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Allelic expression mapping across cellular lineages to establish impact of non-coding SNPs.
Mol. Syst. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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Most complex disease-associated genetic variants are located in non-coding regions and are therefore thought to be regulatory in nature. Association mapping of differential allelic expression (AE) is a powerful method to identify SNPs with direct cis-regulatory impact (cis-rSNPs). We used AE mapping to identify cis-rSNPs regulating gene expression in 55 and 63 HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines from a Caucasian and an African population, respectively, 70 fibroblast cell lines, and 188 purified monocyte samples and found 40-60% of these cis-rSNPs to be shared across cell types. We uncover a new class of cis-rSNPs, which disrupt footprint-derived de novo motifs that are predominantly bound by repressive factors and are implicated in disease susceptibility through overlaps with GWAS SNPs. Finally, we provide the proof-of-principle for a new approach for genome-wide functional validation of transcription factor-SNP interactions. By perturbing NF?B action in lymphoblasts, we identified 489 cis-regulated transcripts with altered AE after NF?B perturbation. Altogether, we perform a comprehensive analysis of cis-variation in four cell populations and provide new tools for the identification of functional variants associated to complex diseases.
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Efficient application of next-generation sequencing for the diagnosis of rare genetic syndromes.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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The causes of intellectual disability, which affects 1%-3% of the general population, are highly heterogeneous and the genetic defect remains unknown in around 40% of patients. The application of next-generation sequencing is changing the nature of biomedical diagnosis. This technology has quickly become the method of choice for searching for pathogenic mutations in rare uncharacterised genetic diseases.
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Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.
Andrew R Wood, Tonu Esko, Jian Yang, Sailaja Vedantam, Tune H Pers, Stefan Gustafsson, Audrey Y Chu, Karol Estrada, Jian'an Luan, Zoltan Kutalik, Najaf Amin, Martin L Buchkovich, Damien C Croteau-Chonka, Felix R Day, Yanan Duan, Tove Fall, Rudolf Fehrmann, Teresa Ferreira, Anne U Jackson, Juha Karjalainen, Ken Sin Lo, Adam E Locke, Reedik Mägi, Evelin Mihailov, Eleonora Porcu, Joshua C Randall, André Scherag, Anna A E Vinkhuyzen, Harm-Jan Westra, Thomas W Winkler, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Jing Hua Zhao, Devin Absher, Eva Albrecht, Denise Anderson, Jeffrey Baron, Marian Beekman, Ayse Demirkan, Georg B Ehret, Bjarke Feenstra, Mary F Feitosa, Krista Fischer, Ross M Fraser, Anuj Goel, Jian Gong, Anne E Justice, Stavroula Kanoni, Marcus E Kleber, Kati Kristiansson, Unhee Lim, Vaneet Lotay, Julian C Lui, Massimo Mangino, Irene Mateo Leach, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Michael A Nalls, Dale R Nyholt, Cameron D Palmer, Dorota Pasko, Sonali Pechlivanis, Inga Prokopenko, Janina S Ried, Stephan Ripke, Dmitry Shungin, Alena Stančáková, Rona J Strawbridge, Yun Ju Sung, Toshiko Tanaka, Alexander Teumer, Stella Trompet, Sander W van der Laan, Jessica van Setten, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Zhaoming Wang, Loïc Yengo, Weihua Zhang, Uzma Afzal, Johan Arnlöv, Gillian M Arscott, Stefania Bandinelli, Amy Barrett, Claire Bellis, Amanda J Bennett, Christian Berne, Matthias Blüher, Jennifer L Bolton, Yvonne Böttcher, Heather A Boyd, Marcel Bruinenberg, Brendan M Buckley, Steven Buyske, Ida H Caspersen, Peter S Chines, Robert Clarke, Simone Claudi-Boehm, Matthew Cooper, E Warwick Daw, Pim A de Jong, Joris Deelen, Graciela Delgado, Josh C Denny, Rosalie Dhonukshe-Rutten, Maria Dimitriou, Alex S F Doney, Marcus Dörr, Niina Eklund, Elodie Eury, Lasse Folkersen, Melissa E Garcia, Frank Geller, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Alan S Go, Harald Grallert, Tanja B Grammer, Jürgen Gräßler, Henrik Grönberg, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Christopher J Groves, Jeffrey Haessler, Per Hall, Toomas Haller, Göran Hallmans, Anke Hannemann, Catharina A Hartman, Maija Hassinen, Caroline Hayward, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Quinta Helmer, Gibran Hemani, Anjali K Henders, Hans L Hillege, Mark A Hlatky, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Per Hoffmann, Oddgeir Holmen, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Thomas Illig, Aaron Isaacs, Alan L James, Janina Jeff, Berit Johansen, Asa Johansson, Jennifer Jolley, Thorhildur Juliusdottir, Juhani Junttila, Abel N Kho, Leena Kinnunen, Norman Klopp, Thomas Kocher, Wolfgang Kratzer, Peter Lichtner, Lars Lind, Jaana Lindström, Stéphane Lobbens, Mattias Lorentzon, Yingchang Lu, Valeriya Lyssenko, Patrik K E Magnusson, Anubha Mahajan, Marc Maillard, Wendy L McArdle, Colin A McKenzie, Stela McLachlan, Paul J McLaren, Cristina Menni, Sigrun Merger, Lili Milani, Alireza Moayyeri, Keri L Monda, Mario A Morken, Gabriele Müller, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Arthur W Musk, Narisu Narisu, Matthias Nauck, Ilja M Nolte, Markus M Nöthen, Laticia Oozageer, Stefan Pilz, Nigel W Rayner, Frida Renstrom, Neil R Robertson, Lynda M Rose, Ronan Roussel, Serena Sanna, Hubert Scharnagl, Salome Scholtens, Fredrick R Schumacher, Heribert Schunkert, Robert A Scott, Joban Sehmi, Thomas Seufferlein, Jianxin Shi, Karri Silventoinen, Johannes H Smit, Albert Vernon Smith, Joanna Smolonska, Alice V Stanton, Kathleen Stirrups, David J Stott, Heather M Stringham, Johan Sundström, Morris A Swertz, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Bamidele O Tayo, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Jonathan P Tyrer, Suzanne van Dijk, Natasja M van Schoor, Nathalie van der Velde, Diana van Heemst, Floor V A van Oort, Sita H Vermeulen, Niek Verweij, Judith M Vonk, Lindsay L Waite, Melanie Waldenberger, Roman Wennauer, Lynne R Wilkens, Christina Willenborg, Tom Wilsgaard, Mary K Wojczynski, Andrew Wong, Alan F Wright, Qunyuan Zhang, Dominique Arveiler, Stephan J L Bakker, John Beilby, Richard N Bergman, Sven Bergmann, Reiner Biffar, John Blangero, Dorret I Boomsma, Stefan R Bornstein, Pascal Bovet, Paolo Brambilla, Morris J Brown, Harry Campbell, Mark J Caulfield, Aravinda Chakravarti, Rory Collins, Francis S Collins, Dana C Crawford, L Adrienne Cupples, John Danesh, Ulf de Faire, Hester M den Ruijter, Raimund Erbel, Jeanette Erdmann, Johan G Eriksson, Martin Farrall, Ele Ferrannini, Jean Ferrières, Ian Ford, Nita G Forouhi, Terrence Forrester, Ron T Gansevoort, Pablo V Gejman, Christian Gieger, Alain Golay, Omri Gottesman, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, David W Haas, Alistair S Hall, Tamara B Harris, Andrew T Hattersley, Andrew C Heath, Christian Hengstenberg, Andrew A Hicks, Lucia A Hindorff, Aroon D Hingorani, Albert Hofman, G Kees Hovingh, Steve E Humphries, Steven C Hunt, Elina Hyppönen, Kevin B Jacobs, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Pekka Jousilahti, Antti M Jula, Jaakko Kaprio, John J P Kastelein, Manfred Kayser, Frank Kee, Sirkka M Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Jaspal S Kooner, Charles Kooperberg, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Aldi T Kraja, Meena Kumari, Johanna Kuusisto, Timo A Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Loic Le Marchand, Terho Lehtimäki, Sara Lupoli, Pamela A F Madden, Satu Mannisto, Paolo Manunta, André Marette, Tara C Matise, Barbara McKnight, Thomas Meitinger, Frans L Moll, Grant W Montgomery, Andrew D Morris, Andrew P Morris, Jeffrey C Murray, Mari Nelis, Claes Ohlsson, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Ken K Ong, Willem H Ouwehand, Gerard Pasterkamp, Annette Peters, Peter P Pramstaller, Jackie F Price, Lu Qi, Olli T Raitakari, Tuomo Rankinen, D C Rao, Treva K Rice, Marylyn Ritchie, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J Samani, Jouko Saramies, Mark A Sarzynski, Peter E H Schwarz, Sylvain Sebert, Peter Sever, Alan R Shuldiner, Juha Sinisalo, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Ronald P Stolk, Jean-Claude Tardif, Anke Tönjes, Angelo Tremblay, Elena Tremoli, Jarmo Virtamo, Marie-Claude Vohl, , Philippe Amouyel, Folkert W Asselbergs, Themistocles L Assimes, Murielle Bochud, Bernhard O Boehm, Eric Boerwinkle, Erwin P Bottinger, Claude Bouchard, Stéphane Cauchi, John C Chambers, Stephen J Chanock, Richard S Cooper, Paul I W de Bakker, George Dedoussis, Luigi Ferrucci, Paul W Franks, Philippe Froguel, Leif C Groop, Christopher A Haiman, Anders Hamsten, M Geoffrey Hayes, Jennie Hui, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, J Wouter Jukema, Robert C Kaplan, Mika Kivimäki, Diana Kuh, Markku Laakso, Yongmei Liu, Nicholas G Martin, Winfried März, Mads Melbye, Susanne Moebus, Patricia B Munroe, Inger Njølstad, Ben A Oostra, Colin N A Palmer, Nancy L Pedersen, Markus Perola, Louis Pérusse, Ulrike Peters, Joseph E Powell, Chris Power, Thomas Quertermous, Rainer Rauramaa, Eva Reinmaa, Paul M Ridker, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jerome I Rotter, Timo E Saaristo, Danish Saleheen, David Schlessinger, P Eline Slagboom, Harold Snieder, Tim D Spector, Konstantin Strauch, Michael Stumvoll, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa, Pim van der Harst, Henry Völzke, Mark Walker, Nicholas J Wareham, Hugh Watkins, H-Erich Wichmann, James F Wilson, Pieter Zanen, Panos Deloukas, Iris M Heid, Cecilia M Lindgren, Karen L Mohlke, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Inês Barroso, Caroline S Fox, Kari E North, David P Strachan, Jacques S Beckmann, Sonja I Berndt, Michael Boehnke, Ingrid B Borecki, Mark I McCarthy, Andres Metspalu, Kari Stefansson, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Lude Franke, Cristen J Willer, Alkes L Price, Guillaume Lettre, Ruth J F Loos, Michael N Weedon, Erik Ingelsson, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Daniel I Chasman, Michael E Goddard, Peter M Visscher, Joel N Hirschhorn, Timothy M Frayling.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ?2,000, ?3,700 and ?9,500 SNPs explained ?21%, ?24% and ?29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/?-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
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The Mutational Landscape in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Deciphered by Whole Genome Sequencing.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Genomic characterization of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has identified distinct patterns of genes and pathways altered in patients with well-defined genetic aberrations. To extend the spectrum of known somatic variants in ALL, we performed whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of three B-cell precursor patients, of which one carried the t(12;21)ETV6-RUNX1 translocation and two lacked a known primary genetic aberration, and one T-ALL patient. We found that each patient had a unique genome, with a combination of well-known and previously undetected genomic aberrations. By targeted sequencing in 168 patients, we identified KMT2D and KIF1B as novel putative driver genes. We also identified a putative regulatory non-coding variant that coincided with overexpression of the growth factor MDK. Our results contribute to an increased understanding of the biological mechanisms that lead to ALL and suggest that regulatory variants may be more important for cancer development than recognized to date. The heterogeneity of the genetic aberrations in ALL renders whole genome sequencing particularly well suited for analysis of somatic variants in both research and diagnostic applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization.
Dan E Arking, Sara L Pulit, Lia Crotti, Pim van der Harst, Patricia B Munroe, Tamara T Koopmann, Nona Sotoodehnia, Elizabeth J Rossin, Michael Morley, Xinchen Wang, Andrew D Johnson, Alicia Lundby, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Peter A Noseworthy, Mark Eijgelsheim, Yuki Bradford, Kirill V Tarasov, Marcus Dörr, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Annukka M Lahtinen, Ilja M Nolte, Albert Vernon Smith, Joshua C Bis, Aaron Isaacs, Stephen J Newhouse, Daniel S Evans, Wendy S Post, Daryl Waggott, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Andrew A Hicks, Lewin Eisele, David Ellinghaus, Caroline Hayward, Pau Navarro, Sheila Ulivi, Toshiko Tanaka, David J Tester, Stéphanie Chatel, Stefan Gustafsson, Meena Kumari, Richard W Morris, Asa T Naluai, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Alexander Kluttig, Bernhard Strohmer, Andrie G Panayiotou, Maria Torres, Michael Knoflach, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Kamil Slowikowski, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Runjun D Kumar, Tamara B Harris, Lenore J Launer, Alan R Shuldiner, Alvaro Alonso, Joel S Bader, Georg Ehret, Hailiang Huang, W H Linda Kao, James B Strait, Peter W Macfarlane, Morris Brown, Mark J Caulfield, Nilesh J Samani, Florian Kronenberg, Johann Willeit, , J Gustav Smith, Karin H Greiser, Henriette Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Karl Werdan, Massimo Carella, Leopoldo Zelante, Susan R Heckbert, Bruce M Psaty, Jerome I Rotter, Ivana Kolčić, Ozren Polašek, Alan F Wright, Maura Griffin, Mark J Daly, David O Arnar, Hilma Holm, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Joshua C Denny, Dan M Roden, Rebecca L Zuvich, Valur Emilsson, Andrew S Plump, Martin G Larson, Christopher J O'Donnell, Xiaoyan Yin, Marco Bobbo, Adamo P d'Adamo, AnnaMaria Iorio, Gianfranco Sinagra, Angel Carracedo, Steven R Cummings, Michael A Nalls, Antti Jula, Kimmo K Kontula, Annukka Marjamaa, Lasse Oikarinen, Markus Perola, Kimmo Porthan, Raimund Erbel, Per Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Hagen Kälsch, Markus M Nöthen, Marcel den Hoed, Ruth J F Loos, Dag S Thelle, Christian Gieger, Thomas Meitinger, Siegfried Perz, Annette Peters, Hanna Prucha, Moritz F Sinner, Melanie Waldenberger, Rudolf A de Boer, Lude Franke, Pieter A van der Vleuten, Britt Maria Beckmann, Eimo Martens, Abdennasser Bardai, Nynke Hofman, Arthur A M Wilde, Elijah R Behr, Chrysoula Dalageorgou, John R Giudicessi, Argelia Medeiros-Domingo, Julien Barc, Florence Kyndt, Vincent Probst, Alice Ghidoni, Roberto Insolia, Robert M Hamilton, Stephen W Scherer, Jeffrey Brandimarto, Kenneth Margulies, Christine E Moravec, Fabiola Del Greco M, Christian Fuchsberger, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Wai K Lee, Graham C M Watt, Harry Campbell, Sarah H Wild, Nour E El Mokhtari, Norbert Frey, Folkert W Asselbergs, Irene Mateo Leach, Gerjan Navis, Maarten P van den Berg, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Manolis Kellis, Bouwe P Krijthe, Oscar H Franco, Albert Hofman, Jan A Kors, André G Uitterlinden, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Lyudmyla Kedenko, Claudia Lamina, Ben A Oostra, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Edward G Lakatta, Antonella Mulas, Marco Orrù, David Schlessinger, Manuela Uda, Marcello R P Markus, Uwe Völker, Harold Snieder, Timothy D Spector, Johan Arnlöv, Lars Lind, Johan Sundström, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Mika Kivimäki, Mika Kähönen, Nina Mononen, Olli T Raitakari, Jorma S Viikari, Vera Adamkova, Stefan Kiechl, María Brión, Andrew N Nicolaides, Bernhard Paulweber, Johannes Haerting, Anna F Dominiczak, Fredrik Nyberg, Peter H Whincup, Aroon D Hingorani, Jean-Jacques Schott, Connie R Bezzina, Erik Ingelsson, Luigi Ferrucci, Paolo Gasparini, James F Wilson, Igor Rudan, Andre Franke, Thomas W Mühleisen, Peter P Pramstaller, Terho J Lehtimäki, Andrew D Paterson, Afshin Parsa, Yongmei Liu, Cornelia M van Duijn, David S Siscovick, Vilmundur Gudnason, Yalda Jamshidi, Veikko Salomaa, Stephan B Felix, Serena Sanna, Marylyn D Ritchie, Bruno H Stricker, Kari Stefansson, Laurie A Boyer, Thomas P Cappola, Jesper V Olsen, Kasper Lage, Peter J Schwartz, Stefan Kääb, Aravinda Chakravarti, Michael J Ackerman, Arne Pfeufer, Paul I W de Bakker, Christopher Newton-Cheh.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals, we identified 35 common variant loci associated with QT interval that collectively explain ?8-10% of QT-interval variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 new QT interval-associated loci in 298 unrelated probands with LQTS identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies new candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS and SCD.
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A central role for GRB10 in regulation of islet function in man.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Variants in the growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (GRB10) gene were in a GWAS meta-analysis associated with reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) if inherited from the father, but inexplicably reduced fasting glucose when inherited from the mother. GRB10 is a negative regulator of insulin signaling and imprinted in a parent-of-origin fashion in different tissues. GRB10 knock-down in human pancreatic islets showed reduced insulin and glucagon secretion, which together with changes in insulin sensitivity may explain the paradoxical reduction of glucose despite a decrease in insulin secretion. Together, these findings suggest that tissue-specific methylation and possibly imprinting of GRB10 can influence glucose metabolism and contribute to T2D pathogenesis. The data also emphasize the need in genetic studies to consider whether risk alleles are inherited from the mother or the father.
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Influence of coronary artery disease-associated genetic variants on risk of venous thromboembolism.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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We investigated whether genetic variations robustly associated with coronary artery disease are also associated with risk of venous thromboembolism in a well-defined, female case-control study (n=2753) from Sweden.
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Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility.
, Anubha Mahajan, Min Jin Go, Weihua Zhang, Jennifer E Below, Kyle J Gaulton, Teresa Ferreira, Momoko Horikoshi, Andrew D Johnson, Maggie C Y Ng, Inga Prokopenko, Danish Saleheen, Xu Wang, Eleftheria Zeggini, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Linda S Adair, Peter Almgren, Mustafa Atalay, Tin Aung, Damiano Baldassarre, Beverley Balkau, Yuqian Bao, Anthony H Barnett, Inês Barroso, Abdul Basit, Latonya F Been, John Beilby, Graeme I Bell, Rafn Benediktsson, Richard N Bergman, Bernhard O Boehm, Eric Boerwinkle, Lori L Bonnycastle, Noel Burtt, Qiuyin Cai, Harry Campbell, Jason Carey, Stéphane Cauchi, Mark Caulfield, Juliana C N Chan, Li-Ching Chang, Tien-Jyun Chang, Yi-Cheng Chang, Guillaume Charpentier, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Han Chen, Yuan-Tsong Chen, Kee-Seng Chia, Manickam Chidambaram, Peter S Chines, Nam H Cho, Young Min Cho, Lee-Ming Chuang, Francis S Collins, Marylin C Cornelis, David J Couper, Andrew T Crenshaw, Rob M Van Dam, John Danesh, Debashish Das, Ulf de Faire, George Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Antigone S Dimas, Christian Dina, Alex S Doney, Peter J Donnelly, Mozhgan Dorkhan, Cornelia van Duijn, Josée Dupuis, Sarah Edkins, Paul Elliott, Valur Emilsson, Raimund Erbel, Johan G Eriksson, Jorge Escobedo, Tonu Esko, Elodie Eury, Jose C Florez, Pierre Fontanillas, Nita G Forouhi, Tom Forsén, Caroline Fox, Ross M Fraser, Timothy M Frayling, Philippe Froguel, Philippe Frossard, Yutang Gao, Karl Gertow, Christian Gieger, Bruna Gigante, Harald Grallert, George B Grant, Leif C Grrop, Chrisropher J Groves, Elin Grundberg, Candace Guiducci, Anders Hamsten, Bok-Ghee Han, Kazuo Hara, Neelam Hassanali, Andrew T Hattersley, Caroline Hayward, Asa K Hedman, Christian Herder, Albert Hofman, Oddgeir L Holmen, Kees Hovingh, Astradur B Hreidarsson, Cheng Hu, Frank B Hu, Jennie Hui, Steve E Humphries, Sarah E Hunt, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, Zafar I Hydrie, Hiroshi Ikegami, Thomas Illig, Erik Ingelsson, Muhammed Islam, Bo Isomaa, Anne U Jackson, Tazeen Jafar, Alan James, Weiping Jia, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Anna Jonsson, Jeremy B M Jowett, Takashi Kadowaki, Hyun Min Kang, Stavroula Kanoni, Wen Hong L Kao, Sekar Kathiresan, Norihiro Kato, Prasad Katulanda, Kirkka M Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Ann M Kelly, Hassan Khan, Kay-Tee Khaw, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Hyung-Lae Kim, Sangsoo Kim, Young Jin Kim, Leena Kinnunen, Norman Klopp, Augustine Kong, Eeva Korpi-Hyövälti, Sudhir Kowlessur, Peter Kraft, Jasmina Kravic, Malene M Kristensen, S Krithika, Ashish Kumar, Jesus Kumate, Johanna Kuusisto, Soo Heon Kwak, Markku Laakso, Vasiliki Lagou, Timo A Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Cordelia Langford, Robert Lawrence, Karin Leander, Jen-Mai Lee, Nanette R Lee, Man Li, Xinzhong Li, Yun Li, Junbin Liang, Samuel Liju, Wei-Yen Lim, Lars Lind, Cecilia M Lindgren, Eero Lindholm, Ching-Ti Liu, Jian Jun Liu, Stéphane Lobbens, Jirong Long, Ruth J F Loos, Wei Lu, Jian'an Luan, Valeriya Lyssenko, Ronald C W Ma, Shiro Maeda, Reedik Mägi, Satu Mannisto, David R Matthews, James B Meigs, Olle Melander, Andres Metspalu, Julia Meyer, Ghazala Mirza, Evelin Mihailov, Susanne Moebus, Viswanathan Mohan, Karen L Mohlke, Andrew D Morris, Thomas W Mühleisen, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Bill Musk, Jiro Nakamura, Eitaro Nakashima, Pau Navarro, Peng-Keat Ng, Alexandra C Nica, Peter M Nilsson, Inger Njølstad, Markus M Nöthen, Keizo Ohnaka, Twee Hee Ong, Katharine R Owen, Colin N A Palmer, James S Pankow, Kyong Soo Park, Melissa Parkin, Sonali Pechlivanis, Nancy L Pedersen, Leena Peltonen, John R B Perry, Annette Peters, Janini M Pinidiyapathirage, Carl G Platou, Simon Potter, Jackie F Price, Lu Qi, Venkatesan Radha, Loukianos Rallidis, Asif Rasheed, Wolfgang Rathman, Rainer Rauramaa, Soumya Raychaudhuri, N William Rayner, Simon D Rees, Emil Rehnberg, Samuli Ripatti, Neil Robertson, Michael Roden, Elizabeth J Rossin, Igor Rudan, Denis Rybin, Timo E Saaristo, Veikko Salomaa, Juha Saltevo, Maria Samuel, Dharambir K Sanghera, Jouko Saramies, James Scott, Laura J Scott, Robert A Scott, Ayellet V Segrè, Joban Sehmi, Bengt Sennblad, Nabi Shah, Sonia Shah, A Samad Shera, Xiao Ou Shu, Alan R Shuldiner, Gunnar Sigurđsson, Eric Sijbrands, Angela Silveira, Xueling Sim, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Kerrin S Small, Wing Yee So, Alena Stančáková, Kari Stefansson, Gerald Steinbach, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Kathleen Stirrups, Rona J Strawbridge, Heather M Stringham, Qi Sun, Chen Suo, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Wan Ting Tay, Tanya M Teslovich, Barbara Thorand, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Emmi Tikkanen, Joseph Trakalo, Elena Tremoli, Mieke D Trip, Fuu Jen Tsai, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André G Uitterlinden, Adán Valladares-Salgado, Sailaja Vedantam, Fabrizio Veglia, Benjamin F Voight, Congrong Wang, Nicholas J Wareham, Roman Wennauer, Ananda R Wickremasinghe, Tom Wilsgaard, James F Wilson, Steven Wiltshire, Wendy Winckler, Tien Yin Wong, Andrew R Wood, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Ying Wu, Ken Yamamoto, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Mingyu Yang, Loïc Yengo, Mitsuhiro Yokota, Robin Young, Delilah Zabaneh, Fan Zhang, Rong Zhang, Wei Zheng, Paul Z Zimmet, David Altshuler, Donald W Bowden, Yoon Shin Cho, Nancy J Cox, Miguel Cruz, Craig L Hanis, Jaspal Kooner, Jong-Young Lee, Mark Seielstad, Yik Ying Teo, Michael Boehnke, Esteban J Parra, Jonh C Chambers, E Shyong Tai, Mark I McCarthy, Andrew P Morris.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms with cis-regulatory effects on long non-coding transcripts in human primary monocytes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We applied genome-wide allele-specific expression analysis of monocytes from 188 samples. Monocytes were purified from white blood cells of healthy blood donors to detect cis-acting genetic variation that regulates the expression of long non-coding RNAs. We analysed 8929 regions harboring genes for potential long non-coding RNA that were retrieved from data from the ENCODE project. Of these regions, 60% were annotated as intergenic, which implies that they do not overlap with protein-coding genes. Focusing on the intergenic regions, and using stringent analysis of the allele-specific expression data, we detected robust cis-regulatory SNPs in 258 out of 489 informative intergenic regions included in the analysis. The cis-regulatory SNPs that were significantly associated with allele-specific expression of long non-coding RNAs were enriched to enhancer regions marked for active or bivalent, poised chromatin by histone modifications. Out of the lncRNA regions regulated by cis-acting regulatory SNPs, 20% (n?=?52) were co-regulated with the closest protein coding gene. We compared the identified cis-regulatory SNPs with those in the catalog of SNPs identified by genome-wide association studies of human diseases and traits. This comparison identified 32 SNPs in loci from genome-wide association studies that displayed a strong association signal with allele-specific expression of non-coding RNAs in monocytes, with p-values ranging from 6.7×10(-7) to 9.5×10(-89). The identified cis-regulatory SNPs are associated with diseases of the immune system, like multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
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Genetic variation in the dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 gene (DDAH1) is related to asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels, but not to endothelium-dependent vasodilation.
Vasc Med
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. The breakdown of ADMA is mainly governed by the activity of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAHs). We investigated if genetic variation in the DDAH1 and DDAH2 genes were related to ADMA and l-arginine levels, as well as measures of endothelium-dependent vasodilation.
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Association of genes in the NF-?B pathway with antibody-positive primary Sjögrens syndrome.
Scand. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Primary Sjögrens syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by focal lymphocytic infiltrates in the lachrymal and salivary glands and autoantibodies against the SSA/Ro and SSB/La antigens. Experimental studies have shown an activation of NF-?B in primary SS. NF-?B activation results in inflammation and autoimmunity and is regulated by inhibitory and activating proteins. Genetic studies have shown an association between multiple autoimmune diseases and TNFAIP3 (A20) and TNIP1 (ABIN1), both repressors of NF-?B and of IKBKE (IKK?), which is an NF-?B activator. The aim of this study was to analyse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IKBKE, NFKB1, TNIP1 and TNFAIP3 genes for association with primary SS. A total of 12 SNPs were genotyped in 1105 patients from Scandinavia (Sweden and Norway, n = 684) and the UK (n = 421) and 4460 controls (Scandinavia, n = 1662, UK, n = 2798). When patients were stratified for the presence of anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies (n = 868), case-control meta-analysis found an association between antibody-positive primary SS and two SNPs in TNIP1 (P = 3.4 × 10(-5) , OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.16-1.52 for rs3792783 and P = 1.3 × 10(-3) , OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.08-1.36 for rs7708392). A TNIP1 risk haplotype was associated with antibody-positive primary SS (P = 5.7 × 10(-3) , OR = 1.47, 95%CI: 1.12-1.92). There were no significant associations with IKBKE, NFKB1 or TNFAIP3 in the meta-analysis of the Scandinavian and UK cohorts. We conclude that polymorphisms in TNIP1 are associated with antibody-positive primary SS.
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Genome-wide signatures of differential DNA methylation in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Although aberrant DNA methylation has been observed previously in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the patterns of differential methylation have not been comprehensively determined in all subtypes of ALL on a genome-wide scale. The relationship between DNA methylation, cytogenetic background, drug resistance and relapse in ALL is poorly understood.
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The role of adiposity in cardiometabolic traits: a mendelian randomization analysis.
Tove Fall, Sara Hägg, Reedik Mägi, Alexander Ploner, Krista Fischer, Momoko Horikoshi, Antti-Pekka Sarin, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Claes Ladenvall, Mart Kals, Maris Kuningas, Harmen H M Draisma, Janina S Ried, Natalie R Van Zuydam, Ville Huikari, Massimo Mangino, Emily Sonestedt, Beben Benyamin, Christopher P Nelson, Natalia V Rivera, Kati Kristiansson, Huei-Yi Shen, Aki S Havulinna, Abbas Dehghan, Louise A Donnelly, Marika Kaakinen, Marja-Liisa Nuotio, Neil Robertson, Renée F A G de Bruijn, M Arfan Ikram, Najaf Amin, Anthony J Balmforth, Peter S Braund, Alexander S F Doney, Angela Döring, Paul Elliott, Tonu Esko, Oscar H Franco, Solveig Gretarsdottir, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Kauko Heikkilä, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Hilma Holm, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Elina Hyppönen, Thomas Illig, Aaron Isaacs, Bo Isomaa, Lennart C Karssen, Johannes Kettunen, Wolfgang Koenig, Kari Kuulasmaa, Tiina Laatikainen, Jaana Laitinen, Cecilia Lindgren, Valeriya Lyssenko, Esa Läärä, Nigel W Rayner, Satu Mannisto, Anneli Pouta, Wolfgang Rathmann, Fernando Rivadeneira, Aimo Ruokonen, Markku J Savolainen, Eric J G Sijbrands, Kerrin S Small, Jan H Smit, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Anja Taanila, Martin D Tobin, André G Uitterlinden, Sara M Willems, Gonneke Willemsen, Jacqueline Witteman, Markus Perola, Alun Evans, Jean Ferrières, Jarmo Virtamo, Frank Kee, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Dominique Arveiler, Philippe Amouyel, Marco M Ferrario, Paolo Brambilla, Alistair S Hall, Andrew C Heath, Pamela A F Madden, Nicholas G Martin, Grant W Montgomery, John B Whitfield, Antti Jula, Paul Knekt, Ben Oostra, Cornelia M van Duijn, Brenda W J H Penninx, George Davey Smith, Jaakko Kaprio, Nilesh J Samani, Christian Gieger, Annette Peters, H Erich Wichmann, Dorret I Boomsma, Eco J C de Geus, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Chris Power, Christopher J Hammond, Tim D Spector, Lars Lind, Marju Orho-Melander, Colin Neil Alexander Palmer, Andrew D Morris, Leif Groop, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Veikko Salomaa, Erkki Vartiainen, Albert Hofman, Samuli Ripatti, Andres Metspalu, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson, Nancy L Pedersen, Mark I McCarthy, Erik Ingelsson, Inga Prokopenko, .
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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The association between adiposity and cardiometabolic traits is well known from epidemiological studies. Whilst the causal relationship is clear for some of these traits, for others it is not. We aimed to determine whether adiposity is causally related to various cardiometabolic traits using the Mendelian randomization approach.
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Coronary heart disease in systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with interferon regulatory factor-8 gene variants.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have increased morbidity and mortality in coronary heart disease (CHD). We asked whether there was a genetic influence on CHD in systemic lupus erythematosus.
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Accurate detection of subclonal single nucleotide variants in whole genome amplified and pooled cancer samples using HaloPlex target enrichment.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Target enrichment and resequencing is a widely used approach for identification of cancer genes and genetic variants associated with diseases. Although cost effective compared to whole genome sequencing, analysis of many samples constitutes a significant cost, which could be reduced by pooling samples before capture. Another limitation to the number of cancer samples that can be analyzed is often the amount of available tumor DNA. We evaluated the performance of whole genome amplified DNA and the power to detect subclonal somatic single nucleotide variants in non-indexed pools of cancer samples using the HaloPlex technology for target enrichment and next generation sequencing.
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Genetic determinants of dabigatran plasma levels and their relation to bleeding.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Fixed-dose unmonitored treatment with dabigatran etexilate is effective and has a favorable safety profile in the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation patients compared with warfarin. We hypothesized that genetic variants could contribute to interindividual variability in blood concentrations of the active metabolite of dabigatran etexilate and influence the safety and efficacy of dabigatran.
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Genetic variants from lipid-related pathways and risk for incident myocardial infarction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Circulating lipids levels, as well as several familial lipid metabolism disorders, are strongly associated with initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and incidence of myocardial infarction (MI).
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Identification of a functional apolipoprotein E promoter polymorphism regulating plasma apolipoprotein E concentration.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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There is compelling evidence that the plasma apolipoprotein E (APOE) concentration, in addition to the APOE ?2/?3/?4 genotype, influences plasma lipoprotein levels, but the functional genetic variants influencing the plasma APOE concentration have not been identified.
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SNP in TXNRD2 associated with radiation-induced fibrosis: a study of genetic variation in reactive oxygen species metabolism and signaling.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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The aim of the study was to identify noninvasive markers of treatment-induced side effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated after irradiation, and genetic variation in genes related to ROS metabolism might influence the level of radiation-induced adverse effects (AEs).
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Transcriptome and genome sequencing uncovers functional variation in humans.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Genome sequencing projects are discovering millions of genetic variants in humans, and interpretation of their functional effects is essential for understanding the genetic basis of variation in human traits. Here we report sequencing and deep analysis of messenger RNA and microRNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines of 462 individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project--the first uniformly processed high-throughput RNA-sequencing data from multiple human populations with high-quality genome sequences. We discover extremely widespread genetic variation affecting the regulation of most genes, with transcript structure and expression level variation being equally common but genetically largely independent. Our characterization of causal regulatory variation sheds light on the cellular mechanisms of regulatory and loss-of-function variation, and allows us to infer putative causal variants for dozens of disease-associated loci. Altogether, this study provides a deep understanding of the cellular mechanisms of transcriptome variation and of the landscape of functional variants in the human genome.
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Higher magnesium intake is associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin, with no evidence of interaction with select genetic loci, in a meta-analysis of 15 CHARGE Consortium Studies.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Favorable associations between magnesium intake and glycemic traits, such as fasting glucose and insulin, are observed in observational and clinical studies, but whether genetic variation affects these associations is largely unknown. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with either glycemic traits or magnesium metabolism affect the association between magnesium intake and fasting glucose and insulin. Fifteen studies from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided data from up to 52,684 participants of European descent without known diabetes. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified 1) cross-sectional associations of dietary magnesium intake with fasting glucose (mmol/L) and insulin (ln-pmol/L) and 2) interactions between magnesium intake and SNPs related to fasting glucose (16 SNPs), insulin (2 SNPs), or magnesium (8 SNPs) on fasting glucose and insulin. After adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI, and behavioral risk factors, magnesium (per 50-mg/d increment) was inversely associated with fasting glucose [? = -0.009 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.013, -0.005), P < 0.0001] and insulin [-0.020 ln-pmol/L (95% CI: -0.024, -0.017), P < 0.0001]. No magnesium-related SNP or interaction between any SNP and magnesium reached significance after correction for multiple testing. However, rs2274924 in magnesium transporter-encoding TRPM6 showed a nominal association (uncorrected P = 0.03) with glucose, and rs11558471 in SLC30A8 and rs3740393 near CNNM2 showed a nominal interaction (uncorrected, both P = 0.02) with magnesium on glucose. Consistent with other studies, a higher magnesium intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin. Nominal evidence of TRPM6 influence and magnesium interaction with select loci suggests that further investigation is warranted.
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Reproducibility of high-throughput mRNA and small RNA sequencing across laboratories.
Nat. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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RNA sequencing is an increasingly popular technology for genome-wide analysis of transcript sequence and abundance. However, understanding of the sources of technical and interlaboratory variation is still limited. To address this, the GEUVADIS consortium sequenced mRNAs and small RNAs of lymphoblastoid cell lines of 465 individuals in seven sequencing centers, with a large number of replicates. The variation between laboratories appeared to be considerably smaller than the already limited biological variation. Laboratory effects were mainly seen in differences in insert size and GC content and could be adequately corrected for. In small-RNA sequencing, the microRNA (miRNA) content differed widely between samples owing to competitive sequencing of rRNA fragments. This did not affect relative quantification of miRNAs. We conclude that distributing RNA sequencing among different laboratories is feasible, given proper standardization and randomization procedures. We provide a set of quality measures and guidelines for assessing technical biases in RNA-seq data.
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Association of STAT4 Polymorphism with Severe Renal Insufficiency in Lupus Nephritis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Lupus nephritis is a cause of significant morbidity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its genetic background has not been completely clarified. The aim of this investigation was to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with lupus nephritis, its severe form proliferative nephritis and renal outcome, in two Swedish cohorts. Cohort I (n?=?567 SLE cases, n?=? 512 controls) was previously genotyped for 5676 SNPs and cohort II (n?=?145 SLE cases, n?=?619 controls) was genotyped for SNPs in STAT4, IRF5, TNIP1 and BLK. Case-control and case-only association analyses for patients with lupus nephritis, proliferative nephritis and severe renal insufficiency were performed. In the case-control analysis of cohort I, four highly linked SNPs in STAT4 were associated with lupus nephritis with genome wide significance with p?=?3.7×10(-9), OR 2.20 for the best SNP rs11889341. Strong signals of association between IRF5 and an HLA-DR3 SNP marker were also detected in the lupus nephritis case versus healthy control analysis (p <0.0001). An additional six genes showed an association with lupus nephritis with p <0.001 (PMS2, TNIP1, CARD11, ITGAM, BLK and IRAK1). In the case-only meta-analysis of the two cohorts, the STAT4 SNP rs7582694 was associated with severe renal insufficiency with p ?=?1.6×10(-3) and OR 2.22. We conclude that genetic variations in STAT4 predispose to lupus nephritis and a worse outcome with severe renal insufficiency.
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Salt-inducible kinase 1 influences Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in vascular smooth muscle cells and associates with variations in blood pressure.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Essential hypertension is a complex condition whose cause involves the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors such as salt intake. Salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) is a sucrose-nonfermenting-like kinase isoform that belongs to the AMPK (5 adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) family. SIK1 activity is increased by high salt intake and plays an essential role in regulating the plasma membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. The objective of this study was to examine whether SIK1 is present in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells, whether it affects VSMC Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and whether human SIK1 (hSIK1) represents a potential candidate for blood pressure regulation.
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Genome-wide association identifies nine common variants associated with fasting proinsulin levels and provides new insights into the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.
Rona J Strawbridge, Josée Dupuis, Inga Prokopenko, Adam Barker, Emma Ahlqvist, Denis Rybin, John R Petrie, Mary E Travers, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Antigone S Dimas, Alexandra Nica, Eleanor Wheeler, Han Chen, Benjamin F Voight, Jalal Taneera, Stavroula Kanoni, John F Peden, Fabiola Turrini, Stefan Gustafsson, Carina Zabena, Peter Almgren, David J P Barker, Daniel Barnes, Elaine M Dennison, Johan G Eriksson, Per Eriksson, Elodie Eury, Lasse Folkersen, Caroline S Fox, Timothy M Frayling, Anuj Goel, Harvest F Gu, Momoko Horikoshi, Bo Isomaa, Anne U Jackson, Karen A Jameson, Eero Kajantie, Julie Kerr-Conte, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Johanna Kuusisto, Ruth J F Loos, Jian'an Luan, Konstantinos Makrilakis, Alisa K Manning, María Teresa Martínez-Larrad, Narisu Narisu, Maria Nastase Mannila, John Ohrvik, Clive Osmond, Laura Pascoe, Felicity Payne, Avan A Sayer, Bengt Sennblad, Angela Silveira, Alena Stančáková, Kathy Stirrups, Amy J Swift, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Ferdinand M van 't Hooft, Mark Walker, Michael N Weedon, Weijia Xie, Björn Zethelius, , Halit Ongen, Anders Malarstig, Jemma C Hopewell, Danish Saleheen, John Chambers, Sarah Parish, John Danesh, Jaspal Kooner, Claes-Göran Ostenson, Lars Lind, Cyrus C Cooper, Manuel Serrano-Ríos, Ele Ferrannini, Tom J Forsen, Robert Clarke, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Udo Seedorf, Hugh Watkins, Philippe Froguel, Paul Johnson, Panos Deloukas, Francis S Collins, Markku Laakso, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy, Nicholas J Wareham, Leif Groop, François Pattou, Anna L Gloyn, George V Dedoussis, Valeriya Lyssenko, James B Meigs, Inês Barroso, Richard M Watanabe, Erik Ingelsson, Claudia Langenberg, Anders Hamsten, Jose C Florez.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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Proinsulin is a precursor of mature insulin and C-peptide. Higher circulating proinsulin levels are associated with impaired ?-cell function, raised glucose levels, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies of the insulin processing pathway could provide new insights about T2D pathophysiology.
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Total zinc intake may modify the glucose-raising effect of a zinc transporter (SLC30A8) variant: a 14-cohort meta-analysis.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Many genetic variants have been associated with glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is important for ?-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that zinc intake could influence the glucose-raising effect of specific variants.
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Next-generation sequencing technologies and applications for human genetic history and forensics.
Investig Genet
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Rapid advances in the development of sequencing technologies in recent years have enabled an increasing number of applications in biology and medicine. Here, we review key technical aspects of the preparation of DNA templates for sequencing, the biochemical reaction principles and assay formats underlying next-generation sequencing systems, methods for imaging and base calling, quality control, and bioinformatic approaches for sequence alignment, variant calling and assembly. We also discuss some of the most important advances that the new sequencing technologies have brought to the fields of human population genetics, human genetic history and forensic genetics.
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Association of NCF2, IKZF1, IRF8, IFIH1, and TYK2 with systemic lupus erythematosus.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex trait characterised by the production of a range of auto-antibodies and a diverse set of clinical phenotypes. Currently, ~8% of the genetic contribution to SLE in Europeans is known, following publication of several moderate-sized genome-wide (GW) association studies, which identified loci with a strong effect (OR>1.3). In order to identify additional genes contributing to SLE susceptibility, we conducted a replication study in a UK dataset (870 cases, 5,551 controls) of 23 variants that showed moderate-risk for lupus in previous studies. Association analysis in the UK dataset and subsequent meta-analysis with the published data identified five SLE susceptibility genes reaching genome-wide levels of significance (P(comb)<5×10(-8)): NCF2 (P(comb) = 2.87×10(-11)), IKZF1 (P(comb) = 2.33×10(-9)), IRF8 (P(comb) = 1.24×10(-8)), IFIH1 (P(comb) = 1.63×10(-8)), and TYK2 (P(comb) = 3.88×10(-8)). Each of the five new loci identified here can be mapped into interferon signalling pathways, which are known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of SLE. These results increase the number of established susceptibility genes for lupus to ~30 and validate the importance of using large datasets to confirm associations of loci which moderately increase the risk for disease.
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Fetal, developmental, and parental influences on cystatin C in childhood: the Uppsala Family Study.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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The aim was to identify determinants (biomedical and social characteristics of children and their parents) of cystatin C levels in healthy children drawn from a population sample.
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CUBN is a gene locus for albuminuria.
Carsten A Böger, Ming-Huei Chen, Adrienne Tin, Matthias Olden, Anna Köttgen, Ian H de Boer, Christian Fuchsberger, Conall M O'Seaghdha, Cristian Pattaro, Alexander Teumer, Ching-Ti Liu, Nicole L Glazer, Man Li, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Toshiko Tanaka, Carmen A Peralta, Zoltan Kutalik, Jian'an Luan, Jing Hua Zhao, Shih-Jen Hwang, Ermeg Akylbekova, Holly Kramer, Pim van der Harst, Albert V Smith, Kurt Lohman, Mariza de Andrade, Caroline Hayward, Barbara Kollerits, Anke Tönjes, Thor Aspelund, Erik Ingelsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Lenore J Launer, Tamara B Harris, Alan R Shuldiner, Braxton D Mitchell, Dan E Arking, Nora Franceschini, Eric Boerwinkle, Josephine Egan, Dena Hernandez, Muredach Reilly, Raymond R Townsend, Thomas Lumley, David S Siscovick, Bruce M Psaty, Bryan Kestenbaum, Talin Haritunians, Sven Bergmann, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Vincent Mooser, Dawn Waterworth, Andrew D Johnson, Jose C Florez, James B Meigs, Xiaoning Lu, Stephen T Turner, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Tennille S Leak, Knut Aasarød, Frank Skorpen, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Thomas Illig, Jens Baumert, Wolfgang Koenig, Bernhard K Krämer, Olivier Devuyst, Josyf C Mychaleckyj, Cosetta Minelli, Stephan J L Bakker, Lyudmyla Kedenko, Bernhard Paulweber, Stefan Coassin, Karlhans Endlich, Heyo K Kroemer, Reiner Biffar, Sylvia Stracke, Henry Völzke, Michael Stumvoll, Reedik Mägi, Harry Campbell, Veronique Vitart, Nicholas D Hastie, Vilmundur Gudnason, Sharon L R Kardia, Yongmei Liu, Ozren Polašek, Gary Curhan, Florian Kronenberg, Inga Prokopenko, Igor Rudan, Johan Arnlöv, Stein Hallan, Gerjan Navis, , Afshin Parsa, Luigi Ferrucci, Josef Coresh, Michael G Shlipak, Shelley B Bull, Nicholas J Paterson, H-Erich Wichmann, Nicholas J Wareham, Ruth J F Loos, Jerome I Rotter, Peter P Pramstaller, L Adrienne Cupples, Jacques S Beckmann, Qiong Yang, Iris M Heid, Rainer Rettig, Albert W Dreisbach, Murielle Bochud, Caroline S Fox, W H L Kao.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Identification of genetic risk factors for albuminuria may alter strategies for early prevention of CKD progression, particularly among patients with diabetes. Little is known about the influence of common genetic variants on albuminuria in both general and diabetic populations. We performed a meta-analysis of data from 63,153 individuals of European ancestry with genotype information from genome-wide association studies (CKDGen Consortium) and from a large candidate gene study (CARe Consortium) to identify susceptibility loci for the quantitative trait urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and the clinical diagnosis microalbuminuria. We identified an association between a missense variant (I2984V) in the CUBN gene, which encodes cubilin, and both UACR (P = 1.1 × 10(-11)) and microalbuminuria (P = 0.001). We observed similar associations among 6981 African Americans in the CARe Consortium. The associations between this variant and both UACR and microalbuminuria were significant in individuals of European ancestry regardless of diabetes status. Finally, this variant associated with a 41% increased risk for the development of persistent microalbuminuria during 20 years of follow-up among 1304 participants with type 1 diabetes in the prospective DCCT/EDIC Study. In summary, we identified a missense CUBN variant that associates with levels of albuminuria in both the general population and in individuals with diabetes.
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Performance of microarray and liquid based capture methods for target enrichment for massively parallel sequencing and SNP discovery.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Targeted sequencing is a cost-efficient way to obtain answers to biological questions in many projects, but the choice of the enrichment method to use can be difficult. In this study we compared two hybridization methods for target enrichment for massively parallel sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery, namely Nimblegen sequence capture arrays and the SureSelect liquid-based hybrid capture system. We prepared sequencing libraries from three HapMap samples using both methods, sequenced the libraries on the Illumina Genome Analyzer, mapped the sequencing reads back to the genome, and called variants in the sequences. 74-75% of the sequence reads originated from the targeted region in the SureSelect libraries and 41-67% in the Nimblegen libraries. We could sequence up to 99.9% and 99.5% of the regions targeted by capture probes from the SureSelect libraries and from the Nimblegen libraries, respectively. The Nimblegen probes covered 0.6 Mb more of the original 3.1 Mb target region than the SureSelect probes. In each sample, we called more SNPs and detected more novel SNPs from the libraries that were prepared using the Nimblegen method. Thus the Nimblegen method gave better results when judged by the number of SNPs called, but this came at the cost of more over-sampling.
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Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis.
, Stephen Sawcer, Garrett Hellenthal, Matti Pirinen, Chris C A Spencer, Nikolaos A Patsopoulos, Loukas Moutsianas, Alexander Dilthey, Zhan Su, Colin Freeman, Sarah E Hunt, Sarah Edkins, Emma Gray, David R Booth, Simon C Potter, An Goris, Gavin Band, Annette Bang Oturai, Amy Strange, Janna Saarela, Celine Bellenguez, Bertrand Fontaine, Matthew Gillman, Bernhard Hemmer, Rhian Gwilliam, Frauke Zipp, Alagurevathi Jayakumar, Roland Martin, Stephen Leslie, Stanley Hawkins, Eleni Giannoulatou, Sandra D'Alfonso, Hannah Blackburn, Filippo Martinelli Boneschi, Jennifer Liddle, Hanne F Harbo, Marc L Perez, Anne Spurkland, Matthew J Waller, Marcin P Mycko, Michelle Ricketts, Manuel Comabella, Naomi Hammond, Ingrid Kockum, Owen T McCann, Maria Ban, Pamela Whittaker, Anu Kemppinen, Paul Weston, Clive Hawkins, Sara Widaa, John Zajicek, Serge Dronov, Neil Robertson, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Lisa F Barcellos, Rathi Ravindrarajah, Roby Abraham, Lars Alfredsson, Kristin Ardlie, Cristin Aubin, Amie Baker, Katharine Baker, Sergio E Baranzini, Laura Bergamaschi, Roberto Bergamaschi, Allan Bernstein, Achim Berthele, Mike Boggild, Jonathan P Bradfield, David Brassat, Simon A Broadley, Dorothea Buck, Helmut Butzkueven, Ruggero Capra, William M Carroll, Paola Cavalla, Elisabeth G Celius, Sabine Cepok, Rosetta Chiavacci, Françoise Clerget-Darpoux, Katleen Clysters, Giancarlo Comi, Mark Cossburn, Isabelle Cournu-Rebeix, Mathew B Cox, Wendy Cozen, Bruce A C Cree, Anne H Cross, Daniele Cusi, Mark J Daly, Emma Davis, Paul I W de Bakker, Marc Debouverie, Marie Beatrice D'hooghe, Katherine Dixon, Rita Dobosi, Bénédicte Dubois, David Ellinghaus, Irina Elovaara, Federica Esposito, Claire Fontenille, Simon Foote, Andre Franke, Daniela Galimberti, Angelo Ghezzi, Joseph Glessner, Refujia Gomez, Olivier Gout, Colin Graham, Struan F A Grant, Franca Rosa Guerini, Hakon Hakonarson, Per Hall, Anders Hamsten, Hans-Peter Hartung, Rob N Heard, Simon Heath, Jeremy Hobart, Muna Hoshi, Carmen Infante-Duarte, Gillian Ingram, Wendy Ingram, Talat Islam, Maja Jagodic, Michael Kabesch, Allan G Kermode, Trevor J Kilpatrick, Cecilia Kim, Norman Klopp, Keijo Koivisto, Malin Larsson, Mark Lathrop, Jeannette S Lechner-Scott, Maurizio A Leone, Virpi Leppä, Ulrika Liljedahl, Izaura Lima Bomfim, Robin R Lincoln, Jenny Link, Jianjun Liu, Aslaug R Lorentzen, Sara Lupoli, Fabio Macciardi, Thomas Mack, Mark Marriott, Vittorio Martinelli, Deborah Mason, Jacob L McCauley, Frank Mentch, Inger-Lise Mero, Tania Mihalova, Xavier Montalban, John Mottershead, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Paola Naldi, William Ollier, Alison Page, Aarno Palotie, Jean Pelletier, Laura Piccio, Trevor Pickersgill, Fredrik Piehl, Susan Pobywajlo, Hong L Quach, Patricia P Ramsay, Mauri Reunanen, Richard Reynolds, John D Rioux, Mariaemma Rodegher, Sabine Roesner, Justin P Rubio, Ina-Maria Rückert, Marco Salvetti, Erika Salvi, Adam Santaniello, Catherine A Schaefer, Stefan Schreiber, Christian Schulze, Rodney J Scott, Finn Sellebjerg, Krzysztof W Selmaj, David Sexton, Ling Shen, Brigid Simms-Acuna, Sheila Skidmore, Patrick M A Sleiman, Cathrine Smestad, Per Soelberg Sørensen, Helle Bach Søndergaard, Jim Stankovich, Richard C Strange, Anna-Maija Sulonen, Emilie Sundqvist, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Francesca Taddeo, Bruce Taylor, Jenefer M Blackwell, Pentti Tienari, Elvira Bramon, Ayman Tourbah, Matthew A Brown, Ewa Tronczynska, Juan P Casas, Niall Tubridy, Aiden Corvin, Jane Vickery, Janusz Jankowski, Pablo Villoslada, Hugh S Markus, Kai Wang, Christopher G Mathew, James Wason, Colin N A Palmer, H-Erich Wichmann, Robert Plomin, Ernest Willoughby, Anna Rautanen, Juliane Winkelmann, Michael Wittig, Richard C Trembath, Jacqueline Yaouanq, Ananth C Viswanathan, Haitao Zhang, Nicholas W Wood, Rebecca Zuvich, Panos Deloukas, Cordelia Langford, Audrey Duncanson, Jorge R Oksenberg, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Jonathan L Haines, Tomas Olsson, Jan Hillert, Adrian J Ivinson, Philip L De Jager, Leena Peltonen, Graeme J Stewart, David A Hafler, Stephen L Hauser, Gil McVean, Peter Donnelly, Alastair Compston.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.
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Genetic variation near IRS1 associates with reduced adiposity and an impaired metabolic profile.
Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, M Carola Zillikens, Alena Stančáková, Francis M Finucane, Janina S Ried, Claudia Langenberg, Weihua Zhang, Jacques S Beckmann, Jian'an Luan, Liesbeth Vandenput, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Yanhua Zhou, Albert Vernon Smith, Jing-Hua Zhao, Najaf Amin, Sailaja Vedantam, So-Youn Shin, Talin Haritunians, Mao Fu, Mary F Feitosa, Meena Kumari, Bjarni V Halldórsson, Emmi Tikkanen, Massimo Mangino, Caroline Hayward, Ci Song, Alice M Arnold, Yurii S Aulchenko, Ben A Oostra, Harry Campbell, L Adrienne Cupples, Kathryn E Davis, Angela Döring, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Karol Estrada, José Manuel Fernández-Real, Melissa Garcia, Christian Gieger, Nicole L Glazer, Candace Guiducci, Albert Hofman, Steve E Humphries, Bo Isomaa, Leonie C Jacobs, Antti Jula, David Karasik, Magnus K Karlsson, Kay-Tee Khaw, Lauren J Kim, Mika Kivimäki, Norman Klopp, Brigitte Kühnel, Johanna Kuusisto, Yongmei Liu, Osten Ljunggren, Mattias Lorentzon, Robert N Luben, Barbara McKnight, Dan Mellström, Braxton D Mitchell, Vincent Mooser, Jose María Moreno, Satu Mannisto, Jeffery R O'Connell, Laura Pascoe, Leena Peltonen, Belén Peral, Markus Perola, Bruce M Psaty, Veikko Salomaa, David B Savage, Robert K Semple, Tatjana Skarić-Jurić, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Kijoung S Song, Timothy D Spector, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Philippa J Talmud, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Sarah H Wild, Alan F Wright, Deborah J Clegg, Eric Schadt, James F Wilson, Igor Rudan, Samuli Ripatti, Ingrid B Borecki, Alan R Shuldiner, Erik Ingelsson, John-Olov Jansson, Robert C Kaplan, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Leif Groop, Douglas P Kiel, Fernando Rivadeneira, Mark Walker, Inês Barroso, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, John C Chambers, Jaspal S Kooner, Nicole Soranzo, Joel N Hirschhorn, Kari Stefansson, H-Erich Wichmann, Claes Ohlsson, Stephen O'Rahilly, Nicholas J Wareham, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Caroline S Fox, Markku Laakso, Ruth J F Loos.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Genome-wide association studies have identified 32 loci influencing body mass index, but this measure does not distinguish lean from fat mass. To identify adiposity loci, we meta-analyzed associations between ?2.5 million SNPs and body fat percentage from 36,626 individuals and followed up the 14 most significant (P < 10(-6)) independent loci in 39,576 individuals. We confirmed a previously established adiposity locus in FTO (P = 3 × 10(-26)) and identified two new loci associated with body fat percentage, one near IRS1 (P = 4 × 10(-11)) and one near SPRY2 (P = 3 × 10(-8)). Both loci contain genes with potential links to adipocyte physiology. Notably, the body-fat-decreasing allele near IRS1 is associated with decreased IRS1 expression and with an impaired metabolic profile, including an increased visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease and decreased adiponectin levels. Our findings provide new insights into adiposity and insulin resistance.
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Association between common variation at the FTO locus and changes in body mass index from infancy to late childhood: the complex nature of genetic association through growth and development.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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An age-dependent association between variation at the FTO locus and BMI in children has been suggested. We meta-analyzed associations between the FTO locus (rs9939609) and BMI in samples, aged from early infancy to 13 years, from 8 cohorts of European ancestry. We found a positive association between additional minor (A) alleles and BMI from 5.5 years onwards, but an inverse association below age 2.5 years. Modelling median BMI curves for each genotype using the LMS method, we found that carriers of minor alleles showed lower BMI in infancy, earlier adiposity rebound (AR), and higher BMI later in childhood. Differences by allele were consistent with two independent processes: earlier AR equivalent to accelerating developmental age by 2.37% (95% CI 1.87, 2.87, p?=?10(-20)) per A allele and a positive age by genotype interaction such that BMI increased faster with age (p?=?10(-23)). We also fitted a linear mixed effects model to relate genotype to the BMI curve inflection points adiposity peak (AP) in infancy and AR. Carriage of two minor alleles at rs9939609 was associated with lower BMI at AP (-0.40% (95% CI: -0.74, -0.06), p?=?0.02), higher BMI at AR (0.93% (95% CI: 0.22, 1.64), p?=?0.01), and earlier AR (-4.72% (-5.81, -3.63), p?=?10(-17)), supporting cross-sectional results. Overall, we confirm the expected association between variation at rs9939609 and BMI in childhood, but only after an inverse association between the same variant and BMI in infancy. Patterns are consistent with a shift on the developmental scale, which is reflected in association with the timing of AR rather than just a global increase in BMI. Results provide important information about longitudinal gene effects and about the role of FTO in adiposity. The associated shifts in developmental timing have clinical importance with respect to known relationships between AR and both later-life BMI and metabolic disease risk.
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A candidate gene study of the type I interferon pathway implicates IKBKE and IL8 as risk loci for SLE.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2010
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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease in which the type I interferon pathway has a crucial role. We have previously shown that three genes in this pathway, IRF5, TYK2 and STAT4, are strongly associated with risk for SLE. Here, we investigated 78 genes involved in the type I interferon pathway to identify additional SLE susceptibility loci. First, we genotyped 896 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these 78 genes and 14 other candidate genes in 482 Swedish SLE patients and 536 controls. Genes with P<0.01 in the initial screen were then followed up in 344 additional Swedish patients and 1299 controls. SNPs in the IKBKE, TANK, STAT1, IL8 and TRAF6 genes gave nominal signals of association with SLE in this extended Swedish cohort. To replicate these findings we extracted data from a genomewide association study on SLE performed in a US cohort. Combined analysis of the Swedish and US data, comprising a total of 2136 cases and 9694 controls, implicates IKBKE and IL8 as SLE susceptibility loci (P(meta)=0.00010 and P(meta)=0.00040, respectively). STAT1 was also associated with SLE in this cohort (P(meta)=3.3 × 10??), but this association signal appears to be dependent of that previously reported for the neighbouring STAT4 gene. Our study suggests additional genes from the type I interferon system in SLE, and highlights genes in this pathway for further functional analysis.
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Dried reagents for multiplex genotyping by tag-array minisequencing to be used in microfluidic devices.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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We present an optimized procedure for freeze-drying and storing reagents for multiplex PCR followed by genotyping using a tag-array minisequencing assay with four color fluorescence detection which is suitable for microfluidic assay formats. A test panel was established for five cancer mutations in three codons (175, 248 and 273) of the tumor protein gene (TP53) and for 13 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TP53 gene. The activity of DNA polymerase was preserved for six months of storage after freeze-drying, and the half-life of activities of exonuclease I and shrimp alkaline phosphatase were estimated to 55 and 200 days, respectively. We conducted a systematic genotyping comparison using freeze-dried and liquid reagents. The accuracy of successful genotyping was 99.1% using freeze-dried reagents compared to liquid reagents. As a proof of concept, the genotyping protocol was carried out with freeze-dried reagents stored in reaction chambers fabricated by micromilling in a cyclic olefin copolymer substrate. The results reported in this study are a key step towards the development of an integrated microfluidic device for point-of-care DNA-based diagnostics.
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Association of genetic risk variants with expression of proximal genes identifies novel susceptibility genes for cardiovascular disease.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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Population-based genome-wide association studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cardiovascular disease or its risk factors. Genes in close proximity to these risk-SNPs are often thought to be pathogenetically important based on their location alone. However, the actual connections between SNPs and disease mechanisms remain largely unknown.
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Niemann-Pick C1 modulates hepatic triglyceride metabolism and its genetic variation contributes to serum triglyceride levels.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
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To study how Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) influences hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism and to determine whether this is reflected in circulating lipid levels.
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Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.
Iris M Heid, Anne U Jackson, Joshua C Randall, Thomas W Winkler, Lu Qi, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Gudmar Thorleifsson, M Carola Zillikens, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Reedik Mägi, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Charles C White, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Tamara B Harris, Sonja I Berndt, Erik Ingelsson, Cristen J Willer, Michael N Weedon, Jian'an Luan, Sailaja Vedantam, Tonu Esko, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Zoltan Kutalik, Shengxu Li, Keri L Monda, Anna L Dixon, Christopher C Holmes, Lee M Kaplan, Liming Liang, Josine L Min, Miriam F Moffatt, Cliona Molony, George Nicholson, Eric E Schadt, Krina T Zondervan, Mary F Feitosa, Teresa Ferreira, Hana Lango Allen, Robert J Weyant, Eleanor Wheeler, Andrew R Wood, , Karol Estrada, Michael E Goddard, Guillaume Lettre, Massimo Mangino, Dale R Nyholt, Shaun Purcell, Albert Vernon Smith, Peter M Visscher, Jian Yang, Steven A McCarroll, James Nemesh, Benjamin F Voight, Devin Absher, Najaf Amin, Thor Aspelund, Lachlan Coin, Nicole L Glazer, Caroline Hayward, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Asa Johansson, Toby Johnson, Marika Kaakinen, Karen Kapur, Shamika Ketkar, Joshua W Knowles, Peter Kraft, Aldi T Kraja, Claudia Lamina, Michael F Leitzmann, Barbara McKnight, Andrew P Morris, Ken K Ong, John R B Perry, Marjolein J Peters, Ozren Polašek, Inga Prokopenko, Nigel W Rayner, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Neil R Robertson, Serena Sanna, Ulla Sovio, Ida Surakka, Alexander Teumer, Sophie van Wingerden, Veronique Vitart, Jing Hua Zhao, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Peter S Chines, Eva Fisher, Jennifer R Kulzer, Cécile Lecoeur, Narisu Narisu, Camilla Sandholt, Laura J Scott, Kaisa Silander, Klaus Stark, Mari-Liis Tammesoo, Tanya M Teslovich, Nicholas John Timpson, Richard M Watanabe, Ryan Welch, Daniel I Chasman, Matthew N Cooper, John-Olov Jansson, Johannes Kettunen, Robert W Lawrence, Niina Pellikka, Markus Perola, Liesbeth Vandenput, Helene Alavere, Peter Almgren, Larry D Atwood, Amanda J Bennett, Reiner Biffar, Lori L Bonnycastle, Stefan R Bornstein, Thomas A Buchanan, Harry Campbell, Ian N M Day, Mariano Dei, Marcus Dörr, Paul Elliott, Michael R Erdos, Johan G Eriksson, Nelson B Freimer, Mao Fu, Stefan Gaget, Eco J C Geus, Anette P Gjesing, Harald Grallert, Jürgen Gräßler, Christopher J Groves, Candace Guiducci, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Neelam Hassanali, Aki S Havulinna, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Andrew A Hicks, Jennie Hui, Wilmar Igl, Pekka Jousilahti, Antti Jula, Eero Kajantie, Leena Kinnunen, Ivana Kolčić, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Heyo K Kroemer, Vjekoslav Krželj, Johanna Kuusisto, Kirsti Kvaloy, Jaana Laitinen, Olivier Lantieri, G Mark Lathrop, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Robert N Luben, Barbara Ludwig, Wendy L McArdle, Anne McCarthy, Mario A Morken, Mari Nelis, Matt J Neville, Guillaume Paré, Alex N Parker, John F Peden, Irene Pichler, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Carl G P Platou, Anneli Pouta, Martin Ridderstråle, Nilesh J Samani, Jouko Saramies, Juha Sinisalo, Jan H Smit, Rona J Strawbridge, Heather M Stringham, Amy J Swift, Maris Teder-Laving, Brian Thomson, Gianluca Usala, Joyce B J van Meurs, Gert-Jan van Ommen, Vincent Vatin, Claudia B Volpato, Henri Wallaschofski, G Bragi Walters, Elisabeth Widén, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Daniel R Witte, Lina Zgaga, Paavo Zitting, John P Beilby, Alan L James, Mika Kähönen, Terho Lehtimäki, Markku S Nieminen, Claes Ohlsson, Lyle J Palmer, Olli Raitakari, Paul M Ridker, Michael Stumvoll, Anke Tönjes, Jorma Viikari, Beverley Balkau, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Richard N Bergman, Heiner Boeing, George Davey Smith, Shah Ebrahim, Philippe Froguel, Torben Hansen, Christian Hengstenberg, Kristian Hveem, Bo Isomaa, Torben Jørgensen, Fredrik Karpe, Kay-Tee Khaw, Markku Laakso, Debbie A Lawlor, Michel Marre, Thomas Meitinger, Andres Metspalu, Kristian Midthjell, Oluf Pedersen, Veikko Salomaa, Peter E H Schwarz, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Timo T Valle, Nicholas J Wareham, Alice M Arnold, Jacques S Beckmann, Sven Bergmann, Eric Boerwinkle, Dorret I Boomsma, Mark J Caulfield, Francis S Collins, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, Anders Hamsten, Andrew T Hattersley, Albert Hofman, Frank B Hu, Thomas Illig, Carlos Iribarren, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, W H Linda Kao, Jaakko Kaprio, Lenore J Launer, Patricia B Munroe, Ben Oostra, Brenda W Penninx, Peter P Pramstaller, Bruce M Psaty, Thomas Quertermous, Aila Rissanen, Igor Rudan, Alan R Shuldiner, Nicole Soranzo, Timothy D Spector, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Manuela Uda, André Uitterlinden, Henry Völzke, Peter Vollenweider, James F Wilson, Jacqueline C Witteman, Alan F Wright, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Michael Boehnke, Ingrid B Borecki, Panos Deloukas, Timothy M Frayling, Leif C Groop, Talin Haritunians, David J Hunter, Robert C Kaplan, Kari E North, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Leena Peltonen, David Schlessinger, David P Strachan, Joel N Hirschhorn, Themistocles L Assimes, H-Erich Wichmann, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Cornelia M van Duijn, Kari Stefansson, L Adrienne Cupples, Ruth J F Loos, Inês Barroso, Mark I McCarthy, Caroline S Fox, Karen L Mohlke, Cecilia M Lindgren.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10?? to P = 1.8 × 10???) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10?³ to P = 1.2 × 10?¹³). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions.
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Genetic risk factors in lupus nephritis and IgA nephropathy--no support of an overlap.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and nephritis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) are two common forms of glomerulonephritis in which genetic findings are of importance for disease development. We have recently reported an association of IgAN with variants of TGFB1. In several autoimmune diseases, particularly in SLE, IRF5, STAT4 genes and TRAF1-C5 locus have been shown to be important candidate genes. The aim of this study was to compare genetic variants from the TGFB1, IRF5, STAT4 genes and TRAF1-C5 locus with susceptibility to IgAN and lupus nephritis in two Swedish cohorts.
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Detailed physiologic characterization reveals diverse mechanisms for novel genetic Loci regulating glucose and insulin metabolism in humans.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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OBJECTIVE Recent genome-wide association studies have revealed loci associated with glucose and insulin-related traits. We aimed to characterize 19 such loci using detailed measures of insulin processing, secretion, and sensitivity to help elucidate their role in regulation of glucose control, insulin secretion and/or action. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated associations of loci identified by the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC) with circulating proinsulin, measures of insulin secretion and sensitivity from oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), euglycemic clamps, insulin suppression tests, or frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests in nondiabetic humans (n = 29,084). RESULTS The glucose-raising allele in MADD was associated with abnormal insulin processing (a dramatic effect on higher proinsulin levels, but no association with insulinogenic index) at extremely persuasive levels of statistical significance (P = 2.1 x 10(-71)). Defects in insulin processing and insulin secretion were seen in glucose-raising allele carriers at TCF7L2, SCL30A8, GIPR, and C2CD4B. Abnormalities in early insulin secretion were suggested in glucose-raising allele carriers at MTNR1B, GCK, FADS1, DGKB, and PROX1 (lower insulinogenic index; no association with proinsulin or insulin sensitivity). Two loci previously associated with fasting insulin (GCKR and IGF1) were associated with OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity indices in a consistent direction. CONCLUSIONS Genetic loci identified through their effect on hyperglycemia and/or hyperinsulinemia demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in associations with measures of insulin processing, secretion, and sensitivity. Our findings emphasize the importance of detailed physiological characterization of such loci for improved understanding of pathways associated with alterations in glucose homeostasis and eventually type 2 diabetes.
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Coffee consumption and CYP1A2 genotype in relation to bone mineral density of the proximal femur in elderly men and women: a cohort study.
Nutr Metab (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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Drinking coffee has been linked to reduced calcium conservation, but it is less clear whether it leads to sustained bone mineral loss and if individual predisposition for caffeine metabolism might be important in this context. Therefore, the relation between consumption of coffee and bone mineral density (BMD) at the proximal femur in men and women was studied, taking into account, for the first time, genotypes for cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) associated with metabolism of caffeine.
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Genetic variants and disease-associated factors contribute to enhanced interferon regulatory factor 5 expression in blood cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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Genetic variants of the interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 5 gene (IRF5) are associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The contribution of these variants to IRF-5 expression in primary blood cells of SLE patients has not been addressed, nor has the role of type I IFNs. The aim of this study was to determine the association between increased IRF-5 expression and the IRF5 risk haplotype in SLE patients.
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New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk.
Josée Dupuis, Claudia Langenberg, Inga Prokopenko, Richa Saxena, Nicole Soranzo, Anne U Jackson, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicole L Glazer, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Anna L Gloyn, Cecilia M Lindgren, Reedik Mägi, Andrew P Morris, Joshua Randall, Toby Johnson, Paul Elliott, Denis Rybin, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Peter Henneman, Harald Grallert, Abbas Dehghan, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Christopher S Franklin, Pau Navarro, Kijoung Song, Anuj Goel, John R B Perry, Josephine M Egan, Taina Lajunen, Niels Grarup, Thomas Sparsø, Alex Doney, Benjamin F Voight, Heather M Stringham, Man Li, Stavroula Kanoni, Peter Shrader, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Meena Kumari, Lu Qi, Nicholas J Timpson, Christian Gieger, Carina Zabena, Ghislain Rocheleau, Erik Ingelsson, Ping An, Jeffrey O'Connell, Jian'an Luan, Amanda Elliott, Steven A McCarroll, Felicity Payne, Rosa Maria Roccasecca, François Pattou, Praveen Sethupathy, Kristin Ardlie, Yavuz Ariyurek, Beverley Balkau, Philip Barter, John P Beilby, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Rafn Benediktsson, Amanda J Bennett, Sven Bergmann, Murielle Bochud, Eric Boerwinkle, Amélie Bonnefond, Lori L Bonnycastle, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Yvonne Böttcher, Eric Brunner, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Guillaume Charpentier, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Peter Chines, Robert Clarke, Lachlan J M Coin, Matthew N Cooper, Marilyn Cornelis, Gabe Crawford, Laura Crisponi, Ian N M Day, Eco J C de Geus, Jérôme Delplanque, Christian Dina, Michael R Erdos, Annette C Fedson, Antje Fischer-Rosinský, Nita G Forouhi, Caroline S Fox, Rune Frants, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Pilar Galán, Mark O Goodarzi, Jurgen Graessler, Christopher J Groves, Scott Grundy, Rhian Gwilliam, Ulf Gyllensten, Samy Hadjadj, Göran Hallmans, Naomi Hammond, Xijing Han, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Neelam Hassanali, Caroline Hayward, Simon C Heath, Serge Hercberg, Christian Herder, Andrew A Hicks, David R Hillman, Aroon D Hingorani, Albert Hofman, Jennie Hui, Joe Hung, Bo Isomaa, Paul R V Johnson, Torben Jørgensen, Antti Jula, Marika Kaakinen, Jaakko Kaprio, Y Antero Kesäniemi, Mika Kivimäki, Beatrice Knight, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, G Mark Lathrop, Debbie A Lawlor, Olivier Le Bacquer, Cécile Lecoeur, Yun Li, Valeriya Lyssenko, Robert Mahley, Massimo Mangino, Alisa K Manning, María Teresa Martínez-Larrad, Jarred B McAteer, Laura J McCulloch, Ruth McPherson, Christa Meisinger, David Melzer, David Meyre, Braxton D Mitchell, Mario A Morken, Sutapa Mukherjee, Silvia Naitza, Narisu Narisu, Matthew J Neville, Ben A Oostra, Marco Orrù, Ruth Pakyz, Colin N A Palmer, Giuseppe Paolisso, Cristian Pattaro, Daniel Pearson, John F Peden, Nancy L Pedersen, Markus Perola, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Irene Pichler, Ozren Polašek, Danielle Posthuma, Simon C Potter, Anneli Pouta, Michael A Province, Bruce M Psaty, Wolfgang Rathmann, Nigel W Rayner, Kenneth Rice, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Michael Roden, Olov Rolandsson, Annelli Sandbaek, Manjinder Sandhu, Serena Sanna, Avan Aihie Sayer, Paul Scheet, Laura J Scott, Udo Seedorf, Stephen J Sharp, Beverley Shields, Gunnar Sigurethsson, Eric J G Sijbrands, Angela Silveira, Laila Simpson, Andrew Singleton, Nicholas L Smith, Ulla Sovio, Amy Swift, Holly Syddall, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Toshiko Tanaka, Barbara Thorand, Jean Tichet, Anke Tönjes, Tiinamaija Tuomi, André G Uitterlinden, Ko Willems van Dijk, Mandy van Hoek, Dhiraj Varma, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Veronique Vitart, Nicole Vogelzangs, Gérard Waeber, Peter J Wagner, Andrew Walley, G Bragi Walters, Kim L Ward, Hugh Watkins, Michael N Weedon, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Jaqueline C M Witteman, John W G Yarnell, Eleftheria Zeggini, Diana Zelenika, Björn Zethelius, Guangju Zhai, Jing Hua Zhao, M Carola Zillikens, , Ingrid B Borecki, Ruth J F Loos, Pierre Meneton, Patrik K E Magnusson, David M Nathan, Gordon H Williams, Andrew T Hattersley, Kaisa Silander, Veikko Salomaa, George Davey Smith, Stefan R Bornstein, Peter Schwarz, Joachim Spranger, Fredrik Karpe, Alan R Shuldiner, Cyrus Cooper, George V Dedoussis, Manuel Serrano-Ríos, Andrew D Morris, Lars Lind, Lyle J Palmer, Frank B Hu, Paul W Franks, Shah Ebrahim, Michael Marmot, W H Linda Kao, James S Pankow, Michael J Sampson, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen, Peter Paul Pramstaller, H Erich Wichmann, Thomas Illig, Igor Rudan, Alan F Wright, Michael Stumvoll, Harry Campbell, James F Wilson, Richard N Bergman, Thomas A Buchanan, Francis S Collins, Karen L Mohlke, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Timo T Valle, David Altshuler, Jerome I Rotter, David S Siscovick, Brenda W J H Penninx, Dorret I Boomsma, Panos Deloukas, Timothy D Spector, Timothy M Frayling, Luigi Ferrucci, Augustine Kong, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson, Cornelia M van Duijn, Yurii S Aulchenko, Antonio Cao, Angelo Scuteri, David Schlessinger, Manuela Uda, Aimo Ruokonen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Dawn M Waterworth, Peter Vollenweider, Leena Peltonen, Vincent Mooser, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Nicholas J Wareham, Robert Sladek, Philippe Froguel, Richard M Watanabe, James B Meigs, Leif Groop, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy, Jose C Florez, Inês Barroso.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2010
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Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes.
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Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge.
Richa Saxena, Marie-France Hivert, Claudia Langenberg, Toshiko Tanaka, James S Pankow, Peter Vollenweider, Valeriya Lyssenko, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Josée Dupuis, Anne U Jackson, W H Linda Kao, Man Li, Nicole L Glazer, Alisa K Manning, Jian'an Luan, Heather M Stringham, Inga Prokopenko, Toby Johnson, Niels Grarup, Trine W Boesgaard, Cécile Lecoeur, Peter Shrader, Jeffrey O'Connell, Erik Ingelsson, David J Couper, Kenneth Rice, Kijoung Song, Camilla H Andreasen, Christian Dina, Anna Köttgen, Olivier Le Bacquer, François Pattou, Jalal Taneera, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Denis Rybin, Kristin Ardlie, Michael Sampson, Lu Qi, Mandy van Hoek, Michael N Weedon, Yurii S Aulchenko, Benjamin F Voight, Harald Grallert, Beverley Balkau, Richard N Bergman, Suzette J Bielinski, Amélie Bonnefond, Lori L Bonnycastle, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Yvonne Böttcher, Eric Brunner, Thomas A Buchanan, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Guillaume Charpentier, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Peter S Chines, Francis S Collins, Marilyn Cornelis, Gabriel J Crawford, Jérôme Delplanque, Alex Doney, Josephine M Egan, Michael R Erdos, Mathieu Firmann, Nita G Forouhi, Caroline S Fox, Mark O Goodarzi, Jurgen Graessler, Aroon Hingorani, Bo Isomaa, Torben Jørgensen, Mika Kivimäki, Peter Kovacs, Knut Krohn, Meena Kumari, Torsten Lauritzen, Claire Levy-Marchal, Vladimir Mayor, Jarred B McAteer, David Meyre, Braxton D Mitchell, Karen L Mohlke, Mario A Morken, Narisu Narisu, Colin N A Palmer, Ruth Pakyz, Laura Pascoe, Felicity Payne, Daniel Pearson, Wolfgang Rathmann, Annelli Sandbaek, Avan Aihie Sayer, Laura J Scott, Stephen J Sharp, Eric Sijbrands, Andrew Singleton, David S Siscovick, Nicholas L Smith, Thomas Sparsø, Amy J Swift, Holly Syddall, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Anke Tönjes, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Timo T Valle, Gérard Waeber, Andrew Walley, Dawn M Waterworth, Eleftheria Zeggini, Jing Hua Zhao, , Thomas Illig, H Erich Wichmann, James F Wilson, Cornelia van Duijn, Frank B Hu, Andrew D Morris, Timothy M Frayling, Andrew T Hattersley, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson, Peter Nilsson, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Alan R Shuldiner, Mark Walker, Stefan R Bornstein, Peter Schwarz, Gordon H Williams, David M Nathan, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Cyrus Cooper, Michael Marmot, Luigi Ferrucci, Vincent Mooser, Michael Stumvoll, Ruth J F Loos, David Altshuler, Bruce M Psaty, Jerome I Rotter, Eric Boerwinkle, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen, Jose C Florez, Mark I McCarthy, Michael Boehnke, Inês Barroso, Robert Sladek, Philippe Froguel, James B Meigs, Leif Groop, Nicholas J Wareham, Richard M Watanabe.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2010
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Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2-h glucose level (rs10423928, beta (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 x 10(-15)). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreased insulin secretion (n = 22,492; insulinogenic index, P = 1.0 x 10(-17); ratio of insulin to glucose area under the curve, P = 1.3 x 10(-16)) and diminished incretin effect (n = 804; P = 4.3 x 10(-4)). We also identified variants at ADCY5 (rs2877716, P = 4.2 x 10(-16)), VPS13C (rs17271305, P = 4.1 x 10(-8)), GCKR (rs1260326, P = 7.1 x 10(-11)) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, P = 4.2 x 10(-10)) associated with 2-h glucose. Of the three newly implicated loci (GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C), only ADCY5 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in collaborating studies (n = 35,869 cases, 89,798 controls, OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15, P = 4.8 x 10(-18)).
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DNA methylation for subtype classification and prediction of treatment outcome in patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2009
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Despite improvements in the prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), subgroups of patients would benefit from alternative treatment approaches. Our aim was to identify genes with DNA methylation profiles that could identify such groups. We determined the methylation levels of 1320 CpG sites in regulatory regions of 416 genes in cells from 401 children diagnosed with ALL. Hierarchical clustering of 300 CpG sites distinguished between T-lineage ALL and B-cell precursor (BCP) ALL and between the main cytogenetic subtypes of BCP ALL. It also stratified patients with high hyperdiploidy and t(12;21) ALL into 2 subgroups with different probability of relapse. By using supervised learning, we constructed multivariate classifiers by external cross-validation procedures. We identified 40 genes that consistently contributed to accurate discrimination between the main subtypes of BCP ALL and gene sets that discriminated between subtypes of ALL and between ALL and controls in pairwise classification analyses. We also identified 20 individual genes with DNA methylation levels that predicted relapse of leukemia. Thus, methylation analysis should be explored as a method to improve stratification of ALL patients. The genes highlighted in our study are not enriched to specific pathways, but the gene expression levels are inversely correlated to the methylation levels.
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A STAT4 risk allele is associated with ischaemic cerebrovascular events and anti-phospholipid antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2009
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To investigate whether the risk allele for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 4 (STAT4) gene, defined by the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10181656(G), is associated with vascular events and/or presence of prothrombotic anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) in patients with SLE.
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Variation in STAT4 is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in a Finnish family cohort.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2009
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To investigate whether 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the STAT4 gene, previously associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a Swedish case-control cohort, are also associated with SLE risk in a Finnish SLE family cohort.
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A large-scale replication study identifies TNIP1, PRDM1, JAZF1, UHRF1BP1 and IL10 as risk loci for systemic lupus erythematosus.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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Genome-wide association studies have recently identified at least 15 susceptibility loci for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To confirm additional risk loci, we selected SNPs from 2,466 regions that showed nominal evidence of association to SLE (P < 0.05) in a genome-wide study and genotyped them in an independent sample of 1,963 cases and 4,329 controls. This replication effort identified five new SLE susceptibility loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)): TNIP1 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27), PRDM1 (OR = 1.20), JAZF1 (OR = 1.20), UHRF1BP1 (OR = 1.17) and IL10 (OR = 1.19). We identified 21 additional candidate loci with P< or = 1 x 10(-5). A candidate screen of alleles previously associated with other autoimmune diseases suggested five loci (P < 1 x 10(-3)) that may contribute to SLE: IFIH1, CFB, CLEC16A, IL12B and SH2B3. These results expand the number of confirmed and candidate SLE susceptibility loci and implicate several key immunologic pathways in SLE pathogenesis.
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Genetic analysis of an F(2) intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for body-weight.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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We have performed Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis of an F(2) intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for juvenile body-weight. In a previous study 13 identified loci with effects on body-weight, only explained a small proportion of the large variation in the F(2) population. Epistatic interaction analysis however, indicated that a network of interacting loci with large effect contributed to the difference in body-weight of the parental lines. This previous analysis was, however, based on a sparse microsatellite linkage map and the limited coverage could have affected the main conclusions. Here we present a revised QTL analysis based on a high-density linkage map that provided a more complete coverage of the chicken genome. Furthermore, we utilized genotype data from ~13,000 SNPs to search the genome for potential selective sweeps that have occurred in the selected lines.
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Genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms by multiplex minisequencing using tag-arrays.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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The need for multiplexed methods for SNP genotyping has rapidly increased during the last decade. We present here a flexible system that combines highly specific genotyping by minisequencing single-base extension with the advantages of a microarray format that allows highly multiplexed and parallel analysis of any custom selected SNPs.Cyclic minisequencing reactions with fluorescently labeled dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs) are performed in solution using multiplex PCR product as template and detection primers, designed to anneal immediately adjacent and upstream of the SNP site. The detection primers carry unique Tag-sequences at their 5 ends and oligonucleotides complementary to the Tag-sequence, cTags, are immobilized on a microarray. After extension, the tagged detection primers are allowed to hybridize to the cTags, and the fluorescent signals from the array are measured and the genotypes are deduced by cluster analysis of the incorporated labels. The "array of arrays" format of the system, accomplished by a silicon rubber grid to form separate reaction chambers, allows either 80 or 16 samples to be analyzed for up to 200 or 600 SNPs, respectively on a single microscope slide.
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Allele-specific expression and gene methylation in the control of CYP1A2 mRNA level in human livers.
Pharmacogenomics J.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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The basis for interindividual variation in the CYP1A2 gene expression is not fully understood and the known genetic polymorphisms in the gene provide no explanation. We investigated whether the CYP1A2 gene expression is regulated by DNA methylation and displays allele-specific expression (ASE) using 65 human livers. Forty-eight percent of the livers displayed ASE not associated to the CYP1A2 mRNA levels. The extent of DNA methylation of a CpG island including 17 CpG sites, close to the translation start site, inversely correlated with hepatic CYP1A2 mRNA levels (P=0.018). The methylation of two separate core CpG sites was strongly associated with the CYP1A2 mRNA levels (P=0.005) and ASE phenotype (P=0.01), respectively. The CYP1A2 expression in hepatoma B16A2 cells was strongly induced by treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. In conclusion, the CYP1A2 gene expression is influenced by the extent of DNA methylation and displays ASE, mechanisms contributing to the large interindividual differences in CYP1A2 gene expression.
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Geographical structure and differential natural selection among North European populations.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Population structure can provide novel insight into the human past, and recognizing and correcting for such stratification is a practical concern in gene mapping by many association methodologies. We investigate these patterns, primarily through principal component (PC) analysis of whole genome SNP polymorphism, in 2099 individuals from populations of Northern European origin (Ireland, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and HapMap European-American). The major trends (PC1 and PC2) demonstrate an ability to detect geographic substructure, even over a small area like the British Isles, and this information can then be applied to finely dissect the ancestry of the European-Australian and European-American samples. They simultaneously point to the importance of considering population stratification in what might be considered a small homogeneous region. There is evidence from F(ST)-based analysis of genic and nongenic SNPs that differential positive selection has operated across these populations despite their short divergence time and relatively similar geographic and environmental range. The pressure appears to have been focused on genes involved in immunity, perhaps reflecting response to infectious disease epidemic. Such an event may explain a striking selective sweep centered on the rs2508049-G allele, close to the HLA-G gene on chromosome 6. Evidence of the sweep extends over a 8-Mb/3.5-cM region. Overall, the results illustrate the power of dense genotype and sample data to explore regional population variation, the events that have crafted it, and their implications in both explaining disease prevalence and mapping these genes by association.
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Allele-specific gene expression patterns in primary leukemic cells reveal regulation of gene expression by CpG site methylation.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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To identify genes that are regulated by cis-acting functional elements in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) we determined the allele-specific expression (ASE) levels of 2, 529 genes by genotyping a genome-wide panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms in RNA and DNA from bone marrow and blood samples of 197 children with ALL. Using a reproducible, quantitative genotyping method and stringent criteria for scoring ASE, we found that 16% of the analyzed genes display ASE in multiple ALL cell samples. For most of the genes, the level of ASE varied largely between the samples, from 1.4-fold overexpression of one allele to apparent monoallelic expression. For genes exhibiting ASE, 55% displayed bidirectional ASE in which overexpression of either of the two SNP alleles occurred. For bidirectional ASE we also observed overall higher levels of ASE and correlation with the methylation level of these sites. Our results demonstrate that CpG site methylation is one of the factors that regulates gene expression in ALL cells.
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Genome-wide association study identifies eight loci associated with blood pressure.
Christopher Newton-Cheh, Toby Johnson, Vesela Gateva, Martin D Tobin, Murielle Bochud, Lachlan Coin, Samer S Najjar, Jing Hua Zhao, Simon C Heath, Susana Eyheramendy, Konstantinos Papadakis, Benjamin F Voight, Laura J Scott, Feng Zhang, Martin Farrall, Toshiko Tanaka, Chris Wallace, John C Chambers, Kay-Tee Khaw, Peter Nilsson, Pim van der Harst, Silvia Polidoro, Diederick E Grobbee, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Michiel L Bots, Louise V Wain, Katherine S Elliott, Alexander Teumer, Jian'an Luan, Gavin Lucas, Johanna Kuusisto, Paul R Burton, David Hadley, Wendy L McArdle, , Morris Brown, Anna Dominiczak, Stephen J Newhouse, Nilesh J Samani, John Webster, Eleftheria Zeggini, Jacques S Beckmann, Sven Bergmann, Noha Lim, Kijoung Song, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Dawn M Waterworth, Xin Yuan, Leif Groop, Marju Orho-Melander, Alessandra Allione, Alessandra Di Gregorio, Simonetta Guarrera, Salvatore Panico, Fulvio Ricceri, Valeria Romanazzi, Carlotta Sacerdote, Paolo Vineis, Inês Barroso, Manjinder S Sandhu, Robert N Luben, Gabriel J Crawford, Pekka Jousilahti, Markus Perola, Michael Boehnke, Lori L Bonnycastle, Francis S Collins, Anne U Jackson, Karen L Mohlke, Heather M Stringham, Timo T Valle, Cristen J Willer, Richard N Bergman, Mario A Morken, Angela Döring, Christian Gieger, Thomas Illig, Thomas Meitinger, Elin Org, Arne Pfeufer, H Erich Wichmann, Sekar Kathiresan, Jaume Marrugat, Christopher J O'Donnell, Stephen M Schwartz, David S Siscovick, Isaac Subirana, Nelson B Freimer, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Mark I McCarthy, Paul F O'Reilly, Leena Peltonen, Anneli Pouta, Paul E de Jong, Harold Snieder, Wiek H van Gilst, Robert Clarke, Anuj Goel, Anders Hamsten, John F Peden, Udo Seedorf, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Giovanni Tognoni, Edward G Lakatta, Serena Sanna, Paul Scheet, David Schlessinger, Angelo Scuteri, Marcus Dörr, Florian Ernst, Stephan B Felix, Georg Homuth, Roberto Lorbeer, Thorsten Reffelmann, Rainer Rettig, Uwe Völker, Pilar Galán, Ivo G Gut, Serge Hercberg, G Mark Lathrop, Diana Zelenika, Panos Deloukas, Nicole Soranzo, Frances M Williams, Guangju Zhai, Veikko Salomaa, Markku Laakso, Roberto Elosua, Nita G Forouhi, Henry Völzke, Cuno S Uiterwaal, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Mattijs E Numans, Giuseppe Matullo, Gerjan Navis, Göran Berglund, Sheila A Bingham, Jaspal S Kooner, John M Connell, Stefania Bandinelli, Luigi Ferrucci, Hugh Watkins, Tim D Spector, Jaakko Tuomilehto, David Altshuler, David P Strachan, Maris Laan, Pierre Meneton, Nicholas J Wareham, Manuela Uda, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Vincent Mooser, Olle Melander, Ruth J F Loos, Paul Elliott, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Mark Caulfield, Patricia B Munroe.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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Elevated blood pressure is a common, heritable cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. To date, identification of common genetic variants influencing blood pressure has proven challenging. We tested 2.5 million genotyped and imputed SNPs for association with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 34,433 subjects of European ancestry from the Global BPgen consortium and followed up findings with direct genotyping (N ? 71,225 European ancestry, N ? 12,889 Indian Asian ancestry) and in silico comparison (CHARGE consortium, N = 29,136). We identified association between systolic or diastolic blood pressure and common variants in eight regions near the CYP17A1 (P = 7 × 10(-24)), CYP1A2 (P = 1 × 10(-23)), FGF5 (P = 1 × 10(-21)), SH2B3 (P = 3 × 10(-18)), MTHFR (P = 2 × 10(-13)), c10orf107 (P = 1 × 10(-9)), ZNF652 (P = 5 × 10(-9)) and PLCD3 (P = 1 × 10(-8)) genes. All variants associated with continuous blood pressure were associated with dichotomous hypertension. These associations between common variants and blood pressure and hypertension offer mechanistic insights into the regulation of blood pressure and may point to novel targets for interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease.
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Genetic analysis of Alzheimers disease in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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Genetic factors influencing common complex conditions have proven difficult to identify, and data from numerous investigations have provided incomplete conclusions as to the identity of these genes. Here we aimed to identify susceptibility genes for late-onset Alzheimers disease (AD).
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Genetic variations in sex steroid-related genes as predictors of serum estrogen levels in men.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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The risk of many conditions, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteoporosis, is associated with serum levels of sex steroids.
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Powerful identification of cis-regulatory SNPs in human primary monocytes using allele-specific gene expression.
PLoS ONE
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A large number of genome-wide association studies have been performed during the past five years to identify associations between SNPs and human complex diseases and traits. The assignment of a functional role for the identified disease-associated SNP is not straight-forward. Genome-wide expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis is frequently used as the initial step to define a function while allele-specific gene expression (ASE) analysis has not yet gained a wide-spread use in disease mapping studies. We compared the power to identify cis-acting regulatory SNPs (cis-rSNPs) by genome-wide allele-specific gene expression (ASE) analysis with that of traditional expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping. Our study included 395 healthy blood donors for whom global gene expression profiles in circulating monocytes were determined by Illumina BeadArrays. ASE was assessed in a subset of these monocytes from 188 donors by quantitative genotyping of mRNA using a genome-wide panel of SNP markers. The performance of the two methods for detecting cis-rSNPs was evaluated by comparing associations between SNP genotypes and gene expression levels in sample sets of varying size. We found that up to 8-fold more samples are required for eQTL mapping to reach the same statistical power as that obtained by ASE analysis for the same rSNPs. The performance of ASE is insensitive to SNPs with low minor allele frequencies and detects a larger number of significantly associated rSNPs using the same sample size as eQTL mapping. An unequivocal conclusion from our comparison is that ASE analysis is more sensitive for detecting cis-rSNPs than standard eQTL mapping. Our study shows the potential of ASE mapping in tissue samples and primary cells which are difficult to obtain in large numbers.
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Genes identified in Asian SLE GWASs are also associated with SLE in Caucasian populations.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
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Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in Asian populations have identified novel risk loci for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we genotyped 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight such loci and investigated their disease associations in three independent Caucasian SLE case-control cohorts recruited from Sweden, Finland and the United States. The disease associations of the SNPs in ETS1, IKZF1, LRRC18-WDFY4, RASGRP3, SLC15A4, TNIP1 and 16p11.2 were replicated, whereas no solid evidence of association was observed for the 7q11.23 locus in the Caucasian cohorts. SLC15A4 was significantly associated with renal involvement in SLE. The association of TNIP1 was more pronounced in SLE patients with renal and immunological disorder, which is corroborated by two previous studies in Asian cohorts. The effects of all the associated SNPs, either conferring risk for or being protective against SLE, were in the same direction in Caucasians and Asians. The magnitudes of the allelic effects for most of the SNPs were also comparable across different ethnic groups. On the contrary, remarkable differences in allele frequencies between Caucasian and Asian populations were observed for all associated SNPs. In conclusion, most of the novel SLE risk loci identified by GWASs in Asian populations were also associated with SLE in Caucasian populations. We observed both similarities and differences with respect to the effect sizes and risk allele frequencies across ethnicities.
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Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease.
, Panos Deloukas, Stavroula Kanoni, Christina Willenborg, Martin Farrall, Themistocles L Assimes, John R Thompson, Erik Ingelsson, Danish Saleheen, Jeanette Erdmann, Benjamin A Goldstein, Kathleen Stirrups, Inke R König, Jean-Baptiste Cazier, Asa Johansson, Alistair S Hall, Jong-Young Lee, Cristen J Willer, John C Chambers, Tonu Esko, Lasse Folkersen, Anuj Goel, Elin Grundberg, Aki S Havulinna, Weang K Ho, Jemma C Hopewell, Niclas Eriksson, Marcus E Kleber, Kati Kristiansson, Per Lundmark, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Suzanne Rafelt, Dmitry Shungin, Rona J Strawbridge, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Emmi Tikkanen, Natalie Van Zuydam, Benjamin F Voight, Lindsay L Waite, Weihua Zhang, Andreas Ziegler, Devin Absher, David Altshuler, Anthony J Balmforth, Inês Barroso, Peter S Braund, Christof Burgdorf, Simone Claudi-Boehm, David Cox, Maria Dimitriou, Ron Do, Alex S F Doney, NourEddine El Mokhtari, Per Eriksson, Krista Fischer, Pierre Fontanillas, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Bruna Gigante, Leif Groop, Stefan Gustafsson, Jörg Hager, Göran Hallmans, Bok-Ghee Han, Sarah E Hunt, Hyun M Kang, Thomas Illig, Thorsten Kessler, Joshua W Knowles, Genovefa Kolovou, Johanna Kuusisto, Claudia Langenberg, Cordelia Langford, Karin Leander, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Anders Lundmark, Mark I McCarthy, Christa Meisinger, Olle Melander, Evelin Mihailov, Seraya Maouche, Andrew D Morris, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Kjell Nikus, John F Peden, N William Rayner, Asif Rasheed, Silke Rosinger, Diana Rubin, Moritz P Rumpf, Arne Schäfer, Mohan Sivananthan, Ci Song, Alexandre F R Stewart, Sian-Tsung Tan, Gudmundur Thorgeirsson, C Ellen van der Schoot, Peter J Wagner, George A Wells, Philipp S Wild, Tsun-Po Yang, Philippe Amouyel, Dominique Arveiler, Hanneke Basart, Michael Boehnke, Eric Boerwinkle, Paolo Brambilla, Francois Cambien, Adrienne L Cupples, Ulf de Faire, Abbas Dehghan, Patrick Diemert, Stephen E Epstein, Alun Evans, Marco M Ferrario, Jean Ferrières, Dominique Gauguier, Alan S Go, Alison H Goodall, Villi Gudnason, Stanley L Hazen, Hilma Holm, Carlos Iribarren, Yangsoo Jang, Mika Kähönen, Frank Kee, Hyo-Soo Kim, Norman Klopp, Wolfgang Koenig, Wolfgang Kratzer, Kari Kuulasmaa, Markku Laakso, Reijo Laaksonen, Ji-Young Lee, Lars Lind, Willem H Ouwehand, Sarah Parish, Jeong E Park, Nancy L Pedersen, Annette Peters, Thomas Quertermous, Daniel J Rader, Veikko Salomaa, Eric Schadt, Svati H Shah, Juha Sinisalo, Klaus Stark, Kari Stefansson, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Jarmo Virtamo, Lars Wallentin, Nicholas Wareham, Martina E Zimmermann, Markku S Nieminen, Christian Hengstenberg, Manjinder S Sandhu, Tomi Pastinen, Ann-Christine Syvänen, G Kees Hovingh, George Dedoussis, Paul W Franks, Terho Lehtimäki, Andres Metspalu, Pierre A Zalloua, Agneta Siegbahn, Stefan Schreiber, Samuli Ripatti, Stefan S Blankenberg, Markus Perola, Robert Clarke, Bernhard O Boehm, Christopher O'Donnell, Muredach P Reilly, Winfried März, Rory Collins, Sekar Kathiresan, Anders Hamsten, Jaspal S Kooner, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, John Danesh, Colin N A Palmer, Robert Roberts, Hugh Watkins, Heribert Schunkert, Nilesh J Samani.
Nat. Genet.
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Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest cause of death. Here, we report an association analysis in 63,746 CAD cases and 130,681 controls identifying 15 loci reaching genome-wide significance, taking the number of susceptibility loci for CAD to 46, and a further 104 independent variants (r(2) < 0.2) strongly associated with CAD at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). Together, these variants explain approximately 10.6% of CAD heritability. Of the 46 genome-wide significant lead SNPs, 12 show a significant association with a lipid trait, and 5 show a significant association with blood pressure, but none is significantly associated with diabetes. Network analysis with 233 candidate genes (loci at 10% FDR) generated 5 interaction networks comprising 85% of these putative genes involved in CAD. The four most significant pathways mapping to these networks are linked to lipid metabolism and inflammation, underscoring the causal role of these activities in the genetic etiology of CAD. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CAD and identifies key biological pathways.
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A genome-wide association study of monozygotic twin-pairs suggests a locus related to variability of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Twin Res Hum Genet
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Genome-wide association analysis on monozygotic twin-pairs offers a route to discovery of gene environment interactions through testing for variability loci associated with sensitivity to individual environment/lifestyle. We present a genome-wide scan of loci associated with intra-pair differences in serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. We report data for 1,720 monozygotic female twin-pairs from GenomEUtwin project with 2.5 million SNPs, imputed or genotyped, and measured serum lipid fractions for both twins. We found one locus associated with intra-pair differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, rs2483058 in an intron of SRGAP2, where twins carrying the C allele are more sensitive to environmental factors(P=3.98 x 10-8). We followed up the association in further genotyped monozygotic twins (N= 1,261),which showed a moderate association for the variant (P= 0.200, same direction of an effect). In addition,we report a new association on the level of apolipoprotein A-ll (P= 4.03 x 1 o-8).
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Genome-wide association study for circulating levels of PAI-1 provides novel insights into its regulation.
Blood
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We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify novel associations between genetic variants and circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration, and examined functional implications of variants and genes that were discovered. A discovery meta-analysis was performed in 19 599 subjects, followed by replication analysis of genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10(-8)) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 796 independent samples. We further examined associations with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, assessed the functional significance of the SNPs for gene expression in human tissues, and conducted RNA-silencing experiments for one novel association. We confirmed the association of the 4G/5G proxy SNP rs2227631 in the promoter region of SERPINE1 (7q22.1) and discovered genome-wide significant associations at 3 additional loci: chromosome 7q22.1 close to SERPINE1 (rs6976053, discovery P = 3.4 × 10(-10)); chromosome 11p15.2 within ARNTL (rs6486122, discovery P = 3.0 × 10(-8)); and chromosome 3p25.2 within PPARG (rs11128603, discovery P = 2.9 × 10(-8)). Replication was achieved for the 7q22.1 and 11p15.2 loci. There was nominal association with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease at ARNTL (P < .05). Functional studies identified MUC3 as a candidate gene for the second association signal on 7q22.1. In summary, SNPs in SERPINE1 and ARNTL and an SNP associated with the expression of MUC3 were robustly associated with circulating levels of PAI-1.
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HLA-DRB1*04/*13 alleles are associated with vascular disease and antiphospholipid antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
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Vascular disease is common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are at high risk to develop arterial and venous thrombosis. Since HLA class II genotypes have been linked to the presence of pro-thrombotic aPL, we investigated the relationship between HLA-DRB1 alleles, aPL and vascular events in SLE patients.
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Large-scale association analysis provides insights into the genetic architecture and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.
Andrew P Morris, Benjamin F Voight, Tanya M Teslovich, Teresa Ferreira, Ayellet V Segrè, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Rona J Strawbridge, Hassan Khan, Harald Grallert, Anubha Mahajan, Inga Prokopenko, Hyun Min Kang, Christian Dina, Tonu Esko, Ross M Fraser, Stavroula Kanoni, Ashish Kumar, Vasiliki Lagou, Claudia Langenberg, Jian'an Luan, Cecilia M Lindgren, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Sonali Pechlivanis, N William Rayner, Laura J Scott, Steven Wiltshire, Loïc Yengo, Leena Kinnunen, Elizabeth J Rossin, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Andrew D Johnson, Antigone S Dimas, Ruth J F Loos, Sailaja Vedantam, Han Chen, Jose C Florez, Caroline Fox, Ching-Ti Liu, Denis Rybin, David J Couper, Wen Hong L Kao, Man Li, Marilyn C Cornelis, Peter Kraft, Qi Sun, Rob M Van Dam, Heather M Stringham, Peter S Chines, Krista Fischer, Pierre Fontanillas, Oddgeir L Holmen, Sarah E Hunt, Anne U Jackson, Augustine Kong, Robert Lawrence, Julia Meyer, John R B Perry, Carl G P Platou, Simon Potter, Emil Rehnberg, Neil Robertson, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Alena Stančáková, Kathleen Stirrups, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Emmi Tikkanen, Andrew R Wood, Peter Almgren, Mustafa Atalay, Rafn Benediktsson, Lori L Bonnycastle, Noel Burtt, Jason Carey, Guillaume Charpentier, Andrew T Crenshaw, Alex S F Doney, Mozhgan Dorkhan, Sarah Edkins, Valur Emilsson, Elodie Eury, Tom Forsén, Karl Gertow, Bruna Gigante, George B Grant, Christopher J Groves, Candace Guiducci, Christian Herder, Astradur B Hreidarsson, Jennie Hui, Alan James, Anna Jonsson, Wolfgang Rathmann, Norman Klopp, Jasmina Kravic, Kaarel Krjutskov, Cordelia Langford, Karin Leander, Eero Lindholm, Stéphane Lobbens, Satu Mannisto, Ghazala Mirza, Thomas W Mühleisen, Bill Musk, Melissa Parkin, Loukianos Rallidis, Jouko Saramies, Bengt Sennblad, Sonia Shah, Gunnar Sigurðsson, Angela Silveira, Gerald Steinbach, Barbara Thorand, Joseph Trakalo, Fabrizio Veglia, Roman Wennauer, Wendy Winckler, Delilah Zabaneh, Harry Campbell, Cornelia van Duijn, André G Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman, Eric Sijbrands, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Katharine R Owen, Eleftheria Zeggini, Mieke D Trip, Nita G Forouhi, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Johan G Eriksson, Leena Peltonen, Markus M Nöthen, Beverley Balkau, Colin N A Palmer, Valeriya Lyssenko, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Bo Isomaa, David J Hunter, Lu Qi, , Alan R Shuldiner, Michael Roden, Inês Barroso, Tom Wilsgaard, John Beilby, Kees Hovingh, Jackie F Price, James F Wilson, Rainer Rauramaa, Timo A Lakka, Lars Lind, George Dedoussis, Inger Njølstad, Nancy L Pedersen, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nicholas J Wareham, Sirkka M Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Timo E Saaristo, Eeva Korpi-Hyövälti, Juha Saltevo, Markku Laakso, Johanna Kuusisto, Andres Metspalu, Francis S Collins, Karen L Mohlke, Richard N Bergman, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Bernhard O Boehm, Christian Gieger, Kristian Hveem, Stéphane Cauchi, Philippe Froguel, Damiano Baldassarre, Elena Tremoli, Steve E Humphries, Danish Saleheen, John Danesh, Erik Ingelsson, Samuli Ripatti, Veikko Salomaa, Raimund Erbel, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Susanne Moebus, Annette Peters, Thomas Illig, Ulf de Faire, Anders Hamsten, Andrew D Morris, Peter J Donnelly, Timothy M Frayling, Andrew T Hattersley, Eric Boerwinkle, Olle Melander, Sekar Kathiresan, Peter M Nilsson, Panos Deloukas, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Leif C Groop, Kari Stefansson, Frank Hu, James S Pankow, Josée Dupuis, James B Meigs, David Altshuler, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy.
Nat. Genet.
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To extend understanding of the genetic architecture and molecular basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we conducted a meta-analysis of genetic variants on the Metabochip, including 34,840 cases and 114,981 controls, overwhelmingly of European descent. We identified ten previously unreported T2D susceptibility loci, including two showing sex-differentiated association. Genome-wide analyses of these data are consistent with a long tail of additional common variant loci explaining much of the variation in susceptibility to T2D. Exploration of the enlarged set of susceptibility loci implicates several processes, including CREBBP-related transcription, adipocytokine signaling and cell cycle regulation, in diabetes pathogenesis.
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Genome-wide profiling of target genes for the systemic lupus erythematosus-associated transcription factors IRF5 and STAT4.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
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The transcription factors interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) are encoded by two of the strongest susceptibility genes for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
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Evidence of association between interferon regulatory factor 5 gene polymorphisms and asthma.
Gene
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Asthma is a heterogeneous disorder hallmarked by chronic inflammation in the respiratory system. Exacerbations of asthma are correlated with respiratory infections. Considering the implication of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) in innate and adaptive immunity, we investigated the preferential transmission patterns of ten IRF5 gene polymorphisms in two asthmatic family cohorts. A common IRF5 haplotype was found to be associated with asthma and the severity of asthmatic symptoms. Stratified analysis of subgroups of asthmatic individuals revealed that the associations were more pronounced in nonatopic asthmatic individuals. In addition, the risk alleles of IRF5 polymorphisms for asthma were almost completely opposite to those for autoimmune disorders. Our study provides the first evidence of association between IRF5 and asthma, and sheds light on the related but potentially distinct roles of IRF5 alleles in the pathogenesis of asthma and autoimmune disorders.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.