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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Corpus callosal morphology in youth with bipolar depression.
Bipolar Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Recent evidence has demonstrated that corpus callosum maturation follows a similar developmental timeline to cognitive processes. Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with disruptions in error processing, response inhibition, and motor functioning, which are mediated by underlying white matter structures, including the corpus callosum. Disruptions in white matter integrity have been demonstrated in BD. However, it is unknown whether alterations in the developmental trajectory of the corpus callosum may contribute to cognitive impairments in the disorder.
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Modulation of Hippocampus-Prefrontal Cortex Synaptic Transmission and Disruption of Executive Cognitive Functions by MK-801.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine and MK-801 are known to impair cognitive function in rodents and humans, and serve as a useful tool to study the cellular basis for pathogenesis of schizophrenia cognitive symptoms. In the present study, we tested in rats the effect of MK-801 on ventral hippocampus (HPC)-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) synaptic transmission and the performance in 2 cognitive tasks. We found that single injection of MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) induced gradual and long-lasting increases of the HPC-mPFC response, which shares the common expression mechanisms with long-term potentiation (LTP). But unlike LTP, its induction required no enhanced or synchronized synaptic inputs, suggesting aberrant characteristics. In parallel, rats injected with MK-801 showed impairments of mPFC-dependent cognitive flexibility and HPC-mPFC pathway-dependent spatial working memory. The effects of MK-801 on HPC-mPFC responses and spatial working memory decayed in parallel within 24 h. Moreover, the therapeutically important subtype 2/3 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268, which blocked MK-801-induced potentiation, ameliorated the MK-801-induced impairment of spatial working memory. Our results show a novel form of use-independent long-lasting potentiation in HPC-mPFC pathway induced by MK-801, which is associated with impairment of HPC-mPFC projection-dependent cognitive function.
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Learning-facilitated long-term depression requires activation of the immediate early gene, c-fos, and is transcription dependent.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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De novo gene transcription is a prerequisite for long-term information storage in the brain. Learning-facilitated synaptic plasticity describes the ability of hippocampal synapses to respond with long-lasting synaptic plasticity to the coupling of afferent stimulation with a spatial learning experience. Strikingly, long-term depression (LTD) is facilitated by context-dependent spatial learning experiences suggesting it may play a role in information storage to enable spatial memory. Here, we investigated if learning-facilitated LTD requires the transcription factor, c-Fos and is transcription-dependent. Novel spatial learning about object-place configurations coupled with weak low frequency afferent stimulation induced robust LTD in control animals that persisted for >24h and was associated with elevations in hippocampal expression of c-Fos. Intracerebral application of a c-fos antisense oligonucleotide prevented the facilitation of LTD by novel spatial learning, inhibited elevations of c-Fos triggered by LTD and impaired spatial learning. The expression of the transcription factor zif268 was unaffected by the c-fos antisense oligonucleotide. Learning-facilitated LTD was prevented by a transcription inhibitor. These data support that learning-facilitated LTD requires elevations in c-Fos and is transcription dependent. The observation that LTD shares key regulatory mechanisms with learning and memory processes argues strongly for a role for this form of synaptic plasticity in long-term information storage in the hippocampus.
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Cartilage, bone, and intermandibular connective tissue in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).
J. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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The connective tissue that links the bones of the mandible in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, has been described as an intermandibular cartilage, and as such has been considered important for phylogenetic analyses among lower vertebrates. However, light and electron microscopy of developing lungfish jaws demonstrates that the intermandibular tissue, like the connective tissue that links the bones of the upper jaw, contains fibroblasts and numerous bundles of collagen fibrils, extending from the trabeculae of the bones supporting the tooth plates. It differs significantly in structure and in staining reactions from the cartilage and the bone found in this species. In common with the cladistian Polypterus and with actinopterygians and some amphibians, lungfish have no intermandibular cartilage. The connective tissue linking the mandibular bones has no phylogenetic significance for systematic grouping of lungfish, as it is present in a range of different groups among lower vertebrates.
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Age of onset and corpus callosal morphology in major depression.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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The corpus callosum and related white matter projections have been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Previously, we found a smaller genu in adolescents with MDD as compared to controls. To date, no study has examined the age of depression onset (adult vs. pediatric) as it relates to genu area in adults with MDD.
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Passive spatial perception facilitates the expression of persistent hippocampal long-term depression.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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Learning-facilitated plasticity describes the ability of hippocampal synapses to respond with synaptic plasticity when weak afferent stimulation is coupled with a spatial learning event. Qualitative differences appear to influence whether long-term potentiation or long-term depression (LTD) are facilitated by spatial learning. At many hippocampal synapses, LTD is facilitated when rats actively explore a novel spatial context. We investigated whether learning-facilitated plasticity is expressed when an unconstrained but stationary rat observes a computer-generated spatial environment. Visual fields were separated. Novel object configurations were presented to one field; familiar constellations were presented to the other field. LTD was facilitated in the CA1 region of the hemisphere to which novel object constellations were presented. Familiar constellations had no effect. LTD facilitation was prevented by treatment with the protein translation inhibitor, anisomycin. LTD in the dentate gyrus was not facilitated by novel object constellations, suggesting that effects are not common to all hippocampal subfields. These data support a unique association of LTD in the CA1 region with learning about spatial context and indicate that rats can passively perceive space.
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Formation and structure of scales in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).
J. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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The large elasmoid scales of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, are formed within the dermis by unpigmented scleroblasts, growing within a collagenous dermal pocket below a thick glandular epidermis. The first row of scales, on the trunk of the juvenile lungfish, appears below the lateral line of the trunk, single in this species, at around stage 53. The scales, initially circular in outline, develop anteriorly and posteriorly from the point of initiation in the mid-trunk region, and rows are added alternately below the line, and above the line, until they reach the dorsal or ventral midline, or the margins of the fins. Scales develop later on the ventral surface of the head, from a separate centre of initiation. Scales consist of three layers, all produced by scleroblasts of dermal origin. The outermost layer of interlocking plates, or squamulae, consists of a mineralised matrix of fine collagen fibrils, covered by unmineralised collagen and a single layer of cells. Squamulae of the anterior and lateral surfaces are ornamented with short spines, and the mineralised tissue of the posterior surface is linked to the pouch by collagen fibrils. The innermost layer, known as elasmodin, consists of bundles of thick collagen fibrils and cells arranged in layers. An intermediate layer, made up of collagen fibrils, links the outer and inner layers. The elasmoid scales of N. forsteri can be compared with scale types among other osteichthyan groups, although the cellsand canaliculi in the mineralised squamulae bear little resemblance to typical bone.
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Functional morphology of digestion in the stomachless, piscivorous needlefishes Tylosurus gavialoides and Strongylura leiura ferox (Teleostei: Beloniformes).
J. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Belonidae are unusual in that they are carnivorous but lack a stomach and have a straight, short gut. To develop a functional morphological model for this unusual system the gut contents and alimentary tract morphology of Tylosurus gavialoides and Strongylura leiura ferox were investigated. The posterior orientation of the majority of the pharyngeal teeth supports the swallowing of whole large prey, but not their mastication. Mucogenic cells are abundant in the mucosa lining, particularly the esophagus, and their secretions are likely to protect the gut lining from damage while lubricating passage of the prey. Esophagus, anterior intestine, posterior intestine, and rectum all have highly reticulate mucosae. The anterior three gut sections are distensible to accommodate the passage of prey. However, following ingestion large prey are passed to the highly distensible posterior intestine where they rest head first against the ileorectal valve. Alimentary pH ranges from neutral to weakly acidic. Fish prey is digested head first with the head being largely digested while the remainder of the body is still intact. The nondistensibility of the rectum and the small aperture provided by the ileorectal valve suggest the products of intestinal digestion are either small particulates or fluids that pass into rectum where they are absorbed.
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Ultrastructure and the importance of wear in the dentition of the halfbeak (Pisces: Hemiramphidae) pharyngeal mill.
J. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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To assess how tooth microstructure and composition might facilitate the pharyngeal mill mechanism of halfbeaks, apatite structure and iron content were determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis for Hyporhamphus regularis ardelio, Arrhamphus sclerolepis krefftii, and Hemiramphus robustus. Iron was present in developing teeth and was concentrated along the shearing edge of spatulate incisiform teeth, which dominate the occlusive wear zone in all three species. A model based on tooth structure and wear rate is proposed to explain how halfbeaks maintain a fully functional occlusion zone throughout growth and consequent tooth addition and replacement. Replacement teeth erupt and wear rapidly so that a constant occlusion plane is always present. Iron within the tooth tissue reduces the wear rate of the cutting edge while simultaneously maintaining its sharpness and efficiency.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.