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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dual-Modality Image-Guided Surgery of Prostate Cancer with a Radiolabeled Fluorescent Anti-PSMA Monoclonal Antibody.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Both radionuclide imaging and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging have a high sensitivity to detect tumors in vivo. The combination of these modalities using dual-labeled antibodies may allow both preoperative and intraoperative tumor localization and may be used in image-guided surgery to ensure complete resection of tumor tissue. Here, we evaluated the potential of dual-modality imaging of prostate cancer with the monoclonal antibody D2B, directed against an extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). For these studies, D2B was labeled both with (111)In and with the NIRF dye IRDye800CW.
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Targeting human prostate cancer with (111) In-labeled D2B IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab fragments in nude mice with PSMA-expressing xenografts.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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D2B is a new monoclonal antibody directed against an extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is overexpressed in prostate cancer. The potential of D2B IgG, and F(ab')2 and Fab fragments of this antibody for targeting prostate cancer was determined in mice bearing subcutaneous prostate cancer xenografts. The optimal time point for imaging was determined in biodistribution and microSPECT imaging studies with (111) In-D2B IgG, (111) In-capromab pendetide, (111) In-D2B F(ab')2 and (111) In-D2B Fab fragments in mice with PSMA-expressing LNCaP and PSMA-negative PC3 tumors at several time points after injection. All (111) In-labeled antibody formats specifically accumulated in the LNCaP tumors, with highest uptake of (111) In-D2B IgG and (111) In-capromab pendetide at 168?h p.i. (94.8?±?19.2% injected dose per gram (ID/g) and 16.7?±?2.2% ID/g, respectively), whereas uptake of (111) In-D2B F(ab')2 and (111) In-D2B Fab fragments peaked at 24?h p.i. (12.1?±?3.0% ID/g and 15.1?±?2.9% ID/g, respectively). Maximum LNCaP tumor-to-blood ratios were 13.0?±?2.3 (168?h p.i.), 6.2?±?0.7 (24?h p.i.), 23.0?±?4.0 (24?h p.i.) and 4.5?±?0.6 (168?h p.i.) for (111) In-D2B IgG, (111) In-F(ab')2 , (111) In-Fab and (111) In-capromab pendetide, respectively. LNCaP tumors were clearly visualized with microSPECT with all antibody formats. This study demonstrates the feasibility of D2B IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab fragments for targeting PSMA-expressing prostate cancer xenografts. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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In vivo and in vitro studies on renal uptake of radiolabeled affibody molecules for imaging of HER2 expression in tumors.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Affibody molecules (6-7?kDa) are a new class of small robust three-helical scaffold proteins. Radiolabeled subnanomolar anti-HER2 affibody ZHER2:342 was developed for imaging of HER2 expression in tumors, and a clinical study has demonstrated that the (111)In- and (68)Ga-labeled affibody molecules can efficiently detect HER2 expressing metastases in breast cancer patients. However, a significant renal accumulation of radioactivity after systemic injection of a radiolabeled anti-HER2 affibody conjugate is observed. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of renal reabsorption of anti-HER2 affibody at the molecular level. Renal accumulation of radiolabeled anti-HER2 affibody molecules was studied in a murine model and in vitro using opossum-derived proximal tubule (OK) cells. It was found that kidney reabsorption of affibody molecule was not driven by megalin/cubilin. Amino acids in the target-binding side of affibody molecule were involved in binding to OK cells. On OK cells, two types of receptors for anti-HER2 affibody molecule were found: KD1=0.8?nM, Bmax1=71,500 and KD2=9.2?nM, Bmax2=367,000. The results of the present study indicate that affibody molecule and other scaffold-based targeting proteins with a relatively low kidney uptake can be selected using in vitro studies with tubular kidney cells.
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Tubular reabsorption and local production of urine hepcidin-25.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Hepcidin is a central regulator of iron metabolism. Serum hepcidin levels are increased in patients with renal insufficiency, which may contribute to anemia. Urine hepcidin was found to be increased in some patients after cardiac surgery, and these patients were less likely to develop acute kidney injury. It has been suggested that urine hepcidin may protect by attenuating heme-mediated injury, but processes involved in urine hepcidin excretion are unknown.
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Optimized labeling of NOTA-conjugated octreotide with F-18.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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We recently reported a facile method based on the chelation of [(18)F]aluminum fluoride (Al(18)F) by NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid). Here, we present a further optimization of the (18)F labeling of NOTA-octreotide (IMP466). Octreotide was conjugated with the NOTA chelate and was labeled with (18)F in a two-step, one-pot method. The labeling procedure was optimized with regard to the labeling buffer, ionic strength, peptide concentration, and temperature. Radiochemical yield, specific activity, in vitro stability, and receptor affinity were determined. Biodistribution of (18)F-IMP466 was studied in AR42J tumor-bearing mice. In addition, microPET/CT images were acquired. IMP466 was labeled with Al(18)F in a single step with 97% yield in the presence of 80% (v/v) acetonitrile or ethanol. The labeled product was purified by HPLC to remove unlabeled peptide and unbound Al(18)F. The radiolabeling, including purification, was performed for 45 min. Specific activities of 48,000 GBq/mmol could be obtained. (18)F-IMP466 showed a high tumor uptake and excellent tumor-to-blood ratios at 2 h post-injection. In addition, the low bone uptake indicated that the Al(18)F-NOTA complex was stable in vivo. PET/CT scans revealed excellent tumor delineation and specific accumulation in the tumor. Uptake in receptor-negative organs was low. NOTA-octreotide could be labeled with (18)F in quantitative yields using a rapid two-step, one-pot, method. The compound was stable in vivo and showed rapid accretion in SSTR(2)-receptor-expressing AR42J tumors in nude mice. This method can be used to label other NOTA-conjugated compounds such as RGD peptides, GRPR-binding peptides, and Affibody molecules with (18)F.
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Comparison of biological stability and metabolism of CCK2 receptor targeting peptides, a collaborative project under COST BM0607.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Stability of radiolabelled cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2) receptor targeting peptides has been a major limitation in the use of such radiopharmaceuticals especially for targeted radionuclide therapy applications, e.g. for treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro stability of a series of peptides binding to the CCK2 receptor [selected as part of the COST Action on Targeted Radionuclide Therapy (BM0607)] and to identify major cleavage sites.
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Comparative biodistribution of 12 ¹¹¹In-labelled gastrin/CCK2 receptor-targeting peptides.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK-2) receptor overexpression has been demonstrated in various tumours such as medullary thyroid carcinomas and small-cell lung cancers. Due to this high expression, CCK-2 receptors might be suitable targets for radionuclide imaging and/or radionuclide therapy. Several CCK-2 receptor-binding radiopeptides have been developed and some have been tested in patients. Here we aimed to compare the in vivo tumour targeting properties of 12 (111)In-labelled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-conjugated gastrin/CCK2 receptor-binding peptides.
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Spacer effects on in vivo properties of DOTA-conjugated dimeric [Tyr3]octreotate peptides synthesized by a "Cu(I)-click" and "sulfo-click" ligation method.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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We report on the SSTR2-binding properties of a series of four dimeric [Tyr3]octreotate analogues with different spacer lengths (nine, 19, 41, and 57 atoms) between the peptides. Two analogues (9 and 57 atoms) were selected as precursors for the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of DOTA-conjugated dimeric [Tyr3]octreotate analogues for tumor targeting. These compounds were synthesized by using a two-stage click ligation procedure: a Cu(I) -catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ("copper-click" reaction) and a thio acid/sulfonyl azide amidation ("sulfo-click" reaction). The IC(50) values of these DOTA-conjugated [Tyr3]octreotate analogues were comparable, and internalization studies showed that the nine-atom (111) In-DOTA-labeled [Tyr3]octreotate dimer had rapid and high receptor binding. Biodistribution studies with BALB/c nude mice bearing subcutaneous AR42J tumors showed that the (111) In-labeled [Tyr3]octreotate dimer (nine atoms) had a high tumor uptake at 1 h p.i. (38.8 ± 8.3 % ID g(-1) ), and excellent tumor retention at 4 h p.i. (40.9 ± 2.5 % ID g(-1) ). However, the introduction of the extended hydrophilic 57 atoms spacer led to rapid clearance from the circulation; this limited tumor accumulation of the radiotracer (21.4 ± 4.9 % ID g(-1) at 1 h p.i.). These findings provide important insight on dimerization and spacer effects on the in vivo properties of DOTA-conjugated [Tyr3]octreotate dimers.
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Adjuvant radioimmunotherapy improves survival of rats after resection of colorectal liver metastases.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that adjuvant radioimmunotherapy (RIT) prevents recurrent liver metastases and/or results in improved survival after tumorectomy in an experimental model.
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Pretargeted 177Lu radioimmunotherapy of carcinoembryonic antigen-expressing human colonic tumors in mice.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2010
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Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) with bispecific antibodies in combination with a radiolabeled peptide reduces the radiation dose to normal tissues, especially the bone marrow. In this study, the optimization, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity of PRIT of colon cancer with a (177)Lu-labeled peptide was determined in mice with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-expressing human tumors.
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Renal uptake of different radiolabelled peptides is mediated by megalin: SPECT and biodistribution studies in megalin-deficient mice.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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Radiolabelled peptides used for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy are excreted mainly via the kidneys and are partly reabsorbed and retained in the proximal tubular cells. The resulting high renal radiation dose can cause nephrotoxicity, limiting the maximum activity dose and the effectiveness of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. The mechanisms of kidney reabsorption of these peptides are incompletely understood, but the scavenger receptor megalin has been shown to play a role in the reabsorption of (111)In-octreotide. In this study, the role of megalin in the renal reabsorption of various relevant radiolabelled peptides was investigated.
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Synthesis of DOTA-conjugated multimeric [Tyr3]octreotide peptides via a combination of Cu(I)-catalyzed "click" cycloaddition and thio acid/sulfonyl azide "sulfo-click" amidation and their in vivo evaluation.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2010
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Herein, we describe the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of DOTA-conjugated monomeric, dimeric, and tetrameric [Tyr(3)]octreotide-based analogues as a tool for tumor imaging and/or radionuclide therapy. These compounds were synthesized using a Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ("click" reaction) between peptidic azides and dendrimer-derived alkynes and a subsequent metal-free introduction of DOTA via the thio acid/sulfonyl azide amidation ("sulfo-click" reaction). In a competitive binding assay using rat pancreatic AR42J tumor cells, the monomeric [Tyr(3)]octreotide conjugate displayed the highest binding affinity (IC(50) = 1.32 nM) followed by dimeric [Tyr(3)]octreotide (2.45 nM), [DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide (2.45 nM), and tetrameric [Tyr(3)]octreotide (14.0 nM). Biodistribution studies with BALB/c nude mice with subcutaneous AR42J tumors showed that the (111)In-labeled monomeric [Tyr(3)]octreotide conjugate had the highest tumor uptake (42.3 +/- 2.8 %ID/g) at 2 h p.i., which was better than [(111)In-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide (19.5 +/- 4.8 %ID/g). The (111)In-labeled dimeric [Tyr(3)]octreotide conjugate showed a long tumor retention (25.3 +/- 5.9 %ID/g at 2 h p.i. and 12.1 +/- 1.3 %ID/g at 24 h p.i.). These promising results can be exploited for therapeutic applications.
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Pretargeted immuno-positron emission tomography imaging of carcinoembryonic antigen-expressing tumors with a bispecific antibody and a 68Ga- and 18F-labeled hapten peptide in mice with human tumor xenografts.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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(18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) is the most common molecular imaging agent in oncology, with a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting several cancers. Antibodies could enhance specificity; therefore, procedures were developed for radiolabeling a small ( approximately 1451 Da) hapten peptide with (68)Ga or (18)F to compare their specificity with (18)F-FDG for detecting tumors using a pretargeting procedure. Mice were implanted with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA; CEACAM5)-expressing LS174T human colonic tumors and a CEA-negative tumor, or an inflammation was induced in thigh muscle. A bispecific monoclonal anti-CEA x anti-hapten antibody was given to mice, and 16 hours later, 5 MBq of (68)Ga- or (18)F-labeled hapten peptides were administered intravenously. Within 1 hour, tissues showed high and specific targeting of (68)Ga-IMP-288, with 10.7 +/- 3.6% ID/g uptake in the tumor and very low uptake in normal tissues (e.g., tumor-to-blood ratio of 69.9 +/- 32.3), in a CEA-negative tumor (0.35 +/- 0.35% ID/g), and inflamed muscle (0.72 +/- 0.20% ID/g). (18)F-FDG localized efficiently in the tumor (7.42 +/- 0.20% ID/g) but also in the inflamed muscle (4.07 +/- 1.13% ID/g) and in several normal tissues; thus, pretargeted (68)Ga-IMP-288 provided better specificity and sensitivity. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography images reinforced the improved specificity of the pretargeting method. (18)F-labeled IMP-449 distributed similarly in the tumor and normal tissues as the (68)Ga-labeled IMP-288, indicating that either radiolabeled hapten peptide could be used. Thus, pretargeted immuno-PET does exceptionally well with short-lived radionuclides and is a highly sensitive procedure that is more specific than (18)F-FDG-PET. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 1019-27. (c)2010 AACR.
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Stabilized (111)in-labeled sCCK8 analogues for targeting CCK2-receptor positive tumors: synthesis and evaluation.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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Radiolabeled cholecystokinin-8 (CCK8) peptide analogues can be used for peptide receptor radionuclide imaging and therapy for tumors expressing CCK2/gastrin receptors. Earlier findings indicated that sulfated CCK8 (sCCK8, Asp-Tyr(OSO(3)H)-Met-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH(2)) may have better characteristics for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) than gastrin analogues. However, sCCK8 contains an easily hydrolyzable sulfated tyrosine residue and two methionine residues which are prone to oxidation. Here, we describe the synthesis of stabilized sCCK8 analogues, resistant to hydrolysis and oxidation. Hydrolytic stability was achieved by replacement of the Tyr(OSO(3)H) moiety by a robust isosteric sulfonate, Phe(p-CH(2)SO(3)H). Replacement of methionine by norleucine (Nle) or homopropargylglycine (HPG) avoided undesired oxidation side-reactions. The phenylalanine analogue Phe(p-CH(2)SO(3)H) of l-tyrosine, synthesized by a modification of known synthetic routes, was incorporated in three peptides: sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH(2)SO(3)H),Met(3,6)], sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH(2)SO(3)H),Nle(3,6)], and sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH(2)SO(3)H),HPG(3,6)]. All peptides were N-terminally conjugated with the macrocyclic chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid) and radiolabeled with In-111. In vitro binding assays on CCK2R-expressing HEK293 cells revealed that all three peptides showed specific binding and receptor-mediated internalization, with binding affinity values (IC(50)) in the nanomolar range. In vitro oxidation studies demonstrated that peptides with Nle or HPG indeed were resistant to oxidation. In vivo targeting studies in mice with AR42J tumors showed that tumor uptake was highest for (111)In-DOTA-sCCK8 and (111)In-DOTA-sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH(2)SO(3)H),Nle(3,6)] (4.78 +/- 0.64 and 4.54 +/- 1.15%ID/g, respectively, 2 h p.i.). The peptide with the methionine residues replaced by norleucine ((111)In-DOTA-sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH(2)SO(3)H), Nle(3,6)]) showed promising in vivo characteristics and will be further investigated for radionuclide imaging and therapy of CCK2R-expressing tumors.
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A novel facile method of labeling octreotide with (18)F-fluorine.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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Several methods have been developed to label peptides with (18)F. However, in general these are laborious and require a multistep synthesis. We present a facile method based on the chelation of (18)F-aluminum fluoride (Al(18)F) by 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA). The method is characterized by the labeling of NOTA-octreotide (NOTA-d-Phe-cyclo[Cys-Phe-d-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys]-Throl (MH(+) 1305) [IMP466]) with (18)F.
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Albumin-derived peptides efficiently reduce renal uptake of radiolabelled peptides.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
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In peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), the maximum activity dose that can safely be administered is limited by high renal uptake and retention of radiolabelled peptides. The kidney radiation dose can be reduced by coinfusion of agents that competitively inhibit the reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, such as positively charged amino acids, Gelofusine, or trypsinised albumin. The aim of this study was to identify more specific and potent inhibitors of the kidney reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, based on albumin.
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Can antibody galactosylation be used to improve radioimmunotherapy of induced peritoneal carcinomatosis of colonic origin in the rat?
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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In radioimmunotherapy (RIT), hematologic toxicity is the dose-limiting toxicity due to the long circulatory half-life of the antibody. Although intraperitoneal (i.p.) RIT results in high uptake of i.p. growing tumors, the radiolabeled antibody enters the circulation, resulting in bone marrow toxicity. Carbohydrate modification of antibodies could induce accelerated clearance of the antibody via the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor, thereby reducing exposure to normal tissues. In this study, we investigated whether galactosylation of an antibody in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colonic origin could be used to improve targeting of i.p. growing tumors. Therefore, the biodistribution of the galactosylated and nongalactosylated anti-CC531 antibody, MG1, after i.p. injection was determined in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis of CC-531 colon tumors in Wag/Rij rats. Uptake of the radiolabeled antibodies in the tumor and relevant organs was determined at 2, 4, 24, and 48 hours after injection. Galactosylation of the antibody did not affect the binding affinity of MG1. Remarkably, the uptake of Gal-MG1 in tumors was higher than that of MG1 at 2 and 4 hours after injection. After 24 and 48 hours, uptake of Gal-MG1 in tumor tissue was lower than that of MG1. Gal-MG1 cleared from the blood within hours after administration. At 2-24 hours after administration, tumor-to-blood ratios obtained with Gal-MG1 were significantly higher than those obtained with unmodified MG1. Antibody galactosylation resulted in improved tumor-non-tumor ratios after i.p. injection in a model of PC. This could improve the efficiency of RIT, especially in combination with short-lived nonresidualizing radionuclides.
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Radioimmunotherapy improves survival of rats with microscopic liver metastases of colorectal origin.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2009
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Half of the patients with colorectal cancer develop liver metastases during the course of their disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) to treat experimental colorectal liver metastases.
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In vitro and in vivo characterization of three 68Ga- and 111In-labeled peptides for cholecystokinin receptor imaging.
Mol Imaging
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Cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are overexpressed in several human tumor types, such as medullary thyroid carcinomas and small cell lung cancers. Several ligands for the CCK2 receptor (CCK2R) have been developed for radionuclide targeting of these tumors. In this study, we evaluated whether radiolabeled DOTA-sCCK8 and its stabilized derivative, DOTA-sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH2SO3H), Nle(3,6)], are suitable for imaging of CCK2R-positive tumors, using DOTA-MG0 as a reference. In vivo targeting of CCK2R-positive tumors with DOTA-sCCK8, DOTA-sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH2SO3H), Nle(3,6)], and DOTA-MG0, labeled with (111)In or (68)Ga, was evaluated in BALB/c nude mice with a subcutaneous A431-CCK2R tumor. Biodistribution studies and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) were performed at 1 hour postinjection. All peptides specifically accreted in the CCK2R-expressing tumors. Both (111)In-DOTA-sCCK8 and (111)In-DOTA-sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH2SO3H), Nle(3,6)] showed good tumor retention (4.65% ID/g and 5.44% ID/g, respectively, at 4 hours postinjection). On PET/computed tomographic (CT) and SPECT/CT scans, subcutaneous A431-CCK2R tumors were clearly visualized with low uptake of sCCK8 peptides in the intestines. Whereas radiolabeled DOTA-MG0 showed high kidney uptake (70% ID/g), the sCCK8 peptides showed low uptake in the kidneys. Sulfated CCK8 analogues combined high tumor uptake with low retention in the kidney and are therefore promising tracers for imaging of CCK2R-positive tumors.
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