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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Pesticide exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes: review of the epidemiologic and animal studies.
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective and tiered approaches in animal testing are discussed.
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Adjusting for multiple-misclassified variables in a study using birth certificates.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Birth certificates are a convenient source of population data for epidemiologic studies. It is well documented, however, that birth certificate data can be highly inaccurate. Nonetheless, studies based on birth certificates are routinely analyzed without accounting for sources of data errors. We focused on the association between maternal cigarette smoking and cleft lip and palate based on birth certificate data.
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Adjusting for outcome misclassification: the importance of accounting for case-control sampling and other forms of outcome-related selection.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Special care must be taken when adjusting for outcome misclassification in case-control data. Basic adjustment formulas using either sensitivity and specificity or predictive values (as with external validation data) do not account for the fact that controls are sampled from a much larger pool of potential controls. A parallel problem arises in surveys and cohort studies in which participation or loss is outcome related.
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Evaluation of newborn screening bloodspot-based genetic testing as second tier screen for bedside newborn hearing screening.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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: Bedside newborn hearing screening is highly successful in identifying deaf or hard-of-hearing infants. However, newborn hearing screening protocols have high loss to follow-up rates. We propose that bloodspot-based genetic testing for GJB2 alleles can provide a means for rapid confirmation in a subset of infants who fail bedside newborn hearing screening.
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Self-report versus medical record - perinatal factors in a study of infant leukaemia: a study from the Childrens Oncology Group.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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In a case-control study of infant leukaemia, we assessed agreement between medical records and mothers self-reported pregnancy-related conditions and procedures and infant treatments. Interview and medical record data were available for 234 case and 215 control mothers. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for maternal report were estimated for case and control mothers separately, taking the medical record as correct. For most perinatal conditions, sensitivity and specificity were over 75%. Low sensitivity was observed for maternal protein or albumin in the urine (cases: 12% [95% exact confidence interval (CI) 8%, 18%]; controls: 11% [95% CI 7%, 17%]) and infant supplemental oxygen use (cases: 25% [95% CI 11%, 43%]; controls: 24% [95% CI 13%, 37%]). Low specificity was found for peripheral oedema (cases: 47% [95% CI 37%, 58%]; controls: 54% [95% CI 43%, 64%]). Sensitivity for maternal hypertension appeared much lower for cases (cases: 46% [95% CI 28%, 66%]; controls: 90% [95% CI 70%, 99%]; P = 0.003). We did not detect other case-control differences in recall (differentiality), even though the average time between childbirth and interview was 2.7 years for case and 3.7 years for control mothers. Many conditions exhibited notable differences between interview and records. We recommend use of multiple measurement sources to allow both cross-checking and synthesis of results into more accurate measures.
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The inborn errors of metabolism information system: A project of the Region 4 Genetics Collaborative Priority 2 Workgroup.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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The Region 4 Genetics Collaborative has brought together metabolic clinicians and follow-up specialists from state departments of health in the region (Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in a workgroup to create a dynamic registry, the Inborn Errors of Metabolism Information System, to facilitate gathering information about long-term follow-up for individuals identified by newborn blood spot screening. With the concept that by developing a core series of agreed-on data elements and general treatment strategies, differences in treatment plans could yield evidence about optimal treatment choices, data elements for initial intake, and interval follow-up were selected based on a paradigm condition, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Demographic elements that will be used as a common data set for all conditions were identified along with condition-specific elements and general information to be obtained at intervals. Subjects were enrolled after obtaining prospective informed consent; data entry began in January 2007. Additional conditions have had data sets defined and data entry initiated; 21 disorders as of July 2009. Web-based data entry has been employed using DocSiteĀ® as the platform for data entry. With continued collaboration among members of the workgroup, we hope to extend the intellectual questions that can be explored using this data, expand the spectrum of the registry and number of patients engaged, and integrate the registry into additional domains.
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Maternal dietary patterns during early pregnancy and the odds of childhood germ cell tumors: A Childrens Oncology Group study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2010
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Maternal diet during pregnancy may be associated with cancer in offspring. Intake of individual foods, as well as dietary patterns, can be used when examining these relations. Here, the authors examined associations between maternal dietary intake patterns and pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) using principal components analysis and logistic regression. Mothers of 222 GCT cases aged less than 15 years who were diagnosed at a Childrens Oncology Group institution between 1993 and 2001 and those of 336 frequency-matched controls completed a self-administered food frequency questionnaire of diet during early pregnancy. Four dietary patterns were identified: "Western," "fruits and vegetables," "protein," and "healthful." With adjustment for birth weight, parity, and vitamin use, the fruits and vegetables pattern was significantly associated with a lower odds for GCTs (odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 0.99; 2 sided). Upon stratification, the fruits and vegetables pattern was significantly associated with a lower odds in males (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.92) but not females (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.14). A quantitative assessment of assumed nondifferential reporting error indicated no notable deviations from unadjusted odds ratio estimates. Results of this exploratory analysis suggest that maternal prenatal dietary patterns could be considered in future studies of GCTs in offspring.
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The association between atopy and childhood/adolescent leukemia: a meta-analysis.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Atopic disease is hypothesized to be protective against several malignancies, including childhood/adolescent leukemia. To summarize the available epidemiologic evidence, the authors performed a meta-analysis of associations between atopy/allergies, asthma, eczema, hay fever, and hives and childhood/adolescent leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). They searched MEDLINE literature (1952-March 2009) and queried international experts to identify eligible studies. Ten case-control studies were included. Summary odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed via random-effects models. Odds ratios for atopy/allergies were 1.42 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60, 3.35) for 3 studies of leukemia overall, 0.69 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.89) for 6 studies of ALL, and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.22) for 2 studies of AML, with high levels of heterogeneity detected for leukemia overall and ALL. Inverse associations were observed for ALL and asthma (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.02), eczema (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.96), and hay fever (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.66) examined separately. Odds ratios for ALL differed by study design, exposure data source, and latency period, indicating that these factors affect study results. These results should be interpreted cautiously given the modest number of studies, substantial heterogeneity, and potential exposure misclassification but are useful in designing future research.
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Detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in dried blood spots of Minnesota infants who do not pass newborn hearing screening.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
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Up to 15% of infants with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection will experience some degree of sensorineural hearing loss. Many infants who fail newborn hearing screening (NHS) are likely to have congenital CMV infection, but may escape definitive virologic identification because diagnostic evaluation may not commence until several weeks or months of age, making differentiation between congenital and postnatal CMV infection difficult. Early diagnosis linking virologic identification of congenital CMV infection to infants failing NHS may improve diagnostic precision and enhance opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
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Specifying exposure classification parameters for sensitivity analysis: family breast cancer history.
Clin Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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One of the challenges to implementing sensitivity analysis for exposure misclassification is the process of specifying the classification proportions (eg, sensitivity and specificity). The specification of these assignments is guided by three sources of information: estimates from validation studies, expert judgment, and numerical constraints given the data. The purpose of this teaching paper is to describe the process of using validation data and expert judgment to adjust a breast cancer odds ratio for misclassification of family breast cancer history. The parameterization of various point estimates and prior distributions for sensitivity and specificity were guided by external validation data and expert judgment. We used both nonprobabilistic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to investigate the dependence of the odds ratio estimate on the classification error. With our assumptions, a wider range of odds ratios adjusted for family breast cancer history misclassification resulted than portrayed in the conventional frequentist confidence interval.
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Socioeconomic predictors of cognition in Ugandan children: implications for community interventions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
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Several interventions to improve cognition in at risk children have been suggested. Identification of key variables predicting cognition is necessary to guide these interventions. This study was conducted to identify these variables in Ugandan children and guide such interventions.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.