Cord blood transplant (CBT) extends allograft access but is associated with a significant risk for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. We analyzed CMV infection in 157 CBT recipients transplanted for hematological malignancies. As compared with antigenemia testing, routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) monitoring was associated with increased and earlier CMV infection detection (1-year incidence if seropositive 67% [median onset 41 days] vs. 100% at an earlier 33-day median [p < 0.001]) and decreased gastrointestinal disease. One-year CMV-related transplant-related mortality was 11% in CMV+ patients with 7/9 deaths associated with initial infection. Disease-free survival was lower in seropositive compared with seronegative patients (1-year: 55% vs. 73%, p = 0.02). However, in multivariate analysis adjusting for age, treatment failure risk in CMV+ patients was not significant (hazard ratio 1.52, p = 0.11). CMV infection is a major challenge in seropositive CBT recipients. While PCR surveillance permits early detection of viremia, new prophylaxis and therapeutic strategies are needed.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are at high risk for developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We studied the incidence, risk factors, NAP1/027 prevalence, and clinical outcomes, including acute lower gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GI GVHD), associated with early CDI in this population. A retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from January 1, 2005 to September 30, 2010. Early CDI was defined as infection occurring from day -10 to day +40 from stem cell infusion. Among 793 patients who received allogeneic HSCTs, early CDI occurred in 11.9%; 56% cases were between day -5 and day +5. Overall incidence was 25.2 cases/10,000 at-risk days. There was a high prevalence of NAP1/027 strains during peak incidence (61% in 2008). NAP1/027 was the most common strain in both adult and pediatric cases (24% and 23%, respectively). CDI was clinically mild, including those due to NAP1/027. Metronidazole was the primary treatment for 91 of 94 patients, 7 of 8 cases refractory to metronidazole had no response to vancomycin, and none was due to NAP1/027. Relapse of CDI was common (31%). The cumulative incidence of GI GVHD in patients with and without early CDI was 6.8% and 8%, respectively (P = .5). Most cases of CDI occurred during conditioning or immediately after transplant. Despite high prevalence of NAP1/027, we found only mild disease. Most patients were treated successfully with metronidazole, irrespective of NAP1/027 status. There was no significant association between early CDI and subsequent development of GI GVHD. This study demonstrates the high incidence of CDI early after allogeneic HSCT with wide diversity among infecting strains. Despite the high prevalence of NAP1/027, the disease is mild but relapses are common. No association was found between CDI and subsequent development of GI GVHD.
Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens for allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) have used alemtuzumab to abrogate the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Thirty-eight patients with advanced lymphoma underwent a prospective phase II study of melphalan, fludarabine and alemtuzumab containing RIC allo-SCT from 20 matched related and 18 unrelated donors with cyclosporine-A as GVHD prophylaxis. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD at 3 months was 10.5% and three evaluable patients experienced chronic GVHD. Progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival at 5 years was 25% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13-40%) and 44% (95% CI: 28-59%), respectively. Previous high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplant (HDT-ASCT) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at the time of allo-SCT resulted in inferior OS. Within this cohort of patients with high-risk lymphoma, alemtuzumab containing RIC resulted in a low risk of GVHD and a high incidence of progression of disease, especially in those with poor-risk features defined by elevated LDH pre-allo-SCT and previous HDT-ASCT.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) disproportionately affects older patients, who do not often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We analyzed Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data on 1248 patients age ?40 years receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning HCT for aggressive (n = 668) or indolent (n = 580) NHL. Aggressive lymphoma was more frequent in the oldest cohort 49% for age 40 to 54 versus 57% for age 55 to 64 versus 67% for age ?65; P = .0008). Fewer patients aged ?65 had previous autografting (26% versus 24% versus 9%; P = .002). Rates of relapse, acute and chronic GVHD, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year post-HCT were similar in the 3 age cohorts (22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19% to 26%] for age 40 to 54, 27% [95% CI, 23% to 31%] for age 55 to 64, and 34% [95% CI, 24% to 44%] for age ?65. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years was slightly lower in the older cohorts (OS: 54% [95% CI, 50% to 58%] for age 40 to 54; 40% [95% CI, 36% to 44%] for age 55 to 64, and 39% [95% CI, 28% to 50%] for age ?65; P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant effect of age on the incidence of acute or chronic GVHD or relapse. Age ?55 years, Karnofsky Performance Status <80, and HLA mismatch adversely affected NRM, PFS, and OS. Disease status at HCT, but not histological subtype, was associated with worse NRM, relapse, PFS, and OS. Even for patients age ?55 years, OS still approached 40% at 3 years, suggesting that HCT affects long-term remission and remains underused in qualified older patients with NHL.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at significant risk for BK virus (BKV) reactivation, hemorrhagic cystitis (HC), and renal dysfunction. We prospectively monitored 98 patients who had received HSCT by serial BKV PCR in the urine through day (D) +100 to analyze the relationship between BK viruria and HC, serum creatinine (Cr), and creatinine clearance (CrCl) through D +180 or death. Patients, median age 52 years (range, 20 to 73), received T cell-depleted (50%) or cord blood allografts (21%). Median pre-HSCT BKV IgG titers were 1:10,240. Incremental increase in BKV IgG titers correlated with developing BK viruria ? 10(7) copies/mL. By D +100, 53 (54%) patients had BK viruria. BKV load in the urine increased at engraftment and persisted throughout D +100. HC developed in 10 patients (10%); 7 of 10 with BK viruria. In competing risk analyses, BK viruria ? 10(7) copies/mL, older age, cytomegalovirus reactivation, and foscarnet use were risk factors for HC. Cr and CrCl at 2, 3, and 6 months after HSCT were similar between patients with and without BK viruria.
In subjects mismatched in the HLA alleles C*03:03/C*03:04 no allogeneic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses are detected in vitro. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with unrelated donors (UDs) showed no association between the HLA-C allele mismatches (CAMMs) and adverse outcomes; antigen mismatches at this and mismatches other HLA loci are deleterious. The absence of effect of the CAMM may have resulted from the predominance of the mismatch C*03:03/C*03:04. Patients with hematologic malignancies receiving UD HSCT matched in 8/8 and 7/8 HLA alleles were examined. Transplants mismatched in HLA-C antigens or mismatched in HLA-A, -B, or -DRB1 presented significant differences (P < .0001) in mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.37, 1.30), disease-free survival (HR = 1.33, 1.27), treatment-related mortality (HR = 1.54, 1.54), and grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (HR = 1.49, 1.77) compared with the 8/8 group; transplants mismatched in other CAMMs had similar outcomes with HR ranging from 1.34 to 172 for these endpoints. The C*03:03/C*03:04 mismatched and the 8/8 matched groups had identical outcomes (HR ranging from 0.96-1.05). The previous finding that CAMMs do not associate with adverse outcomes is explained by the predominance (69%) of the mismatch C*03:03/03:04 in this group that is better tolerated than other HLA mismatches.
HLA disparity has a negative impact on the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied the independent impact of amino acid substitution (AAS) at peptide-binding positions 9, 99, 116, and 156, and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor binding position 77 of HLA-A, B, or C, on the risks for grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, treatment-related mortality (TRM), relapse, and overall survival. In multivariate analysis, a mismatch at HLA-C position 116 was associated with increased risk for severe acute GVHD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-1.82, P = .0016). Mismatch at HLA-C position 99 was associated with increased transplant-related mortality (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.1-1.69, P = .0038). Mismatch at HLA-B position 9 was associated with increased chronic GVHD (HR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.36-3.82, P = .0018). No AAS were significantly associated with outcome at HLA-A. Specific AAS pair combinations with a frequency >30 were tested for association with HCT outcomes. Cysteine to tyrosine substitution at position 99 of HLA-C was associated with increased TRM (HR = 1.78, 95% = CI 1.27-2.51, P = .0009). These results demonstrate that donor-recipient mismatch for certain peptide-binding residues of the HLA class I molecule is associated with increased risk for acute and chronic GVHD and death.
The aim of this prospective phase II trial was to determine the safety and efficacy of a nonmyeloablative conditioning program incorporating peritransplant rituximab in patients with CD20+ B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) receiving an allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT). Fifty-one adult B-NHL patients, with a median age of 54 years, were treated with cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and 200 cGy of total body irradiation. Rituximab 375 mg/m(2) was given on day -8 and in 4 weekly doses beginning day +21. Equine antithymocyte globulin was given to recipients of volunteer unrelated donor grafts. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus, sirolimus, and methotrexate in 8 and 43 patients, respectively. Thirty-three patients received grafts from unrelated donors, and 18 received grafts from matched related donors. All patients engrafted. Full donor chimerism in bone marrow and peripheral T cells was seen in 92% and 89% of patients, respectively, at 3 months after allo-SCT. The cumulative incidence of grades II to IV acute GVHD at 6 months was 25% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13% to 38%) and grades III to IV was 11% (95% CI, 2% to 20%). The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 29% (95% CI, 15% to 44%). The 2-year event-free and overall survival for all patients was 72% (95% CI, 59% to 85%) and 78% (95% CI, 66% to 90%), respectively. The 2-year event-free survival for chemosensitive patients was 84% (95% CI, 72% to 96%) compared with 30% (95% CI, 2% to 58%) for chemorefractory patients before allo-SCT (P < .001). This nonmyeloablative regimen, with peritransplant rituximab, is safe and effective in patients with B-NHL.
Advances in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have led to an increasing number of transplant survivors. To adequately support their healthcare needs, there is a need to know the prevalence of HCT survivors. We used data on 170,628 recipients of autologous and allogeneic HCT reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research from 1968 to 2009 to estimate the current and future number of HCT survivors in the United States. Stacked cohort simulation models were used to estimate the number of HCT survivors in the United States in 2009 and to make projections for HCT survivors by the year 2030. There were 108,900 (range, 100,500 to 115,200) HCT survivors in the United States in 2009. This included 67,000 autologous HCT and 41,900 allogeneic HCT survivors. The number of HCT survivors is estimated to increase by 2.5 times by the year 2020 (242,000 survivors) and 5 times by the year 2030 (502,000 survivors). By 2030, the age at transplant will be < 18 years for 14% of all survivors (n = 64,000), 18 to 59 years for 61% survivors (n = 276,000), and 60 years and older for 25% of survivors (n = 113,000). In coming decades, a large number of individuals will be HCT survivors. Transplant center providers, hematologists, oncologists, primary care physicians, and other specialty providers will need to be familiar with the unique and complex health issues faced by this population.
This study was conducted to retrospectively compare the clinical outcomes after transplantation of T cell-depleted (TCD) and unmodified allografts in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). Patients received TCD grafts at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC, N = 115) between 2001 and 2010 using the following preparative regimens: hyperfractionated total body irradiation (HFTBI)+thiotepa+fludarabine; HFTBI+thiotepa+cyclophosphamide; or i.v. busulfan+melphalan+fludarabine. TCD was performed by 1 of 2 immunomagnetic CD34(+) cell selection methods for peripheral blood grafts or by soybean lectin agglutination followed by sheep red blood cell-rosette depletion for bone marrow grafts. No additional graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was administered. Patients received unmodified grafts at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC, N = 181) after conditioning with busulfan+fludarabine and GVHD prophylaxis with tacrolimus+mini-methotrexate. Patients with unrelated or human leukocyte antigen-mismatched donors received anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) at both centers, with some recipients of matched related donor TCD transplants also receiving ATG, depending upon the preparative regimen. TCD graft recipients were more likely to be older, receive a mismatched transplant, and have peripheral blood used as the graft source. The incidences rates of grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD and chronic GVHD were significantly lower in the TCD graft group (5% versus 18%, and 13% versus 53%). Three-year relapse-free and overall survival rates were 58% and 57%, respectively, in recipients of TCD grafts, and 60% and 66% in recipients of unmodified grafts (P = not significant). Survival and relapse-free survival are similar after TCD and conventional transplants from related/unrelated donors in patients with AML in CR1, but TCD significantly reduces GVHD.
A preparative regimen of reduced intensity that can reliably engraft cord blood (CB) and can be used as an alternative to either high-dose myeloablative or nonmyeloablative conditioning is needed. We evaluated double-unit CB transplantation in 30 patients (median age, 56 years; range, 18 to 69) with acute leukemia or myelodysplasia using a regimen of cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg, fludarabine 150 mg/m(2), thiotepa 10 mg/kg, and 400 cGy total body irradiation with cyclosporine-A/mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppression. Ninety-seven percent of patients engrafted at a median of 26 days (range, 13 to 43), and 93% of patients had recovered platelets by day 180. Grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) incidence was 67% at day 180, and chronic GVHD was 10% at 1 year. Transplant-related mortality was 20% at day 180, and relapse was 11% at 2 years. Overall, 2-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 60% at 2 years. A hierarchy in DFS was seen according to the Sorror comorbidity score: 11 patients (median age, 55 years) with a score of 1 had a 2-year DFS of 82% compared with 62% in 9 patients (median age, 51 years) with a score of 2 to 3 and 40% in 11 patients (median age, 58 years) with a score of 4 to 5 (P = .13). This reduced-intensity regimen combined with double-unit CB transplantation reliably facilitates sustained donor engraftment without antithymocyte globulin. Although other approaches are needed in patients with high comorbidity scores, this regimen is highly effective in patients ?50 years old who are otherwise reasonably fit. It also represents a promising alternative to high-dose conditioning in younger patients.
We evaluated HLA-compatible donor leukocyte infusions (DLIs) and HLA-compatible or HLA-disparate EBV-specific T cells (EBV-CTLs) in 49 hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients with biopsy-proven EBV-lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD). DLIs and EBV-CTLs each induced durable complete or partial remissions in 73% and 68% of treated patients including 74% and 72% of patients surviving ? 8 days after infusion, respectively. Reversible acute GVHD occurred in recipients of DLIs (17%) but not EBV-CTLs. The probability of complete response was significantly lower among patients with multiorgan involvement. In responders, DLIs and EBV-CTLs regularly induced exponential increases in EBV-specific CTL precursor (EBV-CTLp) frequencies within 7-14 days, with subsequent clearance of EBV viremia and resolution of disease. In nonresponders, EBV-CTLps did not increase and EBV viremia persisted. Treatment failures were correlated with impaired T-cell recognition of tumor targets. Either donor-derived EBV-CTLs that had been sensitized with autologous BLCLs transformed by EBV strain B95.8 could not lyse spontaneous donor-derived EBV-transformed BLCLs expanded from the patients blood or biopsied tumor or they failed to lyse their targets because they were selectively restricted by HLA alleles not shared by the EBV-LPD. Therefore, either unselected DLIs or EBV-specific CTLs can eradicate both untreated and Rituxan-resistant lymphomatous EBV-LPD, with failures ascribable to impaired T-cell recognition of tumor-associated viral antigens or their presenting HLA alleles.
Cytogenetics play a major role in determining the prognosis of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, existing cytogenetics classifications were developed in chemotherapy-treated patients and might not be optimal for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied 821 adult patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) who underwent HCT for AML in first or second complete remission between 1999 and 2004. We compared the ability of the 6 existing classifications to stratify patients by overall survival. We then defined a new scheme specifically applicable to patients undergoing HCT using this patient cohort. Under this scheme, inv(16) is favorable, a complex karyotype (4 or more abnormalities) is adverse, and all other classified abnormalities are intermediate in predicting survival after HCT (5-year overall survival, 64%, 18%, and 50%, respectively; P = .0001). This scheme stratifies patients into 3 groups with similar nonrelapse mortality, but significantly different incidences of relapse, overall and leukemia-free survival. It applies to patients regardless of disease status (first or second complete remission), donor type (matched related or unrelated), or conditioning intensity (myeloablative or reduced intensity). This transplantation-specific classification could be adopted for prognostication purposes and to stratify patients with AML and karyotypic abnormalities entering HCT clinical trials.
Cord blood transplantation (CB-T) is increasingly used as a treatment alternative for hematologic malignancies. However, how CB-T compares to related (RD-T) and unrelated donor transplantation (URD-T) is not established. We compared survival of 75 double-unit CB-T, 108 RD-T, and 184 URD-T recipients who received transplants over the same period for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Patients had similar ages and disease risk, and a similar percentage had acute leukemia. The incidence of day 180 transplant-related mortality (TRM) of 21% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12-31) after CB-T was higher than that of RD-T recipients. However, this was compensated for by a low risk of TRM after day 180, and a relatively low incidence of relapse. Hence, the 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 55% (95% CI: 45-68) after CB-T was similar to that after RD-T or URD-T (P = .573). In multivariate analysis, donor source had no influence on PFS, with the only significant factors being recipient age and disease risk. In a subanalysis of 201 patients with acute leukemia, CB-T, RD-T, and URD-T recipients also had similar 2-year disease-free survival (P = .482). These data provide strong support for the further investigation of double-unit CB grafts as an alternative hematopoietic stem cell source.
We report a prospective phase II clinical trial in 35 adult patients (median age 40.5 years) with hematologic malignancies who received T cell-depleted, hematopoietic stem cell transplants from HLA-compatible, unrelated donors. The cytoreductive regimen consisted of hyperfractionated total-body irradiation, thiotepa, and fludarabine. The preferred graft source was granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). PBSC were CD34(+) selected, followed by sheep erythrocyte rosetting to deplete residual T cells. Anti-thymocyte globulin provided graft rejection prophylaxis. No additional graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was planned. Estimated disease-free survival at 4 years is 56.8% for the entire group and 75% in patients with standard-risk disease. The cumulative incidence of relapse is 6%. Acute GVHD grade II-III developed in 9% and chronic GVHD in 29% of patients. Fatal infections occurred in 5 of 35 (14%) patients. There was 1 late graft failure. This study demonstrates durable engraftment with a low overall incidence of GVHD. Its curative potential is reflected in the remarkably low relapse rate at 4 years.
Purpose: To update American Society of Hematology/American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations for use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in patients with cancer. Methods: An Update Committee reviewed data published between January 2007 and January 2010. MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library were searched. Results: The literature search yielded one new individual patient data analysis and four literature-based meta-analyses, two systematic reviews, and 13 publications reporting new results from randomized controlled trials not included in prior or new reviews. Recommendations: For patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy who have a hemoglobin (Hb) level less than 10 g/dL, the Update Committee recommends that clinicians discuss potential harms (eg, thromboembolism, shorter survival) and benefits (eg, decreased transfusions) of ESAs and compare these with potential harms (eg, serious infections, immune-mediated adverse reactions) and benefits (eg, rapid Hb improvement) of RBC transfusions. Individual preferences for assumed risk should contribute to shared decisions on managing chemotherapy-induced anemia. The Committee cautions against ESA use under other circumstances. If used, ESAs should be administered at the lowest dose possible and should increase Hb to the lowest concentration possible to avoid transfusions. Available evidence does not identify Hb levels ? 10 g/dL either as thresholds for initiating treatment or as targets for ESA therapy. Starting doses and dose modifications after response or nonresponse should follow US Food and Drug Administration-approved labeling. ESAs should be discontinued after 6 to 8 weeks in nonresponders. ESAs should be avoided in patients with cancer not receiving concurrent chemotherapy, except for those with lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Caution should be exercised when using ESAs with chemotherapeutic agents in diseases associated with increased risk of thromboembolic complications. Table 1 lists detailed recommendations.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents an extended period of physiologic stress. It is unknown whether patients with pre-existing coronary artery disease (CAD) may be poor transplant candidates. There are no data analyzing the risk of transplantation in this population. Sixty-nine patients with CAD who underwent 72 transplantations, autologous and allogeneic, were identified retrospectively. Fifty-five percent of these patients had prior percutaneous coronary intervention, 42% had verifiable history of myocardial infarction, and 23% had prior coronary artery bypass grafting. Outcomes were compared to 1109 patients without established CAD who underwent 1183 transplants during the same time period. Cancer diagnoses in the 2 groups were similar, predominantly lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and leukemia. There was no significant difference between the CAD group and the control group with respect to type of transplant (autologous 68% versus 64%, P = .612, myeloablative 86% versus 85%, P = .867). Treatment-related mortality was no different in the CAD group versus the control group (5.6% versus 4.9%, P = .777), nor were there differences in mortality at 1 year (15.3% versus 16.6%, P = .871), urgent intensive care unit admission (11.1% versus 9.9%, P = .686), or length of stay (25.5 days versus 28.4 days, P = .195). These findings suggest many patients with underlying coronary artery disease may be safely managed through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
We are reporting a case of a young woman with acute myelogenous leukemia status postallogeneic transplantation who developed multiply recurrent chloromas occurring along peripheral nerves in the absence of bone marrow relapse, all treated with radiation therapy. The patient is currently free of disease nearly four years after her first posttransplant chloroma. The case presented is unique for its isolated peripheral nervous system involvement, rare posttransplant occurrence, and indolent course without marrow relapse despite multiple extramedullary recurrences.
Preservation of fertility after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can have a significant influence on the quality of life of transplant survivors. We describe 178 pregnancies in HCT recipients that were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) between 2002 and 2007. There were 83 pregnancies in female HCT recipients and 95 pregnancies in female partners of male HCT recipients. Indications for transplantation included hematologic and other malignancies (N = 99) and nonmalignant disorders (N = 79, of which 75 patients had severe aplastic anemia). The cohort included recipients of autologous HCT (20 women, 13 men), myeloablative (MA) allogeneic HCT (12 women, 50 men), and nonmyeloablative allogeneic HCT (2 women, 2 men). Age at HCT was <20 years for 50% of women and 19% of men. Conditioning regimens included total body irradiation (TBI) in 16% of women and 19% of men; doses were MA in 10% of women and in 16% of men. Live births were reported in 86% of pregnancies in partners of male transplant patients and 85% of pregnancies in female transplant patients, with most pregnancies occurring 5 to 10 years after HCT. We conclude that some HCT recipients can retain fertility, including patients who have received TBI and/or MA conditioning. Young patients undergoing HCT should be counseled both before and after HCT about potential loss of fertility, methods for preserving fertility, and planning for future pregnancy. Fertility and outcomes of pregnancy after HCT need prospective evaluation in large transplant cohorts.
The impact of the rising prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and changes in transplant techniques on risk of VREB (VRE bacteremia) early after HSCT is not known. This is a retrospective study of 247 adult patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT in the years 2008 and 2009 at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Sixty-eight of 247 (27.5%) patients were VRE colonized on pretransplant screening. VRE was the leading cause of bacteremia in the first 30 days after HSCT; 23 of 43 (53.5%) patients with positive blood cultures had VRE. Only 13 (57%) of the 23 patients with early VREB were colonized with VRE on pre-HSCT screening cultures. Mortality was directly attributable to VRE infection in 9% of patients with early VREB. VRE is emerging as the most common cause of preengraftment bacteremia in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT, and is associated with substantial mortality. Pre-HSCT screening for VRE with stool cultures will not identify all patients who are at risk for VREB. The use of alternate agents with activity against Gram-positive bacteria for fever and neutropenia early after HSCT should be evaluated further in prospective studies.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is now an accepted long-term complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), which are used for prophylaxis and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), have been associated with the development of nephrotoxicity. Hypertension (HTN) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) are 2 comorbidities linked to CKD. T cell depletion (TCD) of stem cell grafts can obviate the need for the use of CNI. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 100 patients who underwent TCD transplantation: 30 in group A were conditioned without total-body radiation (TBI) and 70 in group B received a TBI containing regimen. None of the patients received CNI. The median age was 55.5 and 45 years for groups A and B, respectively. Eleven patients developed TMA, all in group B. The 2-year cumulative incidence of sustained CKD was 29.2% and 48.8% in group A and group B, respectively, with a mean follow-up of at least 21 months. CKD free survival was better in the non-TBI group (P = .046). Multivariable survival analysis revealed that exposure to TBI, older age, and TMA were risk factors for CKD. The incidence of new onset or worsening HTN was 6.7% and 25.7% (P = .03) in group A and B, respectively. The use of TBI (P = .0182) and diagnosis of TMA (P = .0006) predisposed patients to the development of HTN using univariable logistic regression models. Thus, despite the absence of CNI, a proportion of these older patients in both groups developed CKD and HTN.
We have described a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model that permits the subcutaneous growth of primary human acute leukemia blast cells into a measurable subcutaneous nodule which may be followed by the development of disseminated disease. Utilizing the SCID mouse model, we examined the growth potential of leukemic blasts from 133 patients with acute leukemia, (67 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 66 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)) in the animals after subcutaneous inoculation without conditioning treatment. The blasts displayed three distinct growth patterns: "aggressive", "indolent", or "no tumor growth". Out of 133 leukemias, 45 (33.8%) displayed an aggressive growth pattern, 14 (10.5%) displayed an indolent growth pattern and 74 (55.6%) did not grow in SCID mice. The growth probability of leukemias from relapsed and/or refractory disease was nearly 3 fold higher than that from patients with newly diagnosed disease. Serial observations found that leukemic blasts from the same individual, which did not initiate tumor growth at initial presentation and/or at early relapse, may engraft and grow in the later stages of disease, suggesting that the ability of leukemia cells for engraftment and proliferation was gradually acquired following the process of leukemia progression. Nine autonomous growing leukemia cell lines were established in vitro. These displayed an aggressive proliferation pattern, suggesting a possible correlation between the capacity of human leukemia cells for autonomous proliferation in vitro and an aggressive growth potential in SCID mice. In addition, we demonstrated that patients whose leukemic blasts displayed an aggressive growth and dissemination pattern in SClD mice had a poor clinical outcome in patients with ALL as well as AML. Patients whose leukemic blasts grew indolently or whose leukemia cells failed to induce growth had a significantly longer DFS and more favorable clinical course.
Adenovirus (ADV) is an important cause of viral mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Recipients of T cell-depleted (TCD) HSCT are at increased risk for viral infections. We compared the rates and outcomes of ADV viremia and disease between TCD and conventional (CONV) HSCT at our institution. This was an observational study of 624 adult and pediatric recipients of myeloablative HSCT at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between January 1, 2006, and March 11, 2011. Viral cultures and ADV PCR were ordered as clinically indicated. ADV viremia by quantitative PCR assay was defined as 1 or more positive values ?1,000 copies/mL or 2 or more consecutive positive values. Competing-risk regression analyses were used to identify predictors for ADV viremia. ADV viremia at 1 year after HSCT occurred in 8% of TCD HSCT recipients and in 4.0% of CONV HSCT recipients (P = .041). Among the TCD recipients, ADV viremia was seen in 15% of children, compared with 5% of adults (P = .008). Young age (hazard ratio [HR], 3.0; P < .001) and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR, 3.2; P = .001) were identified as risk factors for ADV viremia. ADV viremia was predictive of mortality (HR, 6.0; P < .001). ADV disease developed in 3.5% of TCD HSCT recipients and in 0.4% of CONV HSCT recipients (P = .022), with an attributable mortality of 27%. Among TCD HSCY recipients, grade II to IV GVHD was a risk factor for ADV disease (HR, 13; P < .001), but age was not. More than 90% of the cases of ADV disease involved a viral load of ?10,000 copies/mL. Rates of ADV disease were 10-fold greater in TCD HSCT recipients compared with CONV HSCT recipients, predominantly in patients who developed acute GVHD. The benefit of preemptive therapy for an ADV viral load ?10,000 copies/mL for preventing ADV disease in TCD HSCT recipients should be evaluated in prospective clinical trials.
Delays in immune recovery after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are associated with increased risks of infection and relapse. IL-7 has a central role in T-cell development and survival and enhances immune recovery in murine models of allo-HSCT. We performed a phase 1 trial of r-hIL-7 (CYT107) in recipients of T-cell depleted allo-HSCTs. Twelve patients were treated with escalating doses of r-hIL-7 administered weekly for 3 weeks. The study drug was well tolerated with only one patient developing acute skin GVHD. At baseline, patients were profoundly lymphopenic. CYT107 induced a doubling in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. The main effect of IL-7 was an expansion of effector memory T cells, the predominant subset identified in our patients. There was no significant effect on CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells, NK, or B cells. Importantly, we not only saw quantitative increases in T cells after a short course of IL-7 but also demonstrated an increase in functional T cells, including viral-specific T cells that recognize CMV. Enhanced TCR diversity was also observed after treatment. Our results indicate that r-hIL-7 can enhance immune recovery after a T cell-depleted allo-HSCT without causing significant GVHD or other serious toxicity (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00684008).
Consolidation with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) provides a survival benefit to patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We have previously reported comparable survival and relapse rates after T cell-depleted (TCD) allo-HSCT compared with unmodified transplantations for acute myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma with significantly decreased graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We performed a 56-patient retrospective study to evaluate TCD allo-HSCT for the treatment of ALL after myeloablative total body irradiation-based therapy. The 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates for patients with ALL after TCD allo-HSCT were 0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.52) and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.19-0.44), respectively, and the 2-year and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 0.38 (95% CI, 0.25-0.50) and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.20-0.44). There was a trend toward improved survival of patients who underwent TCD allo-HSCT in first complete remission compared with those who did so in other remission states. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD at 1 year was 0.20 (95% CI, 0.10-0.31), and no patients developed grade IV acute GVHD. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD in 41 evaluable patients at 2 and 5 years was 0.15 (95% CI, 0.04-0.26), and that of extensive chronic GVHD at 2 and 5 years was 0.05 (95% CI, 0-11.6). We demonstrate OS and DFS rates that compare favorably to unmodified allo-HSCT with lower rates of GVHD.
Immune mediated demyelinating disease (IMDD) after allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is rare and its etiology unclear. In this retrospective study, we identified patients who underwent HSCT between January 1992 and December 2010 and had IMDD post transplant. A total of 1,484 patients received HSCT and 7 (0.5 %) suffered from IMDD; five were men, and the median age was 54 years (range, 29-64 years). HSCT treated acute myeloid leukemia (n = 5), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1), and Waldenström macroglobulinemia (n = 1). All received an HLA matched donor graft, related (6), unrelated (1); from the bone marrow (1), peripheral blood stem cell (6); and T-cell depleted, ex vivo (6) or in vivo (1). The median time from transplant to neurologic symptoms was 120 days (range, 60-390 days). Three had acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM), three acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (AIDP) and one autonomic neuropathy. Four of six patients tested had hemopoietic mixed chimerism prior to neurologic symptoms and low CD4(+) T-cell counts, median 76 (15-500 cells/?L). Two patients had simultaneous systemic graft versus host disease (GVHD). Two patients with ADEM had a spinal cord or brain biopsy which revealed demyelination. No patients had a viral etiology identified in the cerebrospinal fluid. Patients were treated with IV immunoglobulin, high dose steroids and/or rituximab. Five patients had a significant recovery. Response to immune modulators suggests an immune-based etiology. The incidence of de novo autoimmune disease after HSCT for hematological diseases is rare and may be difficult to differentiate from GVHD.
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