Activity of GFR/PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitors in glioblastoma clinical trials has not been robust. We hypothesized variations in the pathway between tumors contribute to poor response. We clustered GBM based on AKT pathway genes and discovered new subtypes then characterized their clinical and molecular features. There are at least 5 GBM AKT subtypes having distinct DNA copy number alterations, enrichment in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and patterns of expression for PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling components. Gene Ontology terms indicate a different cell of origin or dominant phenotype for each subgroup. Evidence suggests one subtype is very sensitive to BCNU or CCNU (median survival 5.8 vs. 1.5 years; BCNU/CCNU vs other treatments; respectively). AKT subtyping advances previous approaches by revealing additional subgroups with unique clinical and molecular features. Evidence indicates it is a predictive marker for response to BCNU or CCNU and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors. We anticipate Akt subtyping may help stratify patients for clinical trials and augment discovery of class-specific therapeutic targets.
Studies among migrants show that they are more susceptible to HIV infection than the general population and thereby spread the epidemic from high prevalence to low prevalence areas. It is therefore critical to enhance the body of knowledge on factors associated with condom use among migrants. This study, conducted in 2009 in the State of Maharashtra, covers 4595 single in-migrants aged 15-49 years and aims at understanding the factors associated with non-use of condoms consistently. Information was collected using a Structured Interview Schedule covering demographic, socioeconomic profile, sexual history, knowledge, behaviour and stigma and discrimination indicators. Logistic regression analysis was used to understand the association between unprotected sex and various socio-demographic and environmental factors. The models were run using the Enter method. The goodness-of-fit of the model was assessed using Hosmer and Lemeshow chi-squared statistics. A significant association is observed between sex with sex workers and older migrants (>24 years), the literate, those who are mobile, unmarried, employed in the textile, quarry and construction industries, who often consume alcohol and who watch pornographic films. The factors associated with unprotected sex are age between 30 and 34 years and no literacy. Migrants who are mobile and consume alcohol show a significant association with unprotected sex. The findings suggest a need for a comprehensive HIV prevention programme including strategies to address the stressful work conditions. The prevention programmes should focus not only on skills for safer sex practices, but also on alcohol use reduction.
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Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.