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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Excess mortality and morbidity in patients with craniopharyngioma, especially in patients with childhood-onset - a population-based study in Sweden.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Context: Craniopharyngiomas in adults have been associated with excess mortality. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate mortality and morbidity in childhood-onset and adult-onset craniopharyngioma patients. Methods: Craniopharyngioma patients were identified and followed in Swedish national health registries, 1987-2011. The inclusion criteria for the craniopharyngioma diagnosis were internally validated in 28% of the study population against patient records. Settings: Nationwide population-based study. Patients: 307 patients (151 men; 156 women) were identified and included (mean follow-up: 9 years, range 0-25). The inclusion criteria had a positive predictive value of 97% and a sensitivity of 92%. Intervention: None. Main Outcome Measures: Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the Swedish population as reference. Results: During the study 54 patients died compared with the expected number of 14.1, resulting in an SMR of 3.2 (2.2-4.7) for men and 4.9 (3.2-7.2) for women. Childhood-onset (n=106) and adult-onset craniopharyngioma (n=201) had SMRs of 17 (6.3-37) and 3.5 (2.6-4.6), respectively. Patients with hypopituitarism (n=250), diabetes insipidus (n=110), and neither of these (n=54) had SMRs of 4.3 (3.1-5.8), 6.1 (3.5-9.7), and 2.7 (1.4-4.6), respectively. SMR due to cerebrovascular diseases was 5.1 (1.7-12). SIRs were 5.6 (3.8-8.0) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 7.1 (5.0-9.9) for cerebral infarction, 0.7 (0.2-1.7) for myocardial infarction, 2.1 (1.4-3.0) for fracture, and 5.9 (3.4-9.4) for severe infection. The SIR for all malignant tumors was 1.3 (0.8-2.1). Conclusions: This first nationwide population-based study of craniopharyngioma patients demonstrated an excess mortality that was especially marked in patients with childhood-onset disease and among women. Death due to cerebrovascular diseases was increased five-fold. Hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus were negative prognostic factors for mortality and morbidity. Craniopharyngioma patients suffered from an increased disease burden related to T2DM, cerebral infarction, fracture, and severe infection.
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LTX-109 is a Novel Agent for Nasal Decolonisation of Methicillin Resistant and Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Nasal decolonisation has a proven effect on the prevention of severe Staphylococcus aureus infections and in the control of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, rising rates of resistance to antibiotics highlights the need for new substances for nasal decolonisation. LTX-109 is a broad spectrum, fast-acting bactericidal antimicrobial drug for topical treatment, which causes membrane disruption and cell lysis. This mechanism of action is not associated with cross-resistance and has a low propensity for development of resistance. In the present study persistent nasal MRSA and methicillin sensitive S. aureus carriers were treated for three days with vehicle, 1%, 2% or 5% LTX-109, respectively. A significant effect on nasal decolonisation was observed already after 2 days of LTX-109 treatment in subjects treated with 2% or 5% LTX-109 compared to vehicle (P?0.0012, Dunnett's test). No safety issues were noted during the 9-week follow-up period. Minimal reversible epithelial lesions were observed in the nasal cavity. The systemic exposure was very low with a Cmax 1-2 h post dosing (3.72-11.7 ng/mL). One week after treatment initiation LTX-109 was not detectable in any subject. Summary: Intranasal treatment of S. aureus with LTX-109 is safe and reduces the bacterial load already after a single day of treatment. Hence, LTX-109 has the potential as a new and effective antimicrobial agent with low propensity of resistance development that can prevent infections by MSSA/MRSA during hospitalization. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01158235.
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Extracellular water and blood pressure in adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency: a genotype-phenotype association study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults is associated with decreased extracellular water volume (ECW). In response to GH replacement therapy (GHRT), ECW increases and blood pressure (BP) reduces or remains unchanged. Our primary aim was to study the association between polymorphisms in genes related to renal tubular function with ECW and BP before and 1 year after GHRT. The ECW measures using bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) were validated against a reference method, the sodium bromide dilution method (Br(-)).
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Collagen and related extracellular matrix proteins in atherosclerotic plaque development.
Curr. Opin. Lipidol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The structure, composition and turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as cell-matrix interactions are crucial in the developing atherosclerotic plaque. There is a need for further insight into specific proteins in the ECM and their functions in the developing plaque, and during the last few years a number of publications have highlighted this very important field of research. These novel findings will be addressed in the present review.
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Mass spectrometry imaging of cassette-dosed drugs for higher throughput pharmacokinetic and biodistribution analysis.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Cassette dosing of compounds for preclinical drug plasma pharmacokinetic analysis has been shown to be a powerful strategy within the pharmaceutical industry for increasing throughput while decreasing the number of animals used. Presented here for the first time is data on the application of a cassette dosing strategy for label-free tissue distribution studies. The aim of the study was to image the spatial distribution of eight nonproprietary drugs (haloperidol, bufuralol, midazolam, clozapine, terfenadine, erlotinib, olanzapine, and moxifloxacin) in multiple tissues after oral and intravenous cassette dosing (four compounds per dose route). An array of mass spectrometry imaging technologies, including matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI), liquid extraction surface analysis tandem mass spectrometry (LESA-MS/MS), and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was used. Tissue analysis following intravenous and oral administration of discretely and cassette-dosed compounds demonstrated similar relative abundances across a range of tissues indicating that a cassette dosing approach was applicable. MALDI MSI was unsuccessful in detecting all of the target compounds; therefore, DESI MSI, a complementary mass spectrometry imaging technique, was used to detect additional target compounds. In addition, by adapting technology used for tissue profiling (LESA-MS/MS) low spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging (?1 mm) was possible for all targets across all tissues. This study exemplifies the power of multiplatform MSI analysis within a pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) environment. Furthermore, we have illustrated that the cassette dosing approach can be readily applied to provide combined, label-free pharmacokinetic and drug distribution data at an early stage of the drug discovery/development process while minimizing animal usage.
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Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in murine brachiocephalic and carotid atherosclerotic lesions.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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To investigate the hypothesis that COMP can influence the morphology, stability and size of murine atherosclerotic lesions.
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Randomized controlled study of the safety and immunogenicity of pneumococcal vaccine formulations containing PhtD and detoxified pneumolysin with alum or adjuvant system AS02V in elderly adults.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Six vaccine formulations containing AS02V or alum (aluminum phosphate [AlPO4]) adjuvant with pneumococcal proteins, pneumococcal histidine triad D (PhtD), and/or detoxified pneumolysin (dPly), either as a polysaccharide carrier in an 8-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (8PCV) or as free (unconjugated) proteins, were evaluated in adults -65 to 85 years of age. In this phase I observer-blind study, 167 healthy subjects were randomized to receive two doses (days 0 and 60) of 10 or 30 ?g PhtD-dPly plus AS02V or alum, 8PCV plus AS02V or alum, or one dose (day 0) of 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23PPV) as a control (placebo on day 60). The safety, reactogenicity, and antibody-specific responses to these vaccines were evaluated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. The incidences of solicited local and specific general (fatigue and myalgia) symptoms tended to be higher in the AS02V groups than in other groups. Anti-PhtD and anti-Ply antibody responses were observed in all groups except the control group. One month post-dose 2, the anti-PhtD and anti-Ply antibody geometric mean concentrations tended to be higher with AS02V than with alum, higher with a dose of 30 ?g than with 10 ?g for PhtD-dPly and higher with 30-?g PhtD-dPly formulations than with conjugated PhtD and dPly (8PCV) formulations. Functional antibody responses, measured by an opsonophagocytic activity assay, tended to be higher with 8PCV than with 23PPV. In conclusion, vaccine formulations containing free or conjugated PhtD and dPly had acceptable reactogenicity and safety profiles in elderly adults. Immune responses were enhanced with an AS02V-adjuvanted formulation containing free 30-?g PhtD-dPly compared to those with alum adjuvant and conjugated proteins. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00756067.).
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Development of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae-infected Swedish patients treated with macrolides.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The proportion of Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates carrying point mutations in the 23S region of the genome associated with macrolide resistance has increased. We evaluated the probability of developing M. pneumoniae macrolide resistance mutations during macrolide treatment.
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A/H1N1 antibodies and TRIB2 autoantibodies in narcolepsy patients diagnosed in conjunction with the Pandemrix vaccination campaign in Sweden 2009-2010.
J. Autoimmun.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder related to hypocretin deficiency resulting from a specific loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area. The disease is thought to be autoimmune due to a strong association with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the H1N1 2009 flu pandemic (A/H1N1PDM09). In response to this, the Swedish vaccination campaign began in October of the same year, using the influenza vaccine Pandemrix(®). A few months later an excess of narcolepsy cases was observed. It is still unclear to what extent the vaccination campaign affected humoral autoimmunity associated with narcolepsy. We studied 47 patients with narcolepsy (6-69 years of age) and 80 healthy controls (3-61 years of age) selected after the Pandemrix vaccination campaign. The first aim was to determine antibodies against A/H1N1 and autoantibodies to Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2), a narcolepsy autoantigen candidate as well as to GAD65 and IA-2 as disease specificity controls. The second aim was to test if levels and frequencies of these antibodies and autoantibodies were associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In vitro transcribed and translated [(35)S]-methionine and -cysteine-labeled influenza A virus (A/California/04/2009/(H1N1)) segment 4 hemagglutinin was used to detect antibodies in a radiobinding assay. Autoantibodies to TRIB2, GAD65 and IA-2 were similarly detected in standard radiobinding assays. The narcolepsy patients had higher median levels of A/H1N1 antibodies than the controls (p = 0.006). A/H1N1 antibody levels were higher among the <13 years old (n = 12) compared to patients who were older than 30 years (n = 12, p = 0.014). Being HLA-DQB1*06:02 positive was associated with higher A/H1N1 antibody levels in both patients and controls (p = 0.026). Serum autoantibody levels to TRIB2 were low overall and high binders did not differ between patients and controls. We observed an association between levels of A/H1N1 antibodies and TRIB2 autoantibody levels particularly among the youngest narcolepsy patients (r = 0.819, p < 0.001). In conclusion, following the 2009 influenza pandemic vaccination, A/H1N1 antibody levels were associated with young age-at-onset narcolepsy patients positive for HLA-DQB1*06:02. The possibility that TRIB2 is an autoantigen in narcolepsy remains to be clarified. We could verify autoantibody responses against TRIB2 which needs to be determined in larger patient cohorts and control populations.
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SNPs within the GH-signaling pathway are associated with the early IGF1 response to GH replacement therapy in GHD adults.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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GH-deficient (GHD) adults have reduced serum concentrations of IGF1. GH replacement therapy increases serum IGF1 concentrations, but the interindividual variation in treatment response is large and likely influenced by genetic factors. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes within the GH signaling pathway influence the serum IGF1 response to GH replacement.
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Abnormal structure-specific peptide transmission and processing in a primate model of Parkinsons disease and l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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A role for enhanced peptidergic transmission, either opioidergic or not, has been proposed for the generation of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID) on the basis of in situ hybridization studies showing that striatal peptidergic precursor expression consistently correlates with LID severity. Few studies, however, have focused on the actual peptides derived from these precursors. We used mass-spectrometry to study peptide profiles in the putamen and globus pallidus (internalis and externalis) collected from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4,6-tetrahydropyridine treated macaque monkeys, acutely or chronically treated with l-DOPA. We identified that parkinsonian and dyskinetic states are associated with an abnormal production of proenkephalin-, prodynorphin- and protachykinin-1-derived peptides in both segments of the globus pallidus. Moreover, we report that peptidergic processing is dopamine-state dependent and highly structure-specific, possibly explaining the failure of previous clinical trials attempting to rectify abnormal peptidergic transmission.
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Relationship between Ljungan virus antibodies, HLA-DQ8, and insulin autoantibodies in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes children.
Viral Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Environmental factors, including viral infections, may explain an increasing and fluctuating incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D). Ljungan virus (LV) isolated from bank voles have been implicated, but it is unclear whether LV contributes to islet autoimmunity, progression to clinical onset, or both, of T1D. The aim was to test whether LV antibodies (LVAb) were related to HLA-DQ and islet autoantibodies in newly diagnosed T1D patients (n=676) and controls (n=309). Patients, 0-18 years of age, diagnosed with T1D in 1996-2005 were analyzed for LVAb, HLA-DQ genotypes, and all seven known islet autoantibodies (GADA, IA-2A, IAA, ICA, ZnT8RA, ZnT8WA, and ZnT8QA). LVAb at 75(th) percentile, defined as cut off, was 90 (range 6-3936) U/mL and 4(th) quartile LVAb were found in 25% (170/676) of which 64% were <10 (n=108, p<0.0001), and 27% were<5 (n=45; p<0.0001) years old. The 4(th) quartile LVAb in children <10 years of age correlated to HLA DQ2/8, 8/8, and 8/X (p<0.0001). Furthermore, in the group with 4(th) quartile LVAb, 55% were IAA positive (p=0.01) and correlation was found between 4(th) quartile LVAb and IAA in children <10 years of age (p=0.035). It is concluded that 1) LVAb were common among the young T1D patients and LVAb levels were higher in the younger age groups; 2) 4(th) quartile LVAb correlated with IAA; and 3) there was a correlation between 4(th) quartile LVAb and HLA-DQ8, particularly in the young patients. The presence of LVAb supports the notion that prior exposure to LV may be associated with T1D.
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Neurotoxin-Induced Neuropeptide Perturbations in Striatum of Neonatal Rats.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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The cyanobacterial toxin ?-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is suggested to play a role in neurodegenerative disease. We have previously shown that although the selective uptake of BMAA in the rodent neonatal striatum does not cause neuronal cell death, exposure during the neonatal development leads to cognitive impairments in adult rats. The aim of the present study was to characterize the changes in the striatal neuropeptide systems of male and female rat pups treated neonatally (postnatal days 9-10) with BMAA (40-460 mg/kg). The label-free quantification of the relative levels of endogenous neuropeptides using mass spectrometry revealed that 25 peptides from 13 neuropeptide precursors were significantly changed in the rat neonatal striatum. The exposure to noncytotoxic doses of BMAA induced a dose-dependent increase of neurosecretory protein VGF-derived peptides, and changes in the relative levels of cholecystokinin, chromogranin, secretogranin, MCH, somatostatin and cortistatin-derived peptides were observed at the highest dose. In addition, the results revealed a sex-dependent increase in the relative level of peptides derived from the proenkephalin-A and protachykinin-1 precursors, including substance P and neurokinin A, in female pups. Because several of these peptides play a critical role in the development and survival of neurons, the observed neuropeptide changes might be possible mediators of BMAA-induced behavioral changes. Moreover, some neuropeptide changes suggest potential sex-related differences in susceptibility toward this neurotoxin. The present study also suggests that neuropeptide profiling might provide a sensitive characterization of the BMAA-induced noncytotoxic effects on the developing brain.
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Osteopontin deficiency dampens the pro-atherogenic effect of uraemia.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Uraemia is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Osteopontin (OPN) is highly expressed in aortas of uraemic apolipoprotein E knockout (E KO) mice. OPN affects key atherogenic processes, i.e. inflammation and phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We explored the role of OPN on vascular pathology in uraemic mice.
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Inflammation- and tumor-induced anorexia and weight loss require MyD88 in hematopoietic/myeloid cells but not in brain endothelial or neural cells.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Loss of appetite is a hallmark of inflammatory diseases. The underlying mechanisms remain undefined, but it is known that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), an adaptor protein critical for Toll-like and IL-1 receptor family signaling, is involved. Here we addressed the question of determining in which cells the MyD88 signaling that results in anorexia development occurs by using chimeric mice and animals with cell-specific deletions. We found that MyD88-knockout mice, which are resistant to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexia, displayed anorexia when transplanted with wild-type bone marrow cells. Furthermore, mice with a targeted deletion of MyD88 in hematopoietic or myeloid cells were largely protected against LPS-induced anorexia and displayed attenuated weight loss, whereas mice with MyD88 deletion in hepatocytes or in neural cells or the cerebrovascular endothelium developed anorexia and weight loss of similar magnitude as wild-type mice. Furthermore, in a model for cancer-induced anorexia-cachexia, deletion of MyD88 in hematopoietic cells attenuated the anorexia and protected against body weight loss. These findings demonstrate that MyD88-dependent signaling within the brain is not required for eliciting inflammation-induced anorexia. Instead, we identify MyD88 signaling in hematopoietic/myeloid cells as a critical component for acute inflammatory-driven anorexia, as well as for chronic anorexia and weight loss associated with malignant disease.
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The reliability and validity of the revised Diabetes Family Conflict Scale questionnaire, in a sample of Swedish children.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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The overall aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the revised Diabetes Family Conflict Scale (DFCS), in a Swedish sample of children, mothers and fathers. A second aim was to analyse maternal and paternal effects separately.
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Relation of activation-induced deaminase (AID) expression with antibody response to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination in HIV-1 infected patients.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The relevance of CD4+T-cells, viral load and age in the immunological response to influenza infection and vaccination in HIV-1 infected individuals has previously been pointed out. Our study aimed at assessing, in the setting of 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccination, whether quantification of activation-induced deaminase (AID) expression in blood B-cells may provide additional indications for predicting antibody response to vaccination in HIV-1 infected patients with similar CD4+T-cell counts and age. Forty-seven healthy controls, 37 ART-treated and 17 treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected patients were enrolled in the study. Blood was collected prior to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination and at 1, 3 and 6 months after vaccination. Antibody titers to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay while the mRNA expression levels of AID were measured by quantitative real time PCR. Upon B-cell activation in vitro, AID increase correlated to antibody response to the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine at 1 month after vaccination in all individuals. In addition, the maximum expression levels of AID were significantly higher in those individuals who still carried protective levels of A(H1N1)pdm09 antibodies after 6 months from vaccination. No correlation was found between CD4+T-cell counts or age at vaccination or HIV-1 viral load and levels of A(H1N1)pdm09 antibodies. Assessing AID expression before vaccination may be an additional useful tool for defining a vaccination strategy in immune-compromised individuals at risk of immunization failure.
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Telomere length homeostasis responds to changes in intracellular dNTP pools.
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Telomeres, the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, shorten due to incomplete DNA replication and nucleolytic degradation. Cells counteract this shortening by employing a specialized reverse transcriptase called telomerase, which uses deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) to extend telomeres. Intracellular dNTP levels are tightly regulated, and perturbation of these levels is known to affect DNA synthesis. We examined whether altering the levels of the dNTP pools or changing the relative ratios of the four dNTPs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae would affect the length of the telomeres. Lowering dNTP levels leads to a modest shortening of telomeres, while increasing dNTP pools has no significant effect on telomere length. Strikingly, altering the ratio of the four dNTPs dramatically affects telomere length homeostasis, both positively and negatively. Specifically, we find that intracellular deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) levels positively correlate with both telomere length and telomerase nucleotide addition processivity in vivo. Our findings are consistent with in vitro data showing dGTP-dependent stimulation of telomerase activity in multiple organisms and suggest that telomerase activity is modulated in vivo by dGTP levels.
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Cancer-induced anorexia in tumor-bearing mice is dependent on cyclooxygenase-1.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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It is well-established that prostaglandins (PGs) affect tumorigenesis, and evidence indicates that PGs also are important for the reduced food intake and body weight loss, the anorexia-cachexia syndrome, in malignant cancer. However, the identity of the PGs and the PG producing cyclooxygenase (COX) species responsible for cancer anorexia-cachexia is unknown. Here, we addressed this issue by transplanting mice with a tumor that elicits anorexia. Meal pattern analysis revealed that the anorexia in the tumor-bearing mice was due to decreased meal frequency. Treatment with a non-selective COX inhibitor attenuated the anorexia, and also tumor growth. When given at manifest anorexia, non-selective COX-inhibitors restored appetite and prevented body weight loss without affecting tumor size. Despite COX-2 induction in the cerebral blood vessels of tumor-bearing mice, a selective COX-2 inhibitor had no effect on the anorexia, whereas selective COX-1 inhibition delayed its onset. Tumor growth was associated with robust increase of PGE(2) levels in plasma - a response blocked both by non-selective COX-inhibition and by selective COX-1 inhibition, but not by COX-2 inhibition. However, there was no increase in PGE(2)-levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Neutralization of plasma PGE(2) with specific antibodies did not ameliorate the anorexia, and genetic deletion of microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) affected neither anorexia nor tumor growth. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mice lacking EP(4) receptors selectively in the nervous system developed anorexia. These observations suggest that COX-enzymes, most likely COX-1, are involved in cancer-elicited anorexia and weight loss, but that these phenomena occur independently of host mPGES-1, PGE(2) and neuronal EP(4) signaling.
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Frequent detection of respiratory agents by multiplex PCR on oropharyngeal samples in Swedish school-attending adolescents.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2011
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Respiratory agents may be detected in the oropharynx of healthy individuals. The extent of this condition and the reasons behind it are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with the presence of respiratory agents in the oropharynx of adolescents healthy enough to attend school activities.
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Qualitative and quantitative MALDI imaging of the positron emission tomography ligands raclopride (a D2 dopamine antagonist) and SCH 23390 (a D1 dopamine antagonist) in rat brain tissue sections using a solvent-free dry matrix application method.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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The distributions of positron emission tomography (PET) ligands in rat brain tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI). The detection of the PET ligands was possible following the use of a solvent-free dry MALDI matrix application method employing finely ground dry ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA). The D2 dopamine receptor antagonist 3,5-dichloro-N-{[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl}-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzamide (raclopride) and the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist 7-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepin-8-ol (SCH 23390) were both detected at decreasing abundance at increasing period postdosing. Confirmation of the compound identifications and distributions was achieved by a combination of mass-to-charge ratio accurate mass, isotope distribution, and MS/MS fragmentation imaging directly from tissue sections (performed using MALDI TOF/TOF, MALDI q-TOF, and 12T MALDI-FT-ICR mass spectrometers). Quantitative data was obtained by comparing signal abundances from tissues to those obtained from quantitation control spots of the target compound applied to adjacent vehicle control tissue sections (analyzed during the same experiment). Following a single intravenous dose of raclopride (7.5 mg/kg), an average tissue concentration of approximately 60 nM was detected compared to 15 nM when the drug was dosed at 2 mg/kg, indicating a linear response between dose and detected abundance. SCH 23390 was established to have an average tissue concentration of approximately 15 ?M following a single intravenous dose at 5 mg/kg. Both target compounds were also detected in kidney tissue sections when employing the same MSI methodology. This study illustrates that a MSI may well be readily applied to PET ligand research development when using a solvent-free dry matrix coating.
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The impact of inflammation and immune activation on B cell differentiation during HIV-1 infection.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2011
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One important pathogenic feature of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection is chronic immune activation and impaired survival of T and B cells. A decline of resting memory B cells was reported to occur in both children and adults infected with HIV-1; these cells are responsible for maintaining an adequate serological response to antigens previously encountered in life through natural infection or vaccination. Further understanding of the mechanisms leading to impaired B cell differentiation and germinal center reaction might be essential to design new HIV vaccines and therapies that could improve humoral immune responses in HIV-1 infected individuals. In the present article we summarize the literature and present our view on critical mechanisms of B cell development impaired during HIV-1 infection. We also discuss the impact of microbial translocation, a driving force for persistent inflammation during HIV-1 infection, on survival of terminally differentiated B cells and how the altered expression of cytokines/chemokines pivotal for communication between T and B cells in lymphoid tissues may impair formation of memory B cells.
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The developing immune system - from foetus to toddler.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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During foetal development, neonatal period and childhood, the immune system is constantly maturing. In the foetus, infection responsiveness is low and associates with spontaneous abortion. During the neonatal period, the infection response shifts towards a more pro-inflammatory response. The immune system of the newborn acquires adaptive features as a result of exposure to microbes.
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Identification of protein-protein interactions by surface plasmon resonance followed by mass spectrometry.
Curr Protoc Protein Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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Elucidation of the function and meaning of the protein networks can be useful in the understanding of many pathological processes and the identification of new therapeutic targets. This unit describes an approach to discover protein-protein interactions by coupling surface plasmon resonance to mass spectrometry. Briefly, a protein is covalently bound to a sensor chip, which is then exposed to brain extracts injected over the surface via a microfluidic system. This allows the monitoring in real-time of the interactions between the immobilized ligand and the extracts. Interacting proteins from the extracts are then recovered, trypsinized, and identified using mass spectrometry. The data obtained are searched against a sequence database using the Mascot software. To exclude nonspecific interactors, control experiments using blank sensor chips, and/or randomized peptides, are performed. The protocol presented here does not require specific labeling or modification of proteins and can be performed in <4 days.
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To make the most of what we have: extracting phenological data from nestling measurements.
Int J Biometeorol
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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To study the ecological and evolutionary effects of climate change on timing of annual events, scientists need access to data that have been collected over long time periods. High-quality long-term phenology data are rare and costly to obtain and there is therefore a need to extract this information from other available data sets. Many long-term studies on breeding birds include detailed information on individually marked parents and offspring, but do not include information on timing of breeding. Here, we demonstrate how a study of repeated standard measurements of white-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus nestlings in our study system in southernmost Norway can be used for modeling nestling growth, and how this statistical model can be used to estimate timing of breeding for birds with sparser data. We also evaluate how the accuracies of nestling growth models based on different morphological traits (mass and feather length) differ depending on the nestling age, present user guidelines and demonstrate how they can be applied to an independent data set. In conclusion, the approach presented is likely to be useful for a wide variety of species, even if the preferred measurement may differ between species.
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Neuropeptidomics of mouse hypothalamus after imipramine treatment reveal somatostatin as a potential mediator of antidepressant effects.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2011
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Excessive activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been associated with numerous diseases, including depression, and the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine has been shown to suppress activity of the HPA axis. Central hypothalamic control of the HPA axis is complex and involves a number of neuropeptides released from multiple hypothalamic subnuclei. The present study was therefore designed to determine the effects of imipramine administration on the mouse hypothalamus using a peptidomics approach. Among the factors found to be downregulated after acute (one day) or chronic (21 days) imipramine administration were peptides derived from secretogranin 1 (chromogranin B) as well as peptides derived from cerebellin precursors. In contrast, peptides SRIF-14 and SRIF-28 (1-11) derived from somatostatin (SRIF, somatotropin release inhibiting factor) were significantly upregulated by imipramine in the hypothalamus. Because diminished SRIF levels have long been known to occur in depression, a second part of the study investigated the roles of individual SRIF receptors in mediating potential antidepressant effects. SRA880, an antagonist of the somatostatin-1 autoreceptor (sst1) which positively modulates release of endogenous SRIF, was found to synergize with imipramine in causing antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test. Furthermore, chronic co-administration of SRA880 and imipramine synergistically increased BDNF mRNA expression in the cerebral cortex. Application of SRIF or L054264, an sst2 receptor agonist, but not L803807, an sst4 receptor agonist, increased phosphorylation of CaMKII and GluR1 in cerebrocortical slices. Our present experiments thus provide evidence for antidepressant-induced upregulation of SRIF in the brain, and strengthen the notion that augmented SRIF expression and signaling may counter depressive-like symptoms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Anxiety and Depression.
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Caveolin-1 interacts with alpha-synuclein and mediates toxic actions of cellular alpha-synuclein overexpression.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a transmembrane protein which clusters proteins and lipids at the cell membrane into a subclass of lipid rafts named caveolae. To increase our understanding about putative functions of Cav-1 in neuronal cells, we used mouse brain extracts and a novel technology coupling surface plasmon resonance to mass spectrometry to find binding partners to Cav-1. An interaction between Cav-1 and alpha-synclein was found and confirmed in reciprocal pulldown experiments. Genetic overexpression of alpha-synclein in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells (N2A) expectedly decreased cell survival, but also significantly increased the levels of Cav-1. Furthermore, si-RNA-mediated knockdown of Cav-1 counteracted cell death induced by overexpression of alpha-synuclein. We also used an inhibitor of proteasome (MG132) to induce cell death in a Parkinsons disease context. Cav-1 knockdown had no effect on cell death induced by MG132. Conversely, treating the cells with mevastatin, an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis, inhibits cell death induced by MG132, but not by alpha synuclein overexpression. It can be concluded that Cav-1 may play a functional role in neuronal cells by virtue of its physical interaction with alpha-synuclein and regulate alpha synuclein-mediated actions on cell death, processes known to be involved in synucleinopathies including Parkinsons disease.
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Challenging claims in the study of migratory birds and climate change.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Recent shifts in phenology in response to climate change are well established but often poorly understood. Many animals integrate climate change across a spatially and temporally dispersed annual life cycle, and effects are modulated by ecological interactions, evolutionary change and endogenous control mechanisms. Here we assess and discuss key statements emerging from the rapidly developing study of changing spring phenology in migratory birds. These well-studied organisms have been instrumental for understanding climate-change effects, but research is developing rapidly and there is a need to attack the big issues rather than risking affirmative science. Although we agree poorly on the support for most claims, agreement regarding the knowledge basis enables consensus regarding broad patterns and likely causes. Empirical data needed for disentangling mechanisms are still scarce, and consequences at a population level and on community composition remain unclear. With increasing knowledge, the overall support (consensus view) for a claim increased and between-researcher variability in support (expert opinions) decreased, indicating the importance of assessing and communicating the knowledge basis. A proper integration across biological disciplines seems essential for the fields transition from affirming patterns to understanding mechanisms and making robust predictions regarding future consequences of shifting phenologies.
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Laminin isoforms in atherosclerotic arteries from mice and man.
Histol. Histopathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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The properties of the arterial vasculature depend to a large extent on the activities of smooth muscle cells, which, in turn, are determined by their extracellular environment. During pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, this interaction is altered. In close proximity to medial smooth muscle cells are basement membrane components, such as different isoforms of laminin. These proteins can have great impact on cellular function via interaction with cell surface integrins. However, knowledge of laminins in smooth muscle cell basement membranes during normal and pathological conditions is scarce. Therefore, we have analyzed the presence of laminin isoforms in atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice. Our study revealed that the laminin chain isotype composition within atherosclerotic plaque tissue was different from the chain composition in the media. In addition, obvious differences in laminin chain composition could be observed in areas of the media, which were or were not associated with plaque tissue. Our major findings demonstrate that laminin gamma3 was exclusively present in media associated with plaque tissue. Laminin alpha2 was also enriched in these medial areas. Plaque tissue was predominantly enriched in laminin alpha5 chains. This general distribution applied to lesions both with and without a fibrous cap-like structure. The differential distribution of laminin chains were partially accompanied by changes in the presence of the integrin alpha subunits 7 and V. The distribution of laminin chains in human atherosclerotic arteries, with different size and morphology, grossly resembled their distribution in mouse arteries.
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Tumour necrosis factor-? inhibitors are glucocorticoid-sparing in rheumatoid arthritis.
Dan Med Bull
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease with autoimmune traits of unknown aetiology which primarily affects synovial joints. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are still widely used in RA treatment despite the expanding use of targeted and very efficient agents. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of treatment with tumour necrosis factor-? inhibitors (TNFi) on GC utilization in real-life practice among Danish RA patients.
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The vascular repair process after injury of the carotid artery is regulated by IL-1RI and MyD88 signalling.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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The aim of this study was to determine whether innate immune signalling influences the vascular repair process in response to mechanical injury of arteries in mice.
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Duration of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization after diagnosis: a four-year experience from southern Sweden.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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The duration of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is not well known and there is debate as to whether a patient colonized with MRSA ever can be defined as MRSA-negative.
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Neuropeptide profiling of the bovine hypothalamus: thermal stabilization is an effective tool in inhibiting post-mortem degradation.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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The hypothalamus is the central regulatory region of the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. It synthesizes and secretes neuropeptide hormones, which in turn act to stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. We have undertaken a detailed MS investigation of the peptides present in the bovine hypothalamus by adapting a novel heat stabilization methodology, which improved peptide discovery to direct our studies into the molecular mechanisms involved in bovine reproduction. The untreated samples contained large numbers of protein degradation products that interfered with the analysis of the neuropeptides. In the thermally stabilized samples, we were able to identify many more neuropeptides that are known to be expressed in the bovine hypothalamus. Furthermore, we have characterized a range of post-translational modifications that indicate the presence of processed intact mature neuropeptides in the stabilized tissue samples, whereas we detected many trimmed or truncated peptides resulting from post-mortem degradation in the untreated tissue samples. Altogether, using an optimized workflow, we were able to identify 140 candidate neuropeptides. We also nominate six new candidate neuropeptides derived from proSAAS, secretogranin-2 and proTRH.
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Mechanisms of mutagenesis in vivo due to imbalanced dNTP pools.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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The mechanisms by which imbalanced dNTPs induce mutations have been well characterized within a test tube, but not in vivo. We have examined mechanisms by which dNTP imbalances induce genome instability in strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with different amino acid substitutions in Rnr1, the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. These strains have different dNTP imbalances that correlate with elevated CAN1 mutation rates, with both substitution and insertion-deletion rates increasing by 10- to 300-fold. The locations of the mutations in a strain with elevated dTTP and dCTP are completely different from those in a strain with elevated dATP and dGTP. Thus, imbalanced dNTPs reduce genome stability in a manner that is highly dependent on the nature and degree of the imbalance. Mutagenesis is enhanced despite the availability of proofreading and mismatch repair. The mutations can be explained by imbalanced dNTP-induced increases in misinsertion, strand misalignment and mismatch extension at the expense of proofreading. This implies that the relative dNTP concentrations measured in extracts are truly available to a replication fork in vivo. An interesting mutational strand bias is observed in one rnr1 strain, suggesting that the S-phase checkpoint selectively prevents replication errors during leading strand replication.
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Climate effects on population fluctuations of the white-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus.
J Anim Ecol
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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1. Climate change may have profound consequences for many organisms. We have studied fluctuations in a population of the white-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus during 31 years (1978-2008) in a river system in southern Norway in relation to both large-scale and local weather conditions occurring during the non-breeding season. 2. Multiple regression and partial least squares regression were used to model the growth rate of the population, accounting for population size in the previous year. 3. Population growth was influenced by North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), mean winter temperature, precipitation and timing of ice formation on the main lake in the river system in autumn. These variables explained 84% of the variation in population growth over the 31-year study period. 4. Local winter conditions played a prominent role in explaining the population fluctuations, which is plausible because the dipper depends on open water for foraging. In the study area, winters can be harsh and rivers and lakes may freeze and severely affect the subsequent population size of the dipper in spring. 5. The breeding population of the dipper does not seem yet to have reached a level where all possible territories in the area have been occupied, even after mild winters, and the estimated carrying capacity is also decidedly lower (66 breeding pairs) than the number of available territories. If the trend of milder winters continues, the population might increase in the future. However, strong climate variation is expected to continue in the future, and hence periods of rapid growth of the dipper population will probably be followed by severe declines.
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Migratory and resident blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus differ in their reaction to a novel object.
Naturwissenschaften
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural reactions towards novel objects and new situations. Reaction to novelty is one part of a suit of individually consistent behaviours called coping strategies or personalities and is often summarised as bold or shy behaviour. Coping strategies could be particularly important for migrating birds exposed to novel environments on their journeys. We compared the average approach latencies to a novel object among migrants and residents in partially migratory blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus. In this test, we found migrating blue tits to have shorter approach latencies than had resident ones. Behavioural reactions to novelty can affect the readiness to migrate and short approach latency may have an adaptive value during migration. Individual behaviour towards novelty might be incorporated among the factors associated with migratory or resident behaviour in a partially migratory population.
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Dysfunctional B-cell responses during HIV-1 infection: implication for influenza vaccination and highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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Although HIV-1 infection does not directly target B cells, B-cell numbers are reduced and their function is impaired during HIV infection. Antibody titres against antigens previously encountered through vaccination or natural infection are low in patients with HIV. Intrinsic B-cell defects might be involved in the impairment of humoral immunity during early HIV infection. Abnormal T-cell activation and the altered expression of molecules involved in the B-cell homing process cause dysfunctional interaction between T and B cells in the germinal centres of lymphoid tissues, which might impair B-cell responses during HIV infection. Class-switch recombination is also impaired in individuals with HIV. Protective immune responses against T-cell-dependent antigens, including influenza antigens, rely on the production of neutralising antibodies. Impaired B-cell responses during HIV infection could therefore hamper the effectiveness of vaccinations against seasonal influenza or the new pandemic influenza A H1N1 vaccines in individuals with HIV. By maintaining B-cell responses, highly active antiretroviral therapy might improve the efficacy of influenza vaccines in individuals with HIV.
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The impact of active HIV-1 replication on the physiological age-related decline of immature-transitional B-cells in HIV-1 infected children.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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To characterize the level of immature-transitional B-cells in blood during pediatric HIV-1 infection in relation to active or suppressed viremia. We also aimed at characterizing the level of expression of CXCR4, CXCR5 and CCR7 on immature-transitional B-cells, as these receptors are important mediators for homing of B-cells.
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Longitudinal clearance of seasonal influenza A viral RNA measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction in patients identified at a hospital emergency department.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
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To study influenza virus shedding during acute infection, viral load was longitudinally measured by quantitative PCR in nasal flocked swabs from patients with seasonal H3N2 influenza at a Swedish emergency department, including both hospitalized patients and outpatients. Influenza A was detected in 65/184 patients. Sampling was repeated every 3-4 days in 45 patients, with the aim of continuing sampling until day 12 after disease onset. Home visits were offered. Antibodies were measured on paired sera in 95/184 patients. Fifty percent of the patients remained polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive 8 days after disease onset in a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. The longest observed duration of viral shedding was 12 days. The average viral load was initially low, peaked on days 2-3 of disease and then declined. Viral decline results remained similar when all 15 (25%) oseltamivir-treated patients were excluded. Significant antibody titre changes were seen in all the 35 PCR verified cases with available paired sera and in 8 of the 58 patients with negative PCR tests on acute phase nasal samples. In conclusion, quantitative PCR testing indicated the presence of influenza virus for up to 12 days, which could have implications for disease transmission and infection control.
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Quantification and three-dimensional imaging of the insulitis-induced destruction of beta-cells in murine type 1 diabetes.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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The aim of this study was to refine the information regarding the quantitative and spatial dynamics of infiltrating lymphocytes and remaining beta-cell volume during the progression of type 1 diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of the disease.
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Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes secrete soluble factors that induce caspase-mediated apoptosis in glioblastoma cell lines.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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We have previously shown that factors secreted by activated CTLs induce apoptosis in a panel of glioblastoma lines. In this study, we analyzed the expression of death receptors, activation of caspases and mRNA expression of 96 apoptotic genes in glioblastoma lines either sensitive or resistant to supernatant of activated CTLs. Our results indicate that exposure to supernatant triggers several pathways of caspase activation in glioblastoma lines involved in the initiation of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis. High steady-state levels of Bcl-2 were identified as potentially accounting for the resistance of a proportion of glioblastoma lines to factors secreted by activated CTLs.
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Proteomic profiling of the Baltic Sea cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena strain AV1 during ammonium supplementation.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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The cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena dominates the annual, toxic summer blooms in the Baltic Sea. Although Nodularia has been receiving attention due to its production of the hepatotoxin nodularin, molecular data regarding the regulation of nitrogen fixation is lacking. We have previously reported that N. spumigena strain AV1, unlike model filamentous cyanobacteria, differentiates heterocysts in the absence of detectable nitrogen fixation activity. To further analyze the uncoupling between these two linked processes, we assessed the impact of ammonium ions on the N. spumigena metabolism using a proteomic approach. Proteomic profiling was performed at three different times during ammonium supplementation using quantitative 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MS/MS analysis. Using this approach, we identified 34 proteins, 28 of which were unique proteins that changed successively in abundance during growth on ammonium. Our results indicate that N. spumigena generally exhibits lower energy production and carbon fixation in the presence of ammonium and seems to be inefficient in utilizing ammonium as an external nitrogen source. The possibility of ammonium toxicity due to PSII damage was investigated and the results are discussed. Our findings have implications in regard to the strategies considered to manage the cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea.
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Fine mapping the spatial distribution and concentration of unlabeled drugs within tissue micro-compartments using imaging mass spectrometry.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Readouts that define the physiological distributions of drugs in tissues are an unmet challenge and at best imprecise, but are needed in order to understand both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties associated with efficacy. Here we demonstrate that it is feasible to follow the in vivo transport of unlabeled drugs within specific organ and tissue compartments on a platform that applies MALDI imaging mass spectrometry to tissue sections characterized with high definition histology. We have tracked and quantified the distribution of an inhaled reference compound, tiotropium, within the lungs of dosed rats, using systematic point by point MS and MS/MS sampling at 200 microm intervals. By comparing drug ion distribution patterns in adjacent tissue sections, we observed that within 15 min following exposure, tiotropium parent MS ions (mass-to-charge; m/z 392.1) and fragmented daughter MS/MS ions (m/z 170.1 and 152.1) were dispersed in a concentration gradient (80 fmol-5 pmol) away from the central airways into the lung parenchyma and pleura. These drug levels agreed well with amounts detected in lung compartments by chemical extraction. Moreover, the simultaneous global definition of molecular ion signatures localized within 2-D tissue space provides accurate assignment of ion identities within histological landmarks, providing context to dynamic biological processes occurring at sites of drug presence. Our results highlight an important emerging technology allowing specific high resolution identification of unlabeled drugs at sites of in vivo uptake and retention.
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Neuropeptidomic analysis of the embryonic Japanese quail diencephalon.
BMC Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Endogenous peptides such as neuropeptides are involved in numerous biological processes in the fully developed brain but very little is known about their role in brain development. Japanese quail is a commonly used bird model for studying sexual dimorphic brain development, especially adult male copulatory behavior in relation to manipulations of the embryonic endocrine system. This study uses a label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry approach to analyze the influence of age (embryonic days 12 vs 17), sex and embryonic day 3 ethinylestradiol exposure on the expression of multiple endogenous peptides in the developing diencephalon.
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Highly mutagenic and severely imbalanced dNTP pools can escape detection by the S-phase checkpoint.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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A balanced supply of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) is one of the key prerequisites for faithful genome duplication. Both the overall concentration and the balance among the individual dNTPs (dATP, dTTP, dGTP, and dCTP) are tightly regulated, primarily by the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). We asked whether dNTP pool imbalances interfere with cell cycle progression and are detected by the S-phase checkpoint, a genome surveillance mechanism activated in response to DNA damage or replication blocks. By introducing single amino acid substitutions in loop 2 of the allosteric specificity site of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNR, we obtained a collection of strains with various dNTP pool imbalances. Even mild dNTP pool imbalances were mutagenic, but the mutagenic potential of different dNTP pool imbalances did not directly correlate with their severity. The S-phase checkpoint was activated by the depletion of one or several dNTPs. In contrast, when none of the dNTPs was limiting for DNA replication, even extreme and mutagenic dNTP pool imbalances did not activate the S-phase checkpoint and did not interfere with the cell cycle progression.
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Clinical severity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection is associated with bacterial load in oropharyngeal secretions but not with MP genotype.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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Disease severity in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection could potentially be related to bacterial factors such as MP genotype (MP1 or MP2; distinguished by different adhesions proteins) or bacterial load in airway secretions. We have compared these parameters in patients who were hospitalized for MP pneumonia, with outpatients with mild MP disease.
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Essential tactics of tissue preparation and matrix nano-spotting for successful compound imaging mass spectrometry.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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The ultimate goal of MALDI-Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is to achieve spatial localization of analytes in tissue sections down to individual tissue compartments or even at the level of a few cells. With compound tissue imaging, it is possible to track the transportation of an unlabelled, inhaled reference compound within lung tissue, through the application of MALDI-IMS. The procedure for isolation and preparation of lung tissues is found to be crucial in order to preserve the anatomy and structure of the pulmonary compartments. To avoid delocalization of analytes within lung tissue compartments we have applied an in-house designed nano-spotter, based on a microdispenser mounted on an XY table, of which movement and spotting functionality were fully computer controlled. We demonstrate the usefulness of this platform in lung tissue sections isolated from rodent in vivo model, applied to compound tissue imaging as exemplified with the determination of the spatial distribution of (1alpha,2beta,4beta,7beta)-7-[(hydroxidi-2-thienylacetyl)oxy]-9,9-dimethyl-3-oxa-9-azoniatricyclo[3.3.1.0(2,4)]nonane, also known as tiotropium. We provide details on tissue preparation protocols and sample spotting technology for successful identification of drug in mouse lung tissue by using MALDI-Orbitrap instrumentation.
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Nuclear factor of activated T cells regulates osteopontin expression in arterial smooth muscle in response to diabetes-induced hyperglycemia.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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Hyperglycemia is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Recently, we reported that high glucose activates the Ca(2+)/calcineurin-dependent transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in arteries ex vivo. Here, we sought to determine whether hyperglycemia activates NFAT in vivo and whether this leads to vascular complications.
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Changes in chemokines and chemokine receptor expression on tonsillar B cells upon Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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Chemokines and chemokine receptors are likely to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -associated disease. The primary EBV infection occurs in the oropharynx where the virus infects mainly tonsillar B cells. We have previously shown that CXCR4 expression on tonsillar B cells is modulated by EBV. Here, CXCR5 and CCR7 expression, which is important for migration into lymphoid tissue, was followed for 14 days after EBV infection of tonsillar B cells. Early after infection (2 days) there were only minor changes in CXCR5 and CCR7 expression. However, at day 7 the expression of CXCR5, as well as of CCR7, was decreased and by day 14 these molecules were no longer present at the cell surface. Furthermore, EBV infection affects the chemotactic response to CXCL13 and CCL21 (the ligands for CXCR5 and CCR7, respectively) with a reduction of ligand-induced migration at day 2. Using gene expression profiling, we identified an additional set of chemokines and chemokine receptors that were changed upon EBV infection in comparison with non-infected tonsillar B cells. In particular, messenger RNA expression for CCR9 and the complement receptor C5AR1 was increased. Both receptors mediate homing to mucosal tissue. The alterations of the expression of these molecules may lead to retention of EBV-infected tonsillar B cells in the interfollicular region of the tonsil.
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Development and evaluation of normalization methods for label-free relative quantification of endogenous peptides.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2009
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The performances of 10 different normalization methods on data of endogenous brain peptides produced with label-free nano-LC-MS were evaluated. Data sets originating from three different species (mouse, rat, and Japanese quail), each consisting of 35-45 individual LC-MS analyses, were used in the study. Each sample set contained both technical and biological replicates, and the LC-MS analyses were performed in a randomized block fashion. Peptides in all three data sets were found to display LC-MS analysis order-dependent bias. Global normalization methods will only to some extent correct this type of bias. Only the novel normalization procedure RegrRun (linear regression followed by analysis order normalization) corrected for this type of bias. The RegrRun procedure performed the best of the normalization methods tested and decreased the median S.D. by 43% on average compared with raw data. This method also produced the smallest fraction of peptides with interblock differences while producing the largest fraction of differentially expressed peaks between treatment groups in all three data sets. Linear regression normalization (Regr) performed second best and decreased median S.D. by 38% on average compared with raw data. All other examined methods reduced median S.D. by 20-30% on average compared with raw data.
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Identification, synthesis and field testing of (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-henicosatriene, a second bioactive component of the sex pheromone of the autumn gum moth, Mnesampela privata.
J. Chem. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2009
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The sex pheromone of Mnesampela privata, an endemic pest of Eucalyptus plantations in Australia, was previously identified as a single bioactive compound, (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene (C19 triene). Initial field testing of lures containing 1 mg, 5 mg or 10 mg of C19 triene (>98% purity) caught no or very few male M. privata. (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-Henicosatriene (C21 triene) was identified as an additional minor pheromone component in abdominal tip extracts of M. privata females from Tasmania. Levels of both compounds extracted from individual females varied greatly, but the ratio was relatively constant at 33:1 C19:C21 trienes. Electroantennograms (EAG) of synthetic C21 triene with male M. privata gave positive but consistently lower responses than elicited by the C19 triene. Field tests showed that the addition of 1-6% C21 triene to 1 mg C19 triene significantly increased trap catch and the detection of M. privata in plantations. Traps baited with a 16:1 ratio caught significantly more moths than those baited with a ratio approximating that of females.
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CD47 promotes both phosphatidylserine-independent and phosphatidylserine-dependent phagocytosis of apoptotic murine thymocytes by non-activated macrophages.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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The ubiquitously expressed cell surface glycoprotein CD47 on host cells can inhibit phagocytosis of unopsonized or opsonized viable host target cells. Here we studied the role of target cell CD47 in macrophage uptake of viable or apoptotic murine thymocytes. As expected, IgG-opsonized viable CD47(-/-) thymocytes were taken up more efficiently than equally opsonized Wt thymocytes. However IgG-opsonized apoptotic thymocytes from Wt and CD47(-/-) mice were taken up equally. Although uptake of apoptotic thymocytes by non-activated bone marrow-derived macrophages was phosphatidylserine (PS)-independent, while uptake by non-activated resident peritoneal macrophages was PS-dependent, both macrophage populations showed a reduced uptake of non-opsonized apoptotic CD47(-/-) thymocytes, as compared with the uptake of apoptotic Wt thymocytes. This difference was only seen with non-activated macrophages, and not with beta-1,3-glucan-activated macrophages. CD47 promoted binding of thymocytes to macrophages, which did not require F-actin polymerization. CD47 became clustered on apoptotic thymocytes, both co-localized with or separated from, clustered PS and cholesterol-rich GM-1 domains. Thus, CD47 does not inhibit, but rather support, both PS-independent and PS-dependent uptake of apoptotic cells in the murine system. This mechanism only comes into play in non-activated macrophages.
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Coupling surface plasmon resonance to mass spectrometry to discover novel protein-protein interactions.
Nat Protoc
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
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The elucidation of protein-protein interaction networks is a crucial task in the postgenomic era. In this protocol, we describe our approach to discover protein-protein interactions using the surface plasmon resonance technique coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). A peptide or a protein is immobilized on a sensor chip and then exposed to brain extracts injected through the surface of the chip by a microfluidic system. The interactions between the immobilized ligand and the extracts can be monitored in real time. Proteins interacting with the peptide/protein are recovered, trypsinated and identified using MS. The data obtained are searched against a sequence database using the Mascot 2.1 software. Control experiments using blank sensor chips and/or randomized peptides are carried out to exclude nonspecific interactors. The protocol can be carried out in <3 days. Other methods, such as yeast two-hybrid systems or pull-down approaches followed by MS, are widely used to screen protein-protein interactions. However, as the yeast two-hybrid system requires protein interactions in the nucleus of yeast, proteins that are abundant in other compartments may not be detected. Pull-down approaches based on immunoprecipitation can be used to study endogenous proteins but they require specific antibodies. The protocol presented here does not require the specific labeling or modification of proteins.
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Stress hormone dynamics: an adaptation to migration?
Biol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2009
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The hormone corticosterone (CORT) is an important component of a birds response to environmental stress, but it can also have negative effects. Therefore, birds on migration are hypothesized to have repressed stress responses (migration-modulation hypothesis). In contrast to earlier studies on long-distance migrants, we evaluate this hypothesis in a population containing both migratory and resident individuals. We use a population of partially migratory blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) in southern Sweden as a model species. Migrants had higher CORT levels at the time of capture than residents, indicating migratory preparations, adaptation to stressors, higher allostatic load or possibly low social status. Migrants and residents had the same stress response, thus contradicting the migration-modulation hypothesis. We suggest that migrants travelling short distances are more benefited than harmed by retaining the ability to respond to stress.
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Timing of HAART defines the integrity of memory B cells and the longevity of humoral responses in HIV-1 vertically-infected children.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
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HIV-1 infection induces a progressive disruption of the B cell compartment impairing long-term immune responses to routine immunizations. Depletion of specific memory B cell pools occurs during the 1st stages of the infection and cannot be reestablished by antiretroviral treatment. We reasoned that an early control of viral replication through treatment could preserve the normal development of the memory B cell compartment and responses to routine childhood vaccines. Accordingly, we evaluated the effects of different highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) schedules in 70 HIV-1 vertically-infected pediatric subjects by B cell phenotypic analyses, antigen-specific B cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) and ELISA for common vaccination and HIV-1 antigens. Initiation of HAART within the 1st year of life permits the normal development and maintenance of the memory B cell compartment. On the contrary, memory B cells from patients treated later in time are remarkably reduced and their function is compromised regardless of viral control. A cause for concern is that both late-treated HIV-1 controllers and noncontrollers loose protective antibody titers against common vaccination antigens. Timing of HAART initiation is the major factor predicting the longevity of B cell responses in vaccinated HIV-1-infected children.
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Improving glucocorticoid replacement therapy using a novel modified-release hydrocortisone tablet: a pharmacokinetic study.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Endogenous plasma cortisol levels have a well-defined circadian rhythm. The aim of this project is to develop a once daily oral dual-release formulation for cortisol replacement therapy that mimics the diurnal variation in the plasma cortisol profile.
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A quantitative peptidomic analysis of peptides related to the endogenous opioid and tachykinin systems in nucleus accumbens of rats following naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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We have applied a recently developed label-free mass spectrometry based peptidomic approach to identify and quantify a variety of endogenous peptides from rat nucleus accumbens following withdrawal in naloxone-precipitated, morphine-dependent rats of two separate strains. We focused on maturated, partially processed and truncated peptides derived from the peptide precursors proenkephalin, prodynorphin and preprotachykinin. The expression of several identified peptides was dependent on strain and was affected during morphine withdrawal.
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CD27(-) B-cells produce class switched and somatically hyper-mutated antibodies during chronic HIV-1 infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation occur in mature B-cells in response to antigen stimulation. These processes are crucial for the generation of functional antibodies. During HIV-1 infection, loss of memory B-cells, together with an altered differentiation of naïve B-cells result in production of low quality antibodies, which may be due to impaired immunoglobulin affinity maturation. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of HIV-1 infection on class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation by studying the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in peripheral B-cells from a cohort of chronically HIV-1 infected patients as compared to a group of healthy controls. In parallel, we also characterized the phenotype of B-cells and their ability to produce immunoglobulins in vitro. Cells from HIV-1 infected patients showed higher baseline levels of AID expression and increased IgA production measured ex-vivo and upon CD40 and TLR9 stimulation in vitro. Moreover, the percentage of CD27(-)IgA+ and CD27(-)IgG+ B-cells in blood was significantly increased in HIV-1 infected patients as compared to controls. Interestingly, our results showed a significantly increased number of somatic hypermutations in the VH genes in CD27(-) cells from patients. Taken together, these results show that during HIV-1 infection, CD27(-) B-cells can also produce class switched and somatically hypermutated antibodies. Our data add important information for the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the loss of specific antibody production observed during HIV-1 infection.
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Striatal alterations of secretogranin-1, somatostatin, prodynorphin, and cholecystokinin peptides in an experimental mouse model of Parkinson disease.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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The principal causative pathology of Parkinson disease is the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta projecting to the striatum in the brain. The information regarding the expression of neuropeptides in parkinsonism is very limited. Here we have elucidated striatal neuropeptide mechanisms in experimental parkinsonism using the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine model to degenerate dopamine neurons. A thoroughly controlled sample preparation technique together with a peptidomics approach and targeted neuropeptide sequence collections enabled sensitive detection, identification, and relative quantitation of a great number of endogenous neuropeptides. Previously not recognized alterations in neuropeptide levels were identified in the unilateral lesioned mice with or without subchronic 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine administration, the conventional treatment of Parkinson disease. Several of these peptides originated from the same precursor such as secretogranin-1, somatostatin, prodynorphin, and cholecystokinin. Disease-related biotransformation of precursors into individual peptides was observed in the experimental model of Parkinson disease. Several previously unreported potentially biologically active peptides were also identified from the striatal samples. This study provides further evidence that neuropeptides take part in mediating the central nervous system failure associated with Parkinson disease.
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Chromosome 19 annotations with disease speciation: a first report from the Global Research Consortium.
J. Proteome Res.
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A first research development progress report of the Chromosome 19 Consortium with members from Sweden, Norway, Spain, United States, China and India, a part of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) global initiative, is presented ( http://www.c-hpp.org ). From the chromosome 19 peptide-targeted library constituting 6159 peptides, a pilot study was conducted using a subset with 125 isotope-labeled peptides. We applied an annotation strategy with triple quadrupole, ESI-Qtrap, and MALDI mass spectrometry platforms, comparing the quality of data within and in between these instrumental set-ups. LC-MS conditions were outlined by multiplex assay developments, followed by MRM assay developments. SRM was applied to biobank samples, quantifying kallikrein 3 (prostate specific antigen) in plasma from prostate cancer patients. The antibody production has been initiated for more than 1200 genes from the entire chromosome 19, and the progress developments are presented. We developed a dedicated transcript microarray to serve as the mRNA identifier by screening cancer cell lines. NAPPA protein arrays were built to align with the transcript data with the Chromosome 19 NAPPA chip, dedicated to 90 proteins, as the first development delivery. We have introduced an IT-infrastructure utilizing a LIMS system that serves as the key interface for the research teams to share and explore data generated within the project. The cross-site data repository will form the basis for sample processing, including biological samples as well as patient samples from national Biobanks.
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Mobilization of regulatory T cells in response to carotid injury does not influence subsequent neointima formation.
PLoS ONE
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T cells have been attributed an important role in modulating repair responses following vascular injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different T cell subsets in this context.
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Fibromodulin deficiency reduces low-density lipoprotein accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein E-null mice.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
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The aim of this study was to analyze how an altered collagen structure affects development of atherosclerotic plaques.
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Kinetics of antibody and memory B cell responses after MMR immunization in children and young adults.
Vaccine
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The persistence of antigen-specific memory B-cells (MBCs) in children and young adults long time after vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) is not known. Here we have looked at the Swedish immunization program and examined children 1-10 years after the first MMR dose in early childhood, as well as young adults 7-18 years after the second dose of MMR. We show that Ab titers and MBCs against measles and rubella have different kinetics, indicating that the MBC pool and the corresponding Ab titers are regulated independently. These data fit well with other findings that continuous IgG secretion comes from long-lived plasma cells and not MBCs. We also demonstrate that individuals with low post-vaccination Ab titers might have an adequate MBC response. It remains to be shown if memory B-cells provide the same protection as specific antibodies, but our data is a valuable complement to the incomplete knowledge about correlates of protection after vaccination.
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Age and risk factors influence the microbial aetiology of bloodstream infection in children.
Acta Paediatr.
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To study the aetiology of bloodstream infections (BSI) in children 0-17 years, the influence of age and underlying co-morbidity on BSI rate, distribution of pathogens and outcome; and to provide data on antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.
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In situ mass spectrometry imaging and ex vivo characterization of renal crystalline deposits induced in multiple preclinical drug toxicology studies.
PLoS ONE
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Drug toxicity observed in animal studies during drug development accounts for the discontinuation of many drug candidates, with the kidney being a major site of tissue damage. Extensive investigations are often required to reveal the mechanisms underlying such toxicological events and in the case of crystalline deposits the chemical composition can be problematic to determine. In the present study, we have used mass spectrometry imaging combined with a set of advanced analytical techniques to characterize such crystalline deposits in situ. Two potential microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 inhibitors, with similar chemical structure, were administered to rats over a seven day period. This resulted in kidney damage with marked tubular degeneration/regeneration and crystal deposits within the tissue that was detected by histopathology. Results from direct tissue section analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging were combined with data obtained following manual crystal dissection analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The chemical composition of the crystal deposits was successfully identified as a common metabolite, bisulphonamide, of the two drug candidates. In addition, an un-targeted analysis revealed molecular changes in the kidney that were specifically associated with the area of the tissue defined as pathologically damaged. In the presented study, we show the usefulness of combining mass spectrometry imaging with an array of powerful analytical tools to solve complex toxicological problems occurring during drug development.
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Genetically similar strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from sheep, cattle and human patients.
BMC Vet. Res.
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Comparatively little is known about the prevalence or the molecular characteristics of the zoonotic pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in the sheep reservoir. To investigate this and determine the host specificity of subclones of the bacterium, we have conducted a slaughterhouse prevalence study in sheep and compared the collected isolates to O157:H7 previously isolated from cattle and human patients.
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Deuterated matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization matrix uncovers masked mass spectrometry imaging signals of small molecules.
Anal. Chem.
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D(4)-?-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (D(4)-CHCA) has been synthesized for use as a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and MALDI-MS imaging (MSI) of small molecule drugs and endogenous compounds. MALDI-MS analysis of small molecules has historically been hindered by interference from matrix ion clusters and fragment peaks that mask signals of low molecular weight compounds of interest. By using D(4)-CHCA, the cluster and fragment peaks of CHCA, the most common matrix for analysis of small molecules, are shifted by + 4, + 8 and + 12 Da, which expose signals across areas of the previously concealed low mass range. Here, obscured MALDI-MS signals of a synthetic small molecule pharmaceutical, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid, and endogenous compounds including the neurotransmitter acetylcholine have been unmasked and imaged directly from biological tissue sections.
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Novel mass spectrometry imaging software assisting labeled normalization and quantitation of drugs and neuropeptides directly in tissue sections.
J Proteomics
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MALDI MS imaging has been extensively used to produce qualitative distribution maps of proteins, peptides, lipids, small molecule pharmaceuticals and their metabolites directly in biological tissue sections. There is growing demand to quantify the amount of target compounds in the tissue sections of different organs. We present a novel MS imaging software including protocol for the quantitation of drugs, and for the first time, an endogenous neuropeptide directly in tissue sections. After selecting regions of interest on the tissue section, data is read and processed by the software using several available methods for baseline corrections, subtractions, denoising, smoothing, recalibration and normalization. The concentrations of in vivo administered drugs or endogenous compounds are then determined semi-automatically using either external standard curves, or by using labeled compounds, i.e., isotope labeled analogs as standards. As model systems, we have quantified the distribution of imipramine and tiotropium in the brain and lung of dosed rats. Substance P was quantified in different mouse brain structures, which correlated well with previously reported peptide levels. Our approach facilitates quantitative data processing and labeled standards provide better reproducibility and may be considered as an efficient tool to quantify drugs and endogenous compounds in tissue regions of interest.
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Swedish guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults--Swedish Society of Infectious Diseases 2012.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
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This document presents the 2012 evidence based guidelines of the Swedish Society of Infectious Diseases for the in- hospital management of adult immunocompetent patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The prognostic score CRB-65 is recommended for the initial assessment of all CAP patients, and should be regarded as an aid for decision-making concerning the level of care required, microbiological investigation, and antibiotic treatment. Due to the favourable antibiotic resistance situation in Sweden, an initial narrow-spectrum antibiotic treatment primarily directed at Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended in most situations. The recommended treatment for patients with severe CAP (CRB-65 score 2) is penicillin G in most situations. In critically ill patients (CRB-65 score 3-4), combination therapy with cefotaxime/macrolide or penicillin G/fluoroquinolone is recommended. A thorough microbiological investigation should be undertaken in all patients, including blood cultures, respiratory tract sampling, and urine antigens, with the addition of extensive sampling for more uncommon respiratory pathogens in the case of severe disease. Recommended measures for the prevention of CAP include vaccination for influenza and pneumococci, as well as smoking cessation.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.