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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multiple infections of rodents with zoonotic pathogens in Austria.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host-pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans.
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Leptospira spp. in rodents and shrews in Germany.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified.
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The neutralizing capacity of antibodies elicited by parainfluenza virus infection of African Green Monkeys is dependent on complement.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The African Green Monkey (AGM) model was used to analyze the role of complement in neutralization of parainfluenza virus. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) and human parainfluenza virus type 2 were effectively neutralized in vitro by naïve AGM sera, but neutralizing capacity was lost by heat-inactivation. The mechanism of neutralization involved formation of massive aggregates, with no evidence of virion lysis. Following inoculation of the respiratory tract with a PIV5 vector expressing HIV gp160, AGM produced high levels of serum and tracheal antibodies against gp120 and the viral F and HN proteins. However, in the absence of complement these anti-PIV5 antibodies had very poor neutralizing capacity. Virions showed extensive deposition of IgG and C1q with post- but not pre-immune sera. These results highlight the importance of complement in the initial antibody response to parainfluenza viruses, with implications for understanding infant immune responses and design of vaccine strategies for these pediatric pathogens.
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An AGM Model for Changes in Complement during Pregnancy: Neutralization of Influenza Virus by Serum Is Diminished in Late Third Trimester.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pregnant women in the third trimester are at increased risk of severe influenza disease relative to the general population, though mechanisms behind this are not completely understood. The immune response to influenza infection employs both complement (C') and antibody (Ab). The relative contributions of these components to the anti-viral response are difficult to dissect because most humans have pre-existing influenza-specific Abs. We developed the African green monkey (AGM) as a tractable nonhuman primate model to study changes in systemic innate immunity to influenza during pregnancy. Because the AGMs were influenza-naïve, we were able to examine the role of C' in influenza virus neutralization using serum from non-pregnant animals before and after influenza infection. We determined that serum from naïve AGMs neutralized influenza via C', while post-infection neutralization did not require C', suggesting an Ab-mediated mechanism. The latter mimicked neutralization using human serum. Further, we found that ex vivo neutralization of influenza with both naïve and influenza-immune AGM serum occurred by virus particle aggregation and lysis, with immune serum lysing virus at a much higher rate than naïve serum. We hypothesized that the anti-influenza C' response would diminish late in AGM pregnancy, corresponding with the time when pregnant women suffer increased influenza severity. We found that influenza neutralization capacity is significantly diminished in serum collected late in the third trimester. Strikingly, we found that circulating levels of C3, C3a, and C4 are diminished late in gestation relative to nonpregnant animals, and while neutralization capacity and serum C3a return to normal shortly after parturition, C3 and C4 levels do not. This AGM model system will enable further studies of the role of physiologic and hormonal changes in downregulating C'-mediated anti-viral immunity during pregnancy, and it will permit the identification of therapeutic targets to improve outcomes of influenza virus infection in pregnant women.
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Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in dogs from Berlin, Germany.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis in which dogs can act as a reservoir for human infection. The annual vaccination of dogs can prevent leptospirosis caused by serovars included in the vaccine. To date, all available vaccines in Germany include only the serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola, the most commonly found serovars prior to the introduction of the leptospirosis vaccines. Yet, the involvement of additional serovars in the clinical presentation of leptospirosis in dogs has been described. The objective of this sero-epidemiological study was to examine the different Leptospira serovars currently circulating in a population of dogs suspicious for leptospirosis from Berlin. In 329 dogs presenting at the Small Animal Clinic in Berlin, the predominant serogroup was Australis (24%), followed by Grippotyphosa (20%) and Pomona (9%). A total of 18% of the dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis; here the most prevalent serogroups were also Australis (28%), Grippotyphosa (18%), and Pomona (14%). The serovar prevalence data presented here confirm that a change of pattern of infecting Leptospira serovars in dogs has taken place in Berlin. This data corresponds to further sero-epidemiological studies from other regions in Germany. To ensure human and canine health, available vaccines should be adapted to include the most important circulating serovars.
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Trichinella detection: identification and statistical evaluation of sources of error in the magnetic stirrer method for pooled sample digestion.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Proficiency testing (PT) is the use of inter-laboratory comparisons to determine the performance of individual laboratories for specific tests or measurements, and to monitor a laboratorys performance. Participation in proficiency testing provides laboratories with an objective means of assessing and demonstrating the reliability of the data they are producing. To ensure the reliability of Trichinella detection and meat hygiene within the European Union and afford optimal protection to the consumer, PT is conducted under the direction of the European National Reference Laboratories for Trichinella. Evaluation of data from the national PT showed that lab-internal shortcomings are frequent. These shortcomings are specifically related to: (1) improper sample collection and preparation; (2) incorrect transposition and application of the protocol as laid down in Annex I, Chapter I, Nr. 3 (a-g) of the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005; (3) insufficient sedimentation times; and (4) improper equipment.(e.g. Prost and Nowakowski, 1990; Rossi and Pozio, 2008; Forbes and Gajadhar, 1999; Rossi and Pozio, 2008). To test the hypothesis that both method based errors as well as internal lab errors can influence the accuracy and precision of the magnetic stirrer method for pooled sample digestion (MSM), we initiated a study to evaluate the analytical uncertainty of the MSM. Results presented here are based on: (i) data from PT in Germany (2008, 2009, and 2010); (ii) within-lab performance conducting high volumes of MSM; (iii) larval recovery experiments; and (iv) statistical evaluation of data resulting from these procedures. Quantitative data from the PT show that on average only 60% of Trichinella larvae were detected. Even laboratories that showed relatively good performance (>80% larva recovery, no false negative or false positive results), frequently reported samples with an unexpectedly low larval count (loss of >2 larvae). In our own laboratory, high numbers of repeated analyses of standards and re-analyses of residual fluids indicated that these outliers could be described by a binomial distribution based on a laboratory-specific Trichinella-detection probability. Results of recovery experiments indicate that only a part of the total larval losses can be attributed to lab-internal shortcomings inasmuch as a significant number of L1 could be isolated from the residual and washing fluids.
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The sylvatic Trichinella cycle and its implications for Trichinella control in Germany.
Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2011
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Trichinellosis is a food-borne, zoonotic disease caused by a parasitic organism. Pork containing muscle larvae represents the most important source of human trichinellosis. In Germany, each slaughtered domestic swine is systematically sampled and examined for Trichinella spp. European Union legislation (EC (No.) 2075/2005) condones the approach of a risk-oriented meat inspection for Trichinella in pigs which is accompanied by monitoring programmes for pig holdings and reservoir animals. Here we discuss the current epidemiological situation of Trichinella in the sylvatic cycle in Germany and the implications for the implementation of risk-based sampling.
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Comparison of two PCR systems for the rapid detection of Leptospira spp. from kidney tissue.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
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In this study we compared two routine PCR systems for the detection of Leptospira spp. and assessed their performance when directly applied to kidney samples from small mammals. Although the kappa value of 0.9 indicated a high level of agreement between the tests, the outer membrane lipoprotein gene lipl32 based PCR was more robust and showed a higher number of positive kidney samples.
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Increased prevalence of Trichinella spp., northeastern Germany, 2008.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
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In 2008, a Trichinella spp. outbreak occurred on a small family-owned pig farm in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in northeastern Germany. To obtain epidemiologic information on this outbreak, we determined that after 2005 the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boars has increased in this region of Germany. We discuss the potential role of the raccoon dog in the increase in Trichinella spp. prevalence in the sylvatic cycle in this region. We believe that this increase could pose a threat to pigs kept in back yard conditions, and we provide recommendations to ensure public health safety.
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Survival of Brucella spp. in mineral water, milk and yogurt.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Knowledge of the number of organisms in a food product at the time of consumption is crucial to assess the risk from a deliberate contamination of food samples with Brucella. To date, very little data on the survival times of Brucella in different food matrices is available. This study was conducted to assess the survival times of Brucella spp. in water, milk and yogurt. These food products were inoculated with bacteria, serial dilutions of the food samples plated and the number of surviving bacteria counted. Under normal storage conditions Brucella survived in UHT milk for 87 days, for 60 days in water and less than a week in yogurt. Also, when milk was inoculated with low bacterial numbers, Brucella multiplied by five log units within three weeks. Further we could not confirm that a high fat content in food has a protective effect on Brucella survival. Brucella survived in 3.5% and 10.0% fat yogurt for four and two days, respectively. These results show that appropriate methods for the rapid detection of this pathogen from food matrices are required.
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Neutrophil antimicrobial proteins enhance Shigella flexneri adhesion and invasion.
Cell. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Shigella flexneri is an enteric pathogen that causes massive inflammation and destruction of the human intestinal epithelium. Neutrophils are the first cells of the innate immune system recruited to the site of infection. These cells can attack microbes by phagocytosis, Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) formation and degranulation. Here, we investigated how neutrophil degranulation affects virulence and show that exposure of Shigella to granular proteins enhances infection of epithelial cells. During this process, cationic granular proteins bind to the Shigella surface causing increased adhesion which ultimately leads to hyperinvasion. This effect is mediated by changes in the surface charge, since a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant with a negative surface shows enhanced hyperinvasion compared with wild-type Shigella. We propose that Shigella evolved to use host defence molecules to enhance its virulence and subvert the innate immune system.
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Shimoni bat virus, a new representative of the Lyssavirus genus.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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During 2009, 616 bats representing at least 22 species were collected from 10 locations throughout Kenya. A new lyssavirus, named Shimoni bat virus (SHIBV), was isolated from the brain of a dead Commersons leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros commersoni), found in a cave in the coastal region of Kenya. Genetic distances and phylogenetic reconstructions, implemented for each gene and for the concatenated alignment of all five structural genes (N, P, M, G and L), demonstrated that SHIBV cannot be identified with any of the existing species, but rather should be considered an independent species within phylogroup II of the Lyssavirus genus, most similar to Lagos bat virus (LBV). Antigenic reaction patterns with anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies corroborated these distinctions. In addition, new data on the diversity of LBV suggests that this species may be subdivided quantitatively into three separate genotypes. However, the identity values alone are not considered sufficient criteria for demarcation of new species within LBV.
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Molecular epidemiology of Brucella genotypes in patients at a major hospital in central Peru.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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The multiple-locus variable-number repeat analysis of 90 human Brucella melitensis isolates from a large urban area in central Peru revealed variations at 4 (Bruce07, Bruce09, Bruce18, and Bruce42) out of 16 loci investigated, of which 1 (Bruce42) also is used for species identification. Ten genotypes were identified, separated by the number of Bruce42 repeats into two groups that may have distinct phenotypic characteristics. Whereas genotypes with five or six Bruce42 repeats were cultured mainly from adult patients, genotypes with three Bruce42 repeats were isolated from children and young adolescents as well as from adults. In addition, the isolates with three Bruce42 repeats were obtained more often from patients with splenomegaly (P = 0.02) or hepatomegaly (P = 0.006). An annual variation in the diversity of genotypes was observed, possibly reflecting changes in sources of fresh dairy products, supply routes to city shops and markets, and the movement of infected dairy goat herds.
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Advancement of a multiplex PCR for the differentiation of all currently described Brucella species.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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To facilitate routine laboratories in the effective diagnosis of brucellosis, we report a robust and rapid multiplex PCR assay, which allows for the differentiation of all nine currently recognised Brucella species. This includes the recently described species B. microti, B. inopinata, B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis.
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Comparative evaluation of the immune responses and protection engendered by LC16m8 and Dryvax smallpox vaccines in a mouse model.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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The immune response elicited by LC16m8, a candidate smallpox vaccine that was developed in Japan by cold selection during serial passage of the Lister vaccine virus in primary rabbit kidney cells, was compared to Dryvax in a mouse model. LC16m8 carries a mutation resulting in the truncation of the B5 protein, an important neutralizing target of the extracellular envelope form of vaccinia virus (EV). LC16m8 elicited a broad-spectrum immunoglobulin G (IgG) response that neutralized both EV and the intracellular mature form of vaccinia virus and provoked cell-mediated immune responses, including the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ cells, similarly to Dryvax. Mice inoculated with LC16m8 had detectable but low levels of anti-B5 IgG compared to Dryvax, but both Dryvax and LC16m8 sera neutralized vaccinia virus EV in vitro. A truncated B5 protein (approximately 8 kDa) was expressed abundantly in LC16m8-infected cells, and both murine immune sera and human vaccinia virus immunoglobulin recognized the truncated recombinant B5 protein in antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. At a high-dose intranasal challenge (100 or 250 50% lethal doses), LC16m8 and Dryvax conferred similar levels of protection against vaccinia virus strain WR postvaccination. Taken together, the results extend our current understanding of the protective immune responses elicited by LC16m8 and indicate that the relative efficacy in a mouse model rivals that of previously licensed smallpox vaccines.
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Do microbial interactions and cultivation media decrease the accuracy of Salmonella surveillance systems and outbreak investigations?
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Cultivation methods are commonly used in Salmonella surveillance systems and outbreak investigations, and consequently, conclusions about Salmonella evolution and transmission are highly dependent on the performance characteristics of these methods. Past studies have shown that Salmonella serotypes can exhibit different growth characteristics in the same enrichment and selective media. This could lead not only to biased conclusions about the dominant strain present in a sample with mixed Salmonella populations, but also to a low sensitivity for detecting a Salmonella strain in a sample with only a single strain present. The objective of this study was to determine whether cultivation media select preferentially for specific strains of Salmonella in heterogeneous cultures. In this study, four different Salmonella strains (one Salmonella Newport, two Salmonella Typhimurium, and one Salmonella Enteritidis) were competed in a broth-based experiment and a bovine fecal experiment with varied combinations and concentrations of each strain. In all experiments, the strain of Salmonella Newport was the most competitive, regardless of the starting concentration and cultivation protocol. One strain of Salmonella Typhimurium was rarely detected in competition, even when it was the only strain present in bovine feces. Overall, the probability of detecting a specific Salmonella strain had little to do with its starting concentration in the sample. The bias introduced by culture could be dramatically biasing Salmonella surveillance systems and hindering traceback investigations during Salmonella outbreaks. Future studies should focus on the microbiological explanations for this Salmonella interstrain variability, approaches for minimizing the bias, and estimations of the public health significance of this bias.
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[Surveillance systems for status monitoring of Trichinella-free declared pig farms: concepts and their confidence for freedom from disease].
Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr.
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Trichinella surveillance data in Germany show for indoor housed pigs hardly any cases. Nevertheless, obligatory testing is in place for each slaughtered pig. According to EU legislation systematic Trichinella testing can be replaced by a risk-based surveillance system if the risk of Trichinella infection in fattening pigs is negligible. The probability to detect a positive herd (herd sensitivity) was taken as an indicator for the effectiveness of the surveillance. Four different diagnostic methods: a) digestion method, b) E/S-ELISA, c) Western Blot, and d) ELISA sequentially combined with Western Blot, were compared regarding herd sensitivity and specificity for different herd and sample sizes and different levels of prevalence. In a further step three potential surveillance systems were compared with regard to their suitability for herd classification: (i) classical Trichinella examination by artificial digestion method, (ii) ELISA screening followed by classical Trichinella examination and (iii) ELISA screening followed by Western Blot. Results show that: 1) testing by the artificial digestion method (i) provides only low sensitivity of detection for positive herds at present levels of prevalence despite perfect specificity. 2) The ELISA alone provides a high sensitivity of detection even at low sample sizes but at the cost of a very low herd specificity, converging towards zero at increasing sample sizes. In surveillance system (ii), a large number of farms would still need to be tested with the classical digestion method, as they would be misclassified as positive by the ELISA. 3) The Western Blot as well as ELISA screening followed by Western Blot offer a high probability of correct herd classification. The latter diagnostic system appears to be the most suitable for a risk based surveillance (iii) and provides--despite reduced sample sizes--a higher probability for a correct herd classification than the traditional Trichinella examination.
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Mumps virus inhibits migration of primary human macrophages toward a chemokine gradient through a TNF-alpha dependent mechanism.
Virology
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Macrophages are an important cell type for regulation of immunity, and can play key roles in virus pathogenesis. Here we address the effect of infection of primary human macrophages with the related paramyxoviruses Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) and Mumps virus (MuV). Monocyte-derived macrophages infected with PIV5 or MuV showed very little cytopathic effect, but were found to be defective in migration toward a gradient of chemokines such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). For MuV infection, the inhibition of migration required live virus infection, but was not caused by a loss of chemokine receptors on the surface of infected cells. MuV-mediated inhibition of macrophage chemotaxis was through a soluble factor released from infected cells. MuV infection enhanced secretion of TNF-?, but not macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF). Antibody inhibition and add-back experiments demonstrated that TNF-? was both necessary and sufficient for MuV-mediate chemotaxis inhibition.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.