current (posttrauma) major depressive disorder and/or acute stress disorder versus those with neither disorder. In all of these analyses, the AMT with cues of positive and negative valence had a 1-factor structure, which replicates work in nonclinical samples. Based on analyses of the whole sample, scores from the AMT had a reliability estimate of .72, and standard error of measurement was lowest for people who scored low on memory specificity. In conclusion, the AMT measures 1 factor of memory specificity in a clinical sample and can yield reliable scores for memory specificity. More psychometric studies of the AMT are needed to replicate these results with similar and other clinical populations.
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Deep sequencing of MYC DNA-binding sites in Burkitt lymphoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2011
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MYC is a key transcription factor involved in central cellular processes such as regulation of the cell cycle, histone acetylation and ribosomal biogenesis. It is overexpressed in the majority of human tumors including aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Especially Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highlight example for MYC overexpression due to a chromosomal translocation involving the c-MYC gene. However, no genome-wide analysis of MYC-binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has been conducted in BL so far.
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Enhanced priming for trauma-related words predicts posttraumatic stress disorder.
J Abnorm Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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There is preliminary evidence that enhanced priming for trauma-related cues plays a role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A prospective study of 119 motor vehicle accident survivors investigated whether priming for trauma-related stimuli predicts PTSD. Participants completed a modified word-stem completion test comprising accident-related, traffic-related, general threat, and neutral words at 2 weeks post-trauma. Priming for accident-related words predicted PTSD at 6 months follow-up, even when initial symptom levels of PTSD and depression and priming for other words were controlled. The results are in line with the hypothesis that enhanced priming for traumatic material contributes to the development of chronic PTSD.
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Combining clinical studies and analogue experiments to investigate cognitive mechanisms in posttraumatic stress disorder.
Int J Cogn Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Research into cognitive mechanisms in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically comprises two types of studies. The first group of studies is conducted with survivors of traumatic events and assesses the association between PTSD and cognitive variables with questionnaires and/or information processing paradigms. In the second group of studies, healthy non-traumatized individuals are exposed to an analogue stressor (e.g., a stressful film) and cognitive variables of interest are usually experimentally manipulated to investigate their effects on analogue PTSD symptoms. This review illustrates how studies of trauma survivors and analogue studies with non-traumatized populations can be usefully combined. Two examples for this approach are presented: (1) research into the role of perceptual priming for trauma-related stimuli and (2) research into trauma-related rumination. The advantages and limitations of both types of studies are discussed and it is argued that a combination of both approaches is needed to investigate cognitive mechanisms in PTSD.
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The Depressive Attributions Questionnaire (DAQ): Development of a Short Self-Report Measure of Depressogenic Attributions.
J Psychopathol Behav Assess
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2011
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A depressogenic attributional style, i.e., internal, stable and global causal interpretations of negative events, is a stable vulnerability factor for depression. Current measures of pessimistic attributional style can be time-consuming to complete, and some are designed for specific use with student populations. We developed and validated a new short questionnaire suitable for the measurement of depressogenic attributions in clinical settings, the Depressive Attributions Questionnaire (DAQ). The 16-item DAQ, and measures of depression and related cognitive concepts were completed by three samples of depressed patients and matched controls, or depressed and non-depressed participants who had been exposed to a recent uncontrollable stressful life event (total N?=?375). The DAQ had high (i) internal reliability, (ii) test-retest reliability, (iii) convergent, discriminant and construct validity. It predicted a diagnosis of major depression at 6 months after an uncontrollable stressor, over and above what could be predicted from initial depression severity. Depressed patients rated the scale as acceptable. The DAQ may be a useful short measure of depressogenic attributions, which is easy to administer, and predicts concurrent and future depression. It has possible applications as a screening measure for risk of depression, or as a treatment process measure.
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Classical Hodgkins lymphoma shows epigenetic features of abortive plasma cell differentiation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Epigenetic changes are involved in the extinction of the B-cell gene expression program of classical Hodgkins lymphoma. However, little is known regarding epigenetic similarities between cells of classical Hodgkins lymphoma and plasma cell myeloma, both of which share extinction of the gene expression program of mature B cells.
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Intraclass correlation associated with therapists: estimates and applications in planning psychotherapy research.
Cogn Behav Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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It is essential that outcome research permit clear conclusions to be drawn about the efficacy of interventions. The common practice of nesting therapists within conditions can pose important methodological challenges that affect interpretation, particularly if the study is not powered to account for the nested design. An obstacle to the optimal design of these studies is the lack of data about the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), which measures the statistical dependencies introduced by nesting. To begin the development of a public database of ICC estimates, the authors investigated ICCs for a variety outcomes reported in 20 psychotherapy outcome studies. The magnitude of the 495 ICC estimates varied widely across measures and studies. The authors provide recommendations regarding how to select and aggregate ICC estimates for power calculations and show how researchers can use ICC estimates to choose the number of patients and therapists that will optimize power. Attention to these recommendations will strengthen the validity of inferences drawn from psychotherapy studies that nest therapists within conditions.
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Sex differences in heart rate responses to script-driven imagery soon after trauma and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2010
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To investigate in trauma survivors the predictive validity of heightened physiological responsivity to script-driven imagery for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to evaluate the interactive effect of survivors sex. Physiological responses to idiosyncratic trauma reminders may be predictive of later PTSD. The majority of previous studies have been cross sectional and have produced mixed findings. Sex differences may contribute to this heterogeneity.
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Analysis of the passage of the marine biotoxin okadaic acid through an in vitro human gut barrier.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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The marine biotoxin okadaic acid (OA), produced by dinoflagellates, can accumulate in various bivalve molluscs. In humans, oral consumption of shellfish contaminated with OA induces acute toxic effects like diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. However, tumorigenic and embryotoxic effects of OA have been also described. Current toxicokinetic studies with mice were performed with high cytotoxic oral doses leading presumably to a paracellular passage of OA through the gastrointestinal barrier. There are no studies available analyzing the absorption at low concentrations, which represent a realistic dietary exposure, making a reliable risk assessment difficult. Therefore, we performed a low-dose study using the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model to simulate the intestinal barrier. Low level exposure of 20-200 nM OA to the cell monolayer allows an only limited passage from the "luminal" to the "blood side". Furthermore, we could detect a significant efflux of OA, which led to the suggestion that active transport mechanisms are involved in the elimination process of OA. In conclusion, our results indicate that besides the well known defense mechanisms of humans against this marine biotoxin--vomiting and diarrhea--further detoxification mechanisms are available to limit the absorption of toxic OA.
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Self-study assisted cognitive therapy for PTSD: a case study.
Eur J Psychotraumatol
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2010
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Research has demonstrated that Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD), a version of trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy developed by Ehlers and Clarks group (2000), is effective and feasible when offered in weekly and intensive daily formats. It is unknown whether patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could engage in and benefit from self-study assisted cognitive therapy, which would reduce therapist contact time.
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The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ): validation of a content-independent measure of repetitive negative thinking.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) has been found to be involved in the maintenance of several types of emotional problems and has therefore been suggested to be a transdiagnostic process. However, existing measures of RNT typically focus on a particular disorder-specific content. In this article, the preliminary validation of a content-independent self-report questionnaire of RNT is presented. The 15-item Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was evaluated in two studies (total N = 1832), comprising non-clinical as well as clinical participants. Results of confirmatory factor analyses across samples supported a second-order model with one higher-order factor representing RNT in general and three lower-order factors representing (1) the core characteristics of RNT (repetitiveness, intrusiveness, difficulties with disengagement), (2) perceived unproductiveness of RNT and (3) RNT capturing mental capacity. High internal consistencies and high re-test reliability were found for the total scale and all three subscales. The validity of the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was supported by substantial correlations with existing measures of RNT and associations with symptom levels and clinical diagnoses of depression and anxiety. Results suggest the usefulness of the new measure for research into RNT as a transdiagnostic process.
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Intensive cognitive therapy for PTSD: a feasibility study.
Behav Cogn Psychother
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) of anxiety disorders is usually delivered in weekly or biweekly sessions. There is evidence that intensive CBT can be effective in phobias and obsessive compulsive disorder. Studies of intensive CBT for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are lacking.
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Reducing unwanted trauma memories by imaginal exposure or autobiographical memory elaboration: an analogue study of memory processes.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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Unwanted memories of traumatic events are a core symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. A range of interventions including imaginal exposure and elaboration of the trauma memory in its autobiographical context are effective in reducing such unwanted memories. This study explored whether priming for stimuli that occur in the context of trauma and evaluative conditioning may play a role in the therapeutic effects of these procedures. Healthy volunteers (N = 122) watched analogue traumatic and neutral picture stories. They were then randomly allocated to 20 min of either imaginal exposure, autobiographical memory elaboration, or a control condition designed to prevent further processing of the picture stories. A blurred picture identification task showed that neutral objects that preceded traumatic pictures in the stories were subsequently more readily identified than those that had preceded neutral stories, indicating enhanced priming. There was also an evaluative conditioning effect in that participants disliked neutral objects that had preceded traumatic pictures more. Autobiographical memory elaboration reduced the enhanced priming effect. Both interventions reduced the evaluative conditioning effect. Imaginal exposure and autobiographical memory elaboration both reduced the frequency of subsequent unwanted memories of the picture stories.
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Heart rate responses to standardized trauma-related pictures in acute posttraumatic stress disorder.
Int J Psychophysiol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
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Physiological responses to trauma reminders are one of the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nevertheless, screening measures for PTSD largely rely on symptom self-reports. It has been suggested that psychophysiological assessments may be useful in identifying trauma survivors with PTSD (Orr and Roth, 2000). This study investigated whether heart rate (HR) responses to standardized trauma-related pictures distinguish between trauma survivors with and without acute PTSD. Survivors of motor vehicle accidents or physical assaults (N=162) watched standardized trauma-related, generally threatening and neutral pictures at 1 month post-trauma while their ECG was recorded. At 1 and 6 months, structured clinical interviews assessed PTSD diagnoses. Participants completed self-report measures of PTSD severity and depression, peritraumatic responses, coping behaviors and appraisals. Trauma survivors with acute PTSD showed greater HR responses to trauma-related pictures than those without PTSD, as indicated by a less pronounced mean deceleration, greater peak responses, and a greater proportion showing HR acceleration of greater than 1 beat per minute. There were no group differences in HR responses to generally threatening or neutral pictures. HR responses to trauma-related pictures contributed to the prediction of PTSD diagnosis over and above what could be predicted from self-reports of PTSD and depression. HR responses to trauma-related pictures were related to fear and data-driven processing during the trauma, safety behaviors, suppression of trauma memories, and overgeneralized appraisals of danger. The results suggest that HR responses to standardized trauma-related pictures may help identify a subgroup of patients with acute PTSD who show generalized fear responses to trauma reminders. The early generalization of triggers of reexperiencing symptoms observed in this study is consistent with associative learning and cognitive models of PTSD.
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Early heart rate responses to standardized trauma-related pictures predict posttraumatic stress disorder: a prospective study.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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Objective: To investigate whether chronic posttraumatic stress disorder can be predicted by heart rate responses (HRR) and skin conductance responses (SCR) to standardized trauma-related pictures at 1 month after trauma has ocurred. Trauma survivors with PTSD report heightened physiological responses to a wide range of stimuli. It has been suggested that associative learning and stimulus generalization play a key role in the development of these symptoms. Some studies have found that trauma survivors with PTSD show greater physiological responses to individualized trauma reminders in the initial weeks after trauma than those without PTSD. Methods: Survivors of motor vehicle accidents or physical assaults (n = 166) watched standardized trauma-related, generally threatening, and neutral pictures at 1 month post trauma, as their HRR and SCR were recorded. PTSD symptoms were assessed with structured clinical interviews at 1 month and 6 months; self-reports of fear responses and dissociation during trauma were obtained soon after the trauma. Results: At 1 month, trauma survivors with PTSD showed greater HRR to trauma-related pictures than those without PTSD, but not to general threat or neutral pictures. HRR to trauma-related pictures predicted PTSD severity at 1 month and 6 months, and were related to fear and dissociation during trauma. SCR were not related to PTSD. Conclusion: HRR to standardized trauma reminders at 1 month after the trauma differentiate between trauma survivors with and without PTSD, and predict chronic PTSD. Results are consistent with a role of associative learning in PTSD and suggest that early stimulus generalization may be an indicator of risk for chronic PTSD.
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Clinically significant avoidance of public transport following the London bombings: travel phobia or subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder?
J Anxiety Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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Following the London bombings of 7 July 2005 a "screen and treat" program was set up with the aim of providing rapid treatment for psychological responses in individuals directly affected. The present study found that 45% of the 596 respondents to the screening program reported phobic fear of public transport in a screening questionnaire. The screening program identified 255 bombing survivors who needed treatment for a psychological disorder. Of these, 20 (8%) suffered from clinically significant travel phobia. However, many of these individuals also reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]. Comparisons between the travel phobia group and a sex-matched group of bombing survivors with PTSD showed that the travel phobic group reported fewer re-experiencing and arousal symptoms on the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (Brewin et al., 2002). The only PTSD symptoms that differentiated the groups were anger problems and feeling upset by reminders of the bombings. There was no difference between the groups in the reported severity of trauma or in presence of daily transport difficulties. Implications of these results for future trauma response are discussed.
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Embryotoxic effects of the marine biotoxin okadaic acid on murine embryonic stem cells.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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Okadaic acid (OA), a marine toxin produced by dinoflagellates, can accumulate in various bivalve molluscs. In humans, consumption of OA induces acute toxic effects like diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. OA is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A), enzymes that are known to be critical regulators of embryonic development. To determine the embryotoxic potential of OA, we performed two independent cellular in-vitro assays, both of which are applicable for the detection of teratogenic compounds: (i) the validated embryonic stem cell test (EST) based on the morphological analysis of beating cardiomyocytes in embryoid bodies and (ii) the F9 cell assay quantifying the induction of cell differentiation by measuring the emitted luminescence of a reporter gene. In the presence of OA, beating cardiomyocytes in the EST were inhibited and the reporter gene in transiently transfected F9 cells was activated. Furthermore, OA treatment led to rapid morphological changes including cell rounding, the loss of cell-cell contacts and changed electrical impedance as monitored in real time by the xCELLigence system. The two independent bioassays (EST and F9 cell test) detected OA as a potential embryotoxic compound, since OA influences the differentiation process of cultured murine embryonic cells.
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The effects of rumination on mood and intrusive memories after exposure to traumatic material: An experimental study.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2009
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Correlational studies have shown that trauma-related rumination predicts chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to experimentally test the hypothesis that rumination is causally involved in the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms. A video depicting the aftermath of serious road traffic accidents was used as an analogue stressor. After having watched the video, N=101 healthy participants were randomly assigned to a guided thinking task designed to induce (a) rumination, (b) memory integration and (c) distraction. In line with the hypotheses, rumination led to less recovery from sad mood triggered by the video than the other two conditions. In addition, self-reported state levels of rumination during the guided thinking task predicted subsequent intrusive memories in the session. However, no significant main effect of the experimental manipulation on intrusive memories of the video was found. Results of exploratory analyses suggested possible sex differences in the way the processing manipulations were effective. Taken together, the results partially support the hypothesis that rumination is involved in the maintenance of negative mood and post-traumatic stress symptoms.
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Gene transcription analysis of carrot allergens by relative quantification with single and duplex reverse transcription real-time PCR.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
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Single and duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems have been developed to quantify specific mRNA transcription of genes coding for the major Daucus carota allergen isoforms Dau c 1.01 and Dau c 1.02. Methods were tested with samples from the local market. Whereas the gene transcription levels for Dau c 1.01 were consistently high in all investigated samples, significant differences for the Dau c 1.02 transcription could be demonstrated in randomly collected market samples. The gene transcription level for the minor Dau c 1.02 variant is about one log below Dau c 1.01. Both formats, single or duplex real-time methods, exhibit ideal cycle threshold (CT) ranges and good reproducibility. In particular, the easily performed duplex real-time PCR system is potentially suited for the selection of hypoallergenic varieties and studying the impact of post-harvesting or environmental conditions.
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Do all psychological treatments really work the same in posttraumatic stress disorder?
Clin Psychol Rev
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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A recent meta-analysis by Benish, Imel, and Wampold (2008, Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 746-758) concluded that all bona fide treatments are equally effective in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In contrast, seven other meta-analyses or systematic reviews concluded that there is good evidence that trauma-focused psychological treatments (trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) are effective in PTSD; but that treatments that do not focus on the patients trauma memories or their meanings are either less effective or not yet sufficiently studied. International treatment guidelines therefore recommend trauma-focused psychological treatments as first-line treatments for PTSD. We examine possible reasons for the discrepant conclusions and argue that (1) the selection procedure of the available evidence used in Benish et al.s (2008)meta-analysis introduces bias, and (2) the analysis and conclusions fail to take into account the need to demonstrate that treatments for PTSD are more effective than natural recovery. Furthermore, significant increases in effect sizes of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapies over the past two decades contradict the conclusion that content of treatment does not matter. To advance understanding of the optimal treatment for PTSD, we recommend further research into the active mechanisms of therapeutic change, including treatment elements commonly considered to be non-specific. We also recommend transparency in reporting exclusions in meta-analyses and suggest that bona fide treatments should be defined on empirical and theoretical grounds rather than by judgments of the investigators intent.
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Treating clinically significant avoidance of public transport following the London bombings?
Behav Cogn Psychother
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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The present paper describes the cognitive-behavioural approach evolved and adapted to treat survivors of the London bombings experiencing fear and avoidance of public transport (travel phobia).
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Amnesia for violent crime among young offenders.
J Forens Psychiatry Psychol
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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Amnesia for the perpetration of violent offences is an important issue in medico-legal proceedings. Previous studies of amnesia have mainly relied on selected groups of unconvicted offenders, which raises the question of how reliable the findings are. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and phenomenological qualities of amnesia in violent offenders. In semi-structured interviews with 105 young offenders convicted of serious violence, 20 (19%) reported partial amnesia for their offence and only one (1%) reported complete amnesia. Amnesia was associated with high alcohol intake, emotional ties to the victim, and cognitive processing during the assault. Complete amnesia for violent crime appears to be less frequent than suggested by previous reports using unconvicted samples. The findings have implications for the clinical assessment of claimed amnesia for violent crime and are potentially of medico-legal significance.
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Evidence for a curvilinear relationship between posttraumatic growth and posttrauma depression and PTSD in assault survivors.
J Trauma Stress
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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Two studies of assault survivors (Ns = 180, 70) examined associations between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttrauma psychopathology. Both studies found significant curvilinear associations between PTG and posttraumatic stress disorder, whereas only Study 1 found a curvilinear association between PTG and depression symptom severity. Survivors with no or high growth levels reported fewer symptoms than those who reported moderate growth. Study 1 also investigated potential PTG predictors. Non-Caucasian ethnicity, religiousness, peritraumatic fear, shame, and ruminative thinking style, assessed at 2 weeks, predicted growth at 6 months. Posttraumatic growth may thus be most relevant in trauma survivors who attach enduring significance to the trauma for their lives and show initial distress. Moderate levels of PTG do not seem to ameliorate posttrauma psychopathology.
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A novel approach for the detection of DNA using immobilized peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes and signal enhancement by real-time immuno-polymerase chain reaction (RT-iPCR).
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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A new approach for the detection of DNA target molecules is described, using capture probes and subsequent signal enhancement by a uniform polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Peptide nucleic acid probes were immobilized in real-time PCR-compatible microtiter plates. After hybridization of biotinylated DNA targets, detection was performed by real-time immuno-PCR, a method formerly used for protein detection. We demonstrate the feasibility of this strategy for the qualitative detection of DNA oligonucleotides with a detection limit (LOD) of 6 attomol. Furthermore, the method was applied to PCR-amplified samples from genetically modified maize DNA (Mon810). A 483-bp DNA fragment was detected in mixture with 99.9% of noncomplementary DNA with a sensitivity down to the level of attomole.
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Low Recognition of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Primary Care.
London J Prim Care (Abingdon)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common and disabling disorder that develops as a consequence of traumatic events and is characterised by distressing re-experiencing of parts of the trauma, avoidance of reminders, emotional numbing and hyperarousal. The NICE guidelines for PTSD (2005) recommend trauma-focused psychological therapy as the first-line treatment. A survey of 129 general practitioners in South London investigated the recognition and treatment of PTSD in primary care. The majority of GPs underestimated the prevalence of PTSD. Most PTSD patients seen in GP surgeries currently do not receive or are not referred for NICE recommended psychological treatments. Medications, especially SSRIs, appear to more commonly prescribed than recommended by NICE. Efforts to disseminate information about PTSD and effective treatments to both patients and GPs are needed to increase recognition rates and prompter access to treatment. The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme will make the NICE recommended treatments more widely available and will allow self-referral by adults with PTSD to trauma-focused psychological therapy.
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Perceptual processing during trauma, priming and the development of intrusive memories.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
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Intrusive reexperiencing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly triggered by stimuli with perceptual similarity to those present during the trauma. Information processing theories suggest that perceptual processing during the trauma and enhanced perceptual priming contribute to the easy triggering of intrusive memories by these cues.
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Investigating Cognitive Pathways to Psychopathology: Predicting Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder From Early Responses After Assault.
Psychol Trauma
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Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common after trauma, but it remains unclear what factors determine which disorder a trauma survivor will develop. A prospective longitudinal study of 222 assault survivors assessed candidate predictors derived from cognitive models of depression and PTSD at 2 weeks posttrauma (N = 222), and depression and PTSD symptom severities (N = 183, 82%) and diagnoses at 6 months (N = 205, 92%). Structural equation modeling showed that the depression and PTSD models predicted both depression and PTSD symptom severity, but that the disorder-specific models predicted the respective outcome best (43% for depression, 59% for PTSD symptom severity). Maintaining cognitive variables (hopelessness and self-devaluative thoughts in depression; cognitive responses to intrusive memories and persistent dissociation in PTSD) showed the clearest specific relationships with outcome. Model-derived variables predicted depression and PTSD diagnoses at 6 months over and above what could be predicted from initial diagnoses. Results support the role of cognitive factors in the development of depression and PTSD after trauma, and provide preliminary evidence for some specificity in maintaining cognitive mechanisms.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.