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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Clinical presentation and treatment considerations of a ruptured posterior spinal artery pseudoaneurysm.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Spinal artery pseudoaneurysms are rare vascular lesions with poorly defined natural history, diagnostic paradigms, and treatment strategies. We present a 68-year-old woman with severe back pain and left lower extremity weakness with spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured T5 region posterior spinal artery pseudoaneurysm, and review issues related to radiologic diagnosis and endovascular and open neurosurgical interventions.
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Neurofibromatosis type 1 and pregnancy complications: a population-based study.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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The objective of the study was to determine whether vascular and other complications are more common in pregnant women with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).
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Genome-wide identification of Ikaros targets elucidates its contribution to mouse B-cell lineage specification and pre-B-cell differentiation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Ikaros family DNA-binding proteins are critical regulators of B-cell development. Because the current knowledge of Ikaros targets in B-cell progenitors is limited, we have identified genes that are bound and regulated by Ikaros in pre-B cells. To elucidate the role of Ikaros in B-cell lineage specification and differentiation, we analyzed the differential expression of Ikaros targets during the progression of multipotent to lymphoid-restricted progenitors, B- and T-cell lineage specification, and progression along the B-cell lineage. Ikaros targets accounted for one-half of all genes up-regulated during B-cell lineage specification in vivo, explaining the essential role of Ikaros in this process. Expression of the Ikaros paralogs Ikzf1 and Ikzf3 increases incrementally during B-cell progenitor differentiation, and, remarkably, inducible Ikaros expression in cycling pre-B cells was sufficient to drive transcriptional changes resembling the differentiation of cycling to resting pre-Bcells in vivo. The data suggest that Ikaros transcription factor dosage drives the progression of progenitors along a predetermined lineage by regulating multiple targets in key pathways, including pre-B–cell receptor signaling, cell cycle progression, and lymphocyte receptor rearrangement.Our approachmay be of general use to map the contribution of transcription factors to cell lineage commitment and differentiation.
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Common and distinct neural mechanisms of visual and tactile extinction: A large scale VBM study in sub-acute stroke.
Neuroimage Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Extinction is diagnosed when patients respond to a single contralesional item but fail to detect this item when an ipsilesional item is present concurrently. Extinction has been studied mainly in the visual modality but it occurs also in other sensory modalities (touch, audition) and hence can be considered a multisensory phenomenon. The functional and neuroanatomical relations between extinction in different modalities are poorly understood. Here, we used voxel-based mophometry (VBM) to examine the neuronal substrates of visual versus tactile extinction in a large group of sub-acute patients (n = 454) with strokes affecting different vascular territories. We found that extinction deficits in tactile and visual modalities were significantly correlated (r = 0.341; p < 0.01). Several lesions within the right hemisphere were linked to extinction including the inferior parietal lobule, the superior parietal lobule, the middle frontal and occipital gyri, while lesions involving the superior temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus and putamen were associated with tactile extinction. Damage within the middle temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus was linked to both deficits. We conclude that extinction in different modalities emerges after damage to both common (supra-modal) and distinct (modality specific) brain regions, and that contrasting sites emerge after damage to different vascular territories. We discuss the implications for understanding extinction as a multisensory disorder.
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A role for cohesin in T-cell-receptor rearrangement and thymocyte differentiation.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Cohesin enables post-replicative DNA repair and chromosome segregation by holding sister chromatids together from the time of DNA replication in S phase until mitosis. There is growing evidence that cohesin also forms long-range chromosomal cis-interactions and may regulate gene expression in association with CTCF, mediator or tissue-specific transcription factors. Human cohesinopathies such as Cornelia de Lange syndrome are thought to result from impaired non-canonical cohesin functions, but a clear distinction between the cell-division-related and cell-division-independent functions of cohesion--as exemplified in Drosophila--has not been demonstrated in vertebrate systems. To address this, here we deleted the cohesin locus Rad21 in mouse thymocytes at a time in development when these cells stop cycling and rearrange their T-cell receptor (TCR) ? locus (Tcra). Rad21-deficient thymocytes had a normal lifespan and retained the ability to differentiate, albeit with reduced efficiency. Loss of Rad21 led to defective chromatin architecture at the Tcra locus, where cohesion-binding sites flank the TEA promoter and the E? enhancer, and demarcate Tcra from interspersed Tcrd elements and neighbouring housekeeping genes. Cohesin was required for long-range promoter-enhancer interactions, Tcra transcription, H3K4me3 histone modifications that recruit the recombination machinery and Tcra rearrangement. Provision of pre-rearranged TCR transgenes largely rescued thymocyte differentiation, demonstrating that among thousands of potential target genes across the genome, defective Tcra rearrangement was limiting for the differentiation of cohesin-deficient thymocytes. These findings firmly establish a cell-division-independent role for cohesin in Tcra locus rearrangement and provide a comprehensive account of the mechanisms by which cohesin enables cellular differentiation in a well-characterized mammalian system.
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Dural scalp and intracranial hemangiomas causing hydrocephalus and venous sinus thrombosis in an infant.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Cutaneous scalp hemangiomas may herald the presence of occult intracranial hemangiomas. A previously healthy 4-month-old girl presented with a bleeding scalp hemangioma, a bulging fontanel, and anemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed hydrocephalus along with multiple intracranial hemangiomas. These lesions compressed the jugular foramina, resulting in venous sinus thrombosis involving the right transverse sinus, the left sigmoid sinus, and the torcular herophili. The patient had no family history of phakomatoses or other genetic abnormalities. A thrombophilia work-up result was unremarkable. The patient was treated with prednisolone (10 mg twice daily) and low molecular weight heparin (1 mg/kg/dose) twice daily. This treatment decreased the size of her cutaneous and intracranial hemangiomas and led to the resolution of her venous sinus thromboses and hydrocephalus. Innocuous scalp hemangioma in an infant may herald more concerning intracranial pathology, which can be treated effectively if diagnosed with appropriate imaging studies.
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Microsurgical retrieval of an endovascular microcatheter trapped during Onyx embolization of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation.
J Neurointerv Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are vascular lesions that are amenable to various treatment modalities including stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated radiotherapy, endovascular embolization, microsurgical obliteration or combined modality treatment. A potential complication of endovascular therapy with embolization material is microcatheter entrapment. We report on a patient for whom surgery was combined with endovascular embolization to obliterate an AVM and retrieve an entrapped endovascular microcatheter.
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Embryonic stem cell-derived hemangioblasts remain epigenetically plastic and require PRC1 to prevent neural gene expression.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Many lineage-specific developmental regulator genes are transcriptionally primed in embryonic stem (ES) cells; RNA Pol(II) is bound at their promoters but is prevented from productive elongation by the activity of polycomb repressive complexes (PRC) 1 and 2. This epigenetically poised state is thought to enable ES cells to rapidly execute multiple differentiation programs and is recognized by a simultaneous enrichment for trimethylation of lysine 4 and trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (bivalent chromatin) across promoter regions. Here we show that the chromatin profile of this important cohort of genes is progressively modified as ES cells differentiate toward blood-forming precursors. Surprisingly however, neural specifying genes, such as Nkx2-2, Nkx2-9, and Sox1, remain bivalent and primed even in committed hemangioblasts, as conditional deletion of PRC1 results in overt and inappropriate expression of neural genes in hemangioblasts. These data reinforce the importance of PRC1 for normal hematopoietic differentiation and reveal an unexpected epigenetic plasticity of mesoderm-committed hemangioblasts.
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REST selectively represses a subset of RE1-containing neuronal genes in mouse embryonic stem cells.
Development
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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REST is a transcriptional repressor that targets a group of neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells. In embryonic stem (ES) cells, REST has been implicated in controlling the expression of transcription factor genes that are crucial for lineage determination and for maintaining ES cell potential. Here, we asked whether REST directly regulates neural-specifying genes in mouse ES cells using siRNA-mediated REST knockdown and ES cells that lack functional REST protein as a result of gene targeting. Loss of REST did not affect the expression of any of ten transcription factor genes known to promote neural commitment and did not affect the expression of several microRNAs, including miR-21, a putative REST target in ES cells. REST-deficient ES cells retained the ability to self-renew and to undergo appropriate differentiation towards mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm lineages upon LIF withdrawal. Genome-wide expression profiling showed that genes that were deregulated in the absence of REST were preferentially expressed in the brain and highly enriched for the presence of canonical REST binding sites (RE1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies confirmed these genes as direct targets of REST in ES cells. Collectively, these data show that REST selectively silences a cohort of neuronal genes in ES cells.
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A simple and novel method for RNA-seq library preparation of single cell cDNA analysis by hyperactive Tn5 transposase.
Dev. Dyn.
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Deep sequencing of single cell-derived cDNAs offers novel insights into oncogenesis and embryogenesis. However, traditional library preparation for RNA-seq analysis requires multiple steps with consequent sample loss and stochastic variation at each step significantly affecting output. Thus, a simpler and better protocol is desirable. The recently developed hyperactive Tn5-mediated library preparation, which brings high quality libraries, is likely one of the solutions.
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Outcomes of hospitalization in pregnant women with CNS neoplasms: a population-based study.
Neuro-oncology
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Managing a CNS neoplasm during pregnancy presents complex challenges, and population-based studies are lacking. We designed a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to investigate pregnancy outcomes in women with CNS neoplasms. We constructed a logistic regression model for maternal mortality, preterm labor, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and Caesarean delivery, controlling for age, comorbidities, and demographic characteristics. We identified 379 malignant brain tumors, 437 benign brain tumors, and 44 spine tumors among 19 million pregnancy-related admissions from 1988 through 2009. Malignant brain tumors were associated with maternal mortality (odds ratio [OR], 143), preterm labor (OR, 3.4), and IUGR (OR, 2.9). Benign brain tumors were associated with preterm labor (OR, 2.3). A diagnosis of hyperemesis gravidarum was more common in malignant (OR, 2.2) and benign (OR, 2.8) brain tumors. Compared with the general population, Caesarean delivery was more frequent for malignant (OR, 6.4) and benign (OR, 2.8) brain tumors and spine tumors (OR, 3.9). Admission without delivery was more common for malignant (OR, 8.6) and benign (OR, 4.3) brain tumors and spine tumors (OR, 3.8; P < .05 for all outcomes). Thirty-three percent of all hospitalizations involved neurosurgical procedures, but pregnancy complications were not significantly more likely to occur in surgical patients. In conclusion, malignant brain tumors were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and CNS neoplasms were associated with higher rates of Caesarean delivery. Additional research is needed to improve understanding of obstetric risk in these patients and to assist with treatment, counseling, and monitoring during delivery.
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Chemotherapy: present and future.
Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am.
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Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are among the most common benign tumors of the central nervous system. Bilateral VS are the hallmark of neurofibromatosis type II, commonly leading to complete deafness and cranial nerve deficits as a result of tumor progression or treatment with surgery or radiation. Effective medical therapies are needed to address tumor progression and treatment-related morbidity. This article reviews the standard therapies for VS, summarizes the molecular biology of these tumors, and describes potential targets for chemotherapeutic agents. The article also defines and recommends the use of specific clinical end points in future drug trials, describes previous and current experience with anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR agents, and delineates areas of future research.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.