JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Phadiatop Seropositivity in Schizophrenia Patients and Controls: A Preliminary Study.
AMS Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is a dearth of information on the association of atopy with schizophrenia. The few available studies used population-based registers to classify the atopy status of the patients but this strategy is not reliable. This study measured seropositivity with a multiallergen screen of allergen specific IgE antibodies in schizophrenia patients versus healthy controls. A subset of 66 schizophrenia patients and 34 healthy controls were randomly selected from a large comparative study of schizophrenia patients and controls. The Phadiatop multi-allergen screen was performed on sera from all the participants to assess their atopic status. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio for the association of schizophrenia with Phadiatop seropositivity as a measure of atopy. The prevalence of Phadiatop seropositivity was significantly lower (?(2) 4.59, p = 0.032) and there was a reduced odds ratio for atopy in schizophrenia patients relative to controls (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.94, p = 0.036). Though limited by a relatively small sample size and potentially confounded by anti-psychotic medications, this study suggests that the prevalence of atopy is lower in patients with schizophrenia. Replicating these results in larger samples could add to our growing understanding of immunological implications in mental illness.
Related JoVE Video
"Latent" infection with Toxoplasma gondii: Association with trait aggression and impulsivity in healthy adults.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Latent chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), a common neurotropic pathogen, has been previously linked with suicidal self-directed violence (SSDV). We sought to determine if latent infection with T. gondii is associated with trait aggression and impulsivity, intermediate phenotypes for suicidal behavior, in psychiatrically healthy adults.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Mild expression differences of MECP2 influencing aggressive social behavior.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The X-chromosomal MECP2/Mecp2 gene encodes methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, a transcriptional activator and repressor regulating many other genes. We discovered in male FVB/N mice that mild (~50%) transgenic overexpression of Mecp2 enhances aggression. Surprisingly, when the same transgene was expressed in C57BL/6N mice, transgenics showed reduced aggression and social interaction. This suggests that Mecp2 modulates aggressive social behavior. To test this hypothesis in humans, we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) in >1000 schizophrenic individuals. We found MECP2 SNPs rs2239464 (G/A) and rs2734647 (C/T; 3'UTR) associated with aggression, with the G and C carriers, respectively, being more aggressive. This finding was replicated in an independent schizophrenia cohort. Allele-specific MECP2 mRNA expression differs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by ~50% (rs2734647: C > T). Notably, the brain-expressed, species-conserved miR-511 binds to MECP2 3'UTR only in T carriers, thereby suppressing gene expression. To conclude, subtle MECP2/Mecp2 expression alterations impact aggression. While the mouse data provides evidence of an interaction between genetic background and mild Mecp2 overexpression, the human data convey means by which genetic variation affects MECP2 expression and behavior.
Related JoVE Video
Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory.
Behav. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item data were analyzed in >160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta-analysis of six twin cohorts, total N = 29,496 and 29,501 twin pairs, respectively) with a significant part of the heritability due to non-additive genetic factors. For Extraversion, these genetic factors qualitatively differ across sexes. We showed that our IRT method can lead to a large increase in sample size and therefore statistical power. The IRT approach may be applied to any mega- or meta-analytic study in which item-based behavioral measures need to be harmonized.
Related JoVE Video
Pleckstrin homology domain containing 6 protein (PLEKHA6) polymorphisms are associated with psychopathology and response to treatment in schizophrenic patients.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pleckstrin homology domain (PH domain) comprises approximately 120 amino acids and is integrated in a wide range of proteins involved in intracellular signaling or as constituents of the cytoskeleton. This domain can bind phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-biphosphate and proteins such as the ??-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and protein kinase C. Associations with psychiatric diseases have not been investigated yet. To identify genes involved in response to antipsychotics, mice were treated with haloperidol (1mg/kg, n = 11) or saline (n = 12) for one week. By analyzing microarray data, we observed an increase of pleckstrin homology domain containing 6 (PLEKHA6) gene expression. Furthermore, we genotyped 263 schizophrenic patients, who were treated monotherapeutically with different antipsychotics within randomized-controlled trials. Psychopathology was measured weekly using the PANSS for a minimum of four and a maximum of twelve weeks. Correlations between PANSS subscale scores at baseline and PANSS improvement scores after four weeks of treatment and genotypes were calculated by using a linear model for all investigated SNPs. We found associations between four PLEKHA6 polymorphisms (rs17333933 (T/G), rs3126209 (C/T), rs4951338 (A/G) and rs100900571 (T/C)) and different PANSS subscales at baseline. Furthermore two different polymorphisms (rs7513240 (T/C), rs4951353 (A/G)) were found to be associated with therapy response in terms of a significant correlation with different PANSS improvement subscores after four weeks of antipsychotic treatment. Our observation of an association between genetic polymorphisms of a protein of the PH domain and psychopathology data in schizophrenic patients might be indicative for an involvement of PLEKHA6 in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the therapy response towards antipsychotics.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated levels of plasma phenylalanine in schizophrenia: a guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 metabolic pathway abnormality?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursor amino acids required for the synthesis of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine) and thus lead to elevated phenylalanine levels and reduced tyrosine levels. This study aimed to compare phenylalanine, tyrosine, and their ratio (a proxy for PAH function) in a relatively large sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of differentially expressed genes from suicide post-mortem study on personality traits as endophenotypes on healthy subjects and suicide attempters.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although a genetic contribution to the complex aetiology of suicidal behaviour has been suggested since many years, the attempt to identify specific genes related to suicide has led to contrasting results. In a post-mortem study on suicide, we previously detected several differentially expressed genes which, however, have not been subsequently associated with suicidal behaviour, or only nominally. Therefore, personality traits may represent good intermediate endophenotypes. Our primary aim was to investigate the potential modulation of several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the same previously investigated genes (S100A13, EFEMP1, PCDHB5, PDGFRB, CDCA7L, SCN2B, PTPRR, MLC1 and ZFP36) on personality traits, as measured with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), in a German sample composed of 287 healthy subjects (males: 123, 42.9 %; mean age: 45.2 ± 14.9 years) and in 111 psychiatric patients who attempted suicide (males: 43, 38.6 %; mean age: 39.2 ± 13.6 years). Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to test possible influence of single SNPs on TCI scores. Genotypic, allelic and haplotypic analyses have been performed. Controlling for sex, age and educational level, genotypic analyses showed a modulation of EFEMP1 rs960993 and rs2903838 polymorphisms on both harm avoidance and self-directedness in healthy subjects. Interestingly, we could replicate these associations in haploblocks within controls (p < 0.0001) and in the independent sample of suicide attempters for harm avoidance (p < 0.00001), a phenotype highly associated with suicidal behaviour. This study suggests that EFEMP1 SNPs, never investigated in association with suicidal behaviour and related personality, could be involved in its modulation in healthy subjects as well as in suicide attempters.
Related JoVE Video
CNTNAP2 polymorphisms and structural brain connectivity: a diffusion-tensor imaging study.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CNTNAP2 is a gene on chromosome 7 that has shown associations with autism and schizophrenia, and there is evidence that it plays an important role for neuronal synchronization and brain connectivity. In this study, we assessed the relationship between Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), a putative marker of anatomical brain connectivity, and multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spread out over this large gene. 81 healthy controls and 44 patients with schizophrenia (all Caucasian) underwent DTI and genotyping of 31 SNPs within CNTNAP2. We employed Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) for inter-subject brain registration and computed average diffusivity values for six major white matter tracts. Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVAs) were computed to test for possible associations with genotypes. The strongest association, which survived rigorous Bonferroni correction, was between rs2710126 genotype and Fractional Anisotropy (FA) in the uncinate fasciculus (p = .00003). This anatomical location is particularly interesting given the enriched fronto-temporal expression of CNTNAP2 in the developing brain. For this SNP, no phenotype association has been reported before. There were several further genotype-DTI associations that were nominally significant but did not survive Bonferroni correction, including an association between axial diffusivity in the dorsal cingulum bundle and a region in intron 13 (represented by rs2710102, rs759178, rs2538991), which has previously been reported to be associated with anterior-posterior functional connectivity. We present new evidence about the effects of CNTNAP2 on brain connectivity, whose disruption has been hypothesized to be central to schizophrenia pathophysiology.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs.
, S Hong Lee, Stephan Ripke, Benjamin M Neale, Stephen V Faraone, Shaun M Purcell, Roy H Perlis, Bryan J Mowry, Anita Thapar, Michael E Goddard, John S Witte, Devin Absher, Ingrid Agartz, Huda Akil, Farooq Amin, Ole A Andreassen, Adebayo Anjorin, Richard Anney, Verneri Anttila, Dan E Arking, Philip Asherson, Maria H Azevedo, Lena Backlund, Judith A Badner, Anthony J Bailey, Tobias Banaschewski, Jack D Barchas, Michael R Barnes, Thomas B Barrett, Nicholas Bass, Agatino Battaglia, Michael Bauer, Mònica Bayés, Frank Bellivier, Sarah E Bergen, Wade Berrettini, Catalina Betancur, Thomas Bettecken, Joseph Biederman, Elisabeth B Binder, Donald W Black, Douglas H R Blackwood, Cinnamon S Bloss, Michael Boehnke, Dorret I Boomsma, Gerome Breen, René Breuer, Richard Bruggeman, Paul Cormican, Nancy G Buccola, Jan K Buitelaar, William E Bunney, Joseph D Buxbaum, William F Byerley, Enda M Byrne, Sian Caesar, Wiepke Cahn, Rita M Cantor, Miguel Casas, Aravinda Chakravarti, Kimberly Chambert, Khalid Choudhury, Sven Cichon, C Robert Cloninger, David A Collier, Edwin H Cook, Hilary Coon, Bru Cormand, Aiden Corvin, William H Coryell, David W Craig, Ian W Craig, Jennifer Crosbie, Michael L Cuccaro, David Curtis, Darina Czamara, Susmita Datta, Geraldine Dawson, Richard Day, Eco J De Geus, Franziska Degenhardt, Srdjan Djurovic, Gary J Donohoe, Alysa E Doyle, Jubao Duan, Frank Dudbridge, Eftichia Duketis, Richard P Ebstein, Howard J Edenberg, Josephine Elia, Sean Ennis, Bruno Etain, Ayman Fanous, Anne E Farmer, I Nicol Ferrier, Matthew Flickinger, Eric Fombonne, Tatiana Foroud, Josef Frank, Barbara Franke, Christine Fraser, Robert Freedman, Nelson B Freimer, Christine M Freitag, Marion Friedl, Louise Frisén, Louise Gallagher, Pablo V Gejman, Lyudmila Georgieva, Elliot S Gershon, Daniel H Geschwind, Ina Giegling, Michael Gill, Scott D Gordon, Katherine Gordon-Smith, Elaine K Green, Tiffany A Greenwood, Dorothy E Grice, Magdalena Gross, Detelina Grozeva, Weihua Guan, Hugh Gurling, Lieuwe de Haan, Jonathan L Haines, Hakon Hakonarson, Joachim Hallmayer, Steven P Hamilton, Marian L Hamshere, Thomas F Hansen, Annette M Hartmann, Martin Hautzinger, Andrew C Heath, Anjali K Henders, Stefan Herms, Ian B Hickie, Maria Hipolito, Susanne Hoefels, Peter A Holmans, Florian Holsboer, Witte J Hoogendijk, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Christina M Hultman, Vanessa Hus, Andrés Ingason, Marcus Ising, Stéphane Jamain, Edward G Jones, Ian Jones, Lisa Jones, Jung-Ying Tzeng, Anna K Kähler, René S Kahn, Radhika Kandaswamy, Matthew C Keller, James L Kennedy, Elaine Kenny, Lindsey Kent, Yunjung Kim, George K Kirov, Sabine M Klauck, Lambertus Klei, James A Knowles, Martin A Kohli, Daniel L Koller, Bettina Konte, Ania Korszun, Lydia Krabbendam, Robert Krasucki, Jonna Kuntsi, Phoenix Kwan, Mikael Landén, Niklas Långström, Mark Lathrop, Jacob Lawrence, William B Lawson, Marion Leboyer, David H Ledbetter, Phil H Lee, Todd Lencz, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Douglas F Levinson, Cathryn M Lewis, Jun Li, Paul Lichtenstein, Jeffrey A Lieberman, Dan-Yu Lin, Don H Linszen, Chunyu Liu, Falk W Lohoff, Sandra K Loo, Catherine Lord, Jennifer K Lowe, Susanne Lucae, Donald J MacIntyre, Pamela A F Madden, Elena Maestrini, Patrik K E Magnusson, Pamela B Mahon, Wolfgang Maier, Anil K Malhotra, Shrikant M Mane, Christa L Martin, Nicholas G Martin, Manuel Mattheisen, Keith Matthews, Morten Mattingsdal, Steven A McCarroll, Kevin A McGhee, James J McGough, Patrick J McGrath, Peter McGuffin, Melvin G McInnis, Andrew McIntosh, Rebecca McKinney, Alan W McLean, Francis J McMahon, William M McMahon, Andrew McQuillin, Helena Medeiros, Sarah E Medland, Sandra Meier, Ingrid Melle, Fan Meng, Jobst Meyer, Christel M Middeldorp, Lefkos Middleton, Vihra Milanova, Ana Miranda, Anthony P Monaco, Grant W Montgomery, Jennifer L Moran, Daniel Moreno-De-Luca, Gunnar Morken, Derek W Morris, Eric M Morrow, Valentina Moskvina, Pierandrea Muglia, Thomas W Mühleisen, Walter J Muir, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Michael Murtha, Richard M Myers, Inez Myin-Germeys, Michael C Neale, Stan F Nelson, Caroline M Nievergelt, Ivan Nikolov, Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, Willem A Nolen, Markus M Nöthen, John I Nurnberger, Evaristus A Nwulia, Dale R Nyholt, Colm O'Dushlaine, Robert D Oades, Ann Olincy, Guiomar Oliveira, Line Olsen, Roel A Ophoff, Urban Osby, Michael J Owen, Aarno Palotie, Jeremy R Parr, Andrew D Paterson, Carlos N Pato, Michele T Pato, Brenda W Penninx, Michele L Pergadia, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Benjamin S Pickard, Jonathan Pimm, Joseph Piven, Danielle Posthuma, James B Potash, Fritz Poustka, Peter Propping, Vinay Puri, Digby J Quested, Emma M Quinn, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Henrik B Rasmussen, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Karola Rehnström, Andreas Reif, Marta Ribasés, John P Rice, Marcella Rietschel, Kathryn Roeder, Herbert Roeyers, Lizzy Rossin, Aribert Rothenberger, Guy Rouleau, Douglas Ruderfer, Dan Rujescu, Alan R Sanders, Stephan J Sanders, Susan L Santangelo, Joseph A Sergeant, Russell Schachar, Martin Schalling, Alan F Schatzberg, William A Scheftner, Gerard D Schellenberg, Stephen W Scherer, Nicholas J Schork, Thomas G Schulze, Johannes Schumacher, Markus Schwarz, Edward Scolnick, Laura J Scott, Jianxin Shi, Paul D Shilling, Stanley I Shyn, Jeremy M Silverman, Susan L Slager, Susan L Smalley, Johannes H Smit, Erin N Smith, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, David St Clair, Matthew State, Michael Steffens, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, John S Strauss, Jana Strohmaier, T Scott Stroup, James S Sutcliffe, Peter Szatmari, Szabocls Szelinger, Srinivasa Thirumalai, Robert C Thompson, Alexandre A Todorov, Federica Tozzi, Jens Treutlein, Manfred Uhr, Edwin J C G van den Oord, Gerard van Grootheest, Jim van Os, Astrid M Vicente, Veronica J Vieland, John B Vincent, Peter M Visscher, Christopher A Walsh, Thomas H Wassink, Stanley J Watson, Myrna M Weissman, Thomas Werge, Thomas F Wienker, Ellen M Wijsman, Gonneke Willemsen, Nigel Williams, A Jeremy Willsey, Stephanie H Witt, Wei Xu, Allan H Young, Timothy W Yu, Stanley Zammit, Peter P Zandi, Peng Zhang, Frans G Zitman, Sebastian Zöllner, Bernie Devlin, John R Kelsoe, Pamela Sklar, Mark J Daly, Michael C O'Donovan, Nicholas Craddock, Patrick F Sullivan, Jordan W Smoller, Kenneth S Kendler, Naomi R Wray.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohns disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of COMT genotype on serotonin-1A receptor binding investigated with PET.
Brain Struct Funct
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alterations of the inhibitory serotonin-1A receptor (5-HT1A) constitute a solid finding in neuropsychiatric research, particularly in the field of mood and anxiety disorders. Manifold factors influencing the density of this receptor have been identified, e.g., steroid hormones, sunlight exposure and genetic variants of serotonin-related genes. Given the close interactions between serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, we investigated whether a common single-nucleotide-polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (VAL158MET or rs4680) coding for a key enzyme of the dopamine network that is associated with the pathogenesis of mood disorders and antidepressant treatment response, directly affects 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Fifty-two healthy individuals (38 female, mean age ± standard deviation = 40.48 ± 14.87) were measured via positron emission tomography using the radioligand [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635. Genotyping for rs4680 was performed using DNA isolated from whole blood with the MassARRAY platform of the software SEQUENOM(®). Whole brain voxel-wise ANOVA resulted in a main effect of genotype on 5-HT1A binding. Compared to A carriers (AA + AG) of rs4680, homozygote G subjects showed higher 5-HT1A binding potential in the posterior cingulate cortex (F (2,49) = 17.7, p = 0.05, FWE corrected), the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the amygdala and the hippocampus (voxel-level: p < 0.01 uncorrected, t > 2.4; cluster-level: p < 0.05 FWE corrected). In light of the frequently reported alterations of 5-HT1A binding in anxiety and mood disorders, this study proposes a potential implication of the COMT genotype, more specifically the VAL158MET polymorphism, via modulation of the serotonergic neurotransmission.
Related JoVE Video
Distinct loci in the CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4 gene cluster are associated with onset of regular smoking.
Sarah H Stephens, Sarah M Hartz, Nicole R Hoft, Nancy L Saccone, Robin C Corley, John K Hewitt, Christian J Hopfer, Naomi Breslau, Hilary Coon, Xiangning Chen, Francesca Ducci, Nicole Dueker, Nora Franceschini, Josef Frank, Younghun Han, Nadia N Hansel, Chenhui Jiang, Tellervo Korhonen, Penelope A Lind, Jason Liu, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Martha Michel, John R Shaffer, Susan E Short, Juzhong Sun, Alexander Teumer, John R Thompson, Nicole Vogelzangs, Jacqueline M Vink, Angela Wenzlaff, William Wheeler, Bao-Zhu Yang, Steven H Aggen, Anthony J Balmforth, Sebastian E Baumeister, Terri H Beaty, Daniel J Benjamin, Andrew W Bergen, Ulla Broms, David Cesarini, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Jingchun Chen, Yu-Ching Cheng, Sven Cichon, David Couper, Francesco Cucca, Danielle Dick, Tatiana Foroud, Helena Furberg, Ina Giegling, Nathan A Gillespie, Fangyi Gu, Alistair S Hall, Jenni Hällfors, Shizhong Han, Annette M Hartmann, Kauko Heikkilä, Ian B Hickie, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Pekka Jousilahti, Marika Kaakinen, Mika Kähönen, Philipp D Koellinger, Stephen Kittner, Bettina Konte, Maria-Teresa Landi, Tiina Laatikainen, Mark Leppert, Steven M Levy, Rasika A Mathias, Daniel W McNeil, Sarah E Medland, Grant W Montgomery, Tanda Murray, Matthias Nauck, Kari E North, Peter D Pare, Michele Pergadia, Ingo Ruczinski, Veikko Salomaa, Jorma Viikari, Gonneke Willemsen, Kathleen C Barnes, Eric Boerwinkle, Dorret I Boomsma, Neil Caporaso, Howard J Edenberg, Clyde Francks, Joel Gelernter, Hans Jörgen Grabe, Hyman Hops, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Magnus Johannesson, Kenneth S Kendler, Terho Lehtimäki, Patrik K E Magnusson, Mary L Marazita, Jonathan Marchini, Braxton D Mitchell, Markus M Nöthen, Brenda W Penninx, Olli Raitakari, Marcella Rietschel, Dan Rujescu, Nilesh J Samani, Ann G Schwartz, Sanjay Shete, Margaret Spitz, Gary E Swan, Henry Völzke, Juha Veijola, Qingyi Wei, Chris Amos, Dale S Cannon, Richard Grucza, Dorothy Hatsukami, Andrew Heath, Eric O Johnson, Jaakko Kaprio, Pamela Madden, Nicholas G Martin, Victoria L Stevens, Robert B Weiss, Peter Kraft, Laura J Bierut, Marissa A Ehringer.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes (CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4) have been reproducibly associated with nicotine dependence, smoking behaviors, and lung cancer risk. Of the few reports that have focused on early smoking behaviors, association results have been mixed. This meta-analysis examines early smoking phenotypes and SNPs in the gene cluster to determine: (1) whether the most robust association signal in this region (rs16969968) for other smoking behaviors is also associated with early behaviors, and/or (2) if additional statistically independent signals are important in early smoking. We focused on two phenotypes: age of tobacco initiation (AOI) and age of first regular tobacco use (AOS). This study included 56,034 subjects (41 groups) spanning nine countries and evaluated five SNPs including rs1948, rs16969968, rs578776, rs588765, and rs684513. Each dataset was analyzed using a centrally generated script. Meta-analyses were conducted from summary statistics. AOS yielded significant associations with SNPs rs578776 (beta = 0.02, P = 0.004), rs1948 (beta = 0.023, P = 0.018), and rs684513 (beta = 0.032, P = 0.017), indicating protective effects. There were no significant associations for the AOI phenotype. Importantly, rs16969968, the most replicated signal in this region for nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and cotinine levels, was not associated with AOI (P = 0.59) or AOS (P = 0.92). These results provide important insight into the complexity of smoking behavior phenotypes, and suggest that association signals in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster affecting early smoking behaviors may be different from those affecting the mature nicotine dependence phenotype.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated gliadin antibody levels in individuals with schizophrenia.
World J. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to replicate, in a larger sample and in a different geographical location, the previously reported elevation of anti-gliadin IgG antibodies in schizophrenia.
Related JoVE Video
Glutamatergic dysbalance and oxidative stress in in vivo and in vitro models of psychosis based on chronic NMDA receptor antagonism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The psychotomimetic effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists in healthy humans and their tendency to aggravate psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients have promoted the notion of altered glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
Related JoVE Video
Glutamatergic gene variants impact the clinical profile of efficacy and side effects of haloperidol.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The glutamatergic system may be relevant to the pathophysiology of psychosis and to the effects of antipsychotic treatments.
Related JoVE Video
Toxoplasma gondii antibody titers and history of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) a widespread neurotropic parasite, has been previously associated with schizophrenia and more recently with suicidal behavior. However, no previous study has examined the association of T. gondii with suicidal behavior in schizophrenia patients. 950 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia by SCID were recruited from the Munich area of Germany. Solid-enzyme immunoassay methods were used to measure IgG plasma antibodies to T. gondii, other neurotropic pathogens and gliadin. Logistic regression models were developed to analyze the association of T. gondii seropositivity or serointensity with history of suicidal behavior. In those younger than the median age of the sample, 38, T. gondii serointensity was associated with history of suicidal behavior (p = 0.02), while in the older patients the relationship was not significant (p = 0.21). Seropositivity was also associated with history of suicide attempt in younger patients, odds ratio 1.59 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.40), p = 0.03. Seropositivity for CMV (p = 0.22), HSV-1 (p = 0.36) and gliadin (p = 0.92) was not related to history of suicide attempt in the entire sample or any age subgroup. T. gondii serology might become, with interaction with vulnerability genes, a candidate biomarker for a subgroup of schizophrenia patients prone to attempting suicide.
Related JoVE Video
NCAM1, TACR1 and NOS genes and temperament: a study on suicide attempters and controls.
Neuropsychobiology
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Suicide, one of the leading causes of death among young adults, seems to be plausibly modulated by both genetic and personality factors. The aim of this study was to dissect the potential association between genetics and temperament in a sample of 111 suicide attempters and 289 healthy controls. We focused on 4 genes previously investigated in association with suicide on the same sample: the nitric oxide synthase 1 and 3 (NOS1 and NOS3), the neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1), and the tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1) genes. In particular, we investigated whether a set of genetic variants in these genes (NOS1: rs2682826, rs1353939, rs693534; NOS3: rs2070744, rs1799983, rs891512; NCAM1: rs2301228, rs1884, rs1245113, rs1369816, rs2196456, rs584427; TACR1: rs3771810, rs3771825, rs726506, rs1477157) were associated with temperamental traits at the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). No strong evidence was found for the association between TCI personality traits and the polymorphisms considered in the 4 genes, with the exception of an association between reward dependence trait and the rs2682826 SNP in NOS1 in the healthy sample. However, this result could be plausibly interpreted as a false-positive finding. In conclusion, our study did not support the thesis of a direct modulation of these genes on temperament; however, further studies on larger samples are clearly required in order to confirm our preliminary findings and to exclude any possible minor influence.
Related JoVE Video
Lack of association between 71 variations located in candidate genes and response to acute haloperidol treatment.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The antipsychotic pharmacological treatment effectiveness and side effects are at least partially driven by the genetic personal background.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Influence of neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1) variants on suicidal behaviour and correlated traits.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Suicide is a public health problem all around the world. Family studies showed a strong heritability but, to date, few genetic data are available. Thus, in the present study we investigated whether a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM) 1 was associated with suicidal behaviour as well as specific traits related to suicide. A total of two hundred and fifty-nine individuals with a positive history of suicidal behaviour and 312 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Rs2301228, rs1884, rs1245113, rs1369816, rs2196456 and rs584427 in NCAM1 were genotyped. No marker was significantly associated with suicidal behaviour vs. controls or with sub-types of attempted vs. completed, violent vs. non-violent, impulsive vs. non-impulsive suicide. Nonetheless rs1884 and rs2196456 SNPs were both marginally associated with the trait "inhibition of aggressiveness" in suicide attempters. Even though the investigated SNPs in NCAM1 do not seem to be directly associated with suicidal behaviour, our results could suggest that SNP variants in NCAM1 may impact on related traits, particularly by mediating inhibition of aggressiveness. However, independent studies are needed to validate these results.
Related JoVE Video
Risk gene variants for nicotine dependence in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cluster are associated with cognitive performance.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies strongly support an association of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 with nicotine dependence (ND). However, the precise genotype-phenotype relationship is still unknown. Clinical and epidemiological data on smoking behavior raise the possibility that the relevant gene variants may indirectly contribute to the development of ND by affecting cognitive performance in some smokers who consume nicotine for reasons of "cognition enhancement." Here, we tested seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs684513, rs637137, rs16969968, rs578776, rs1051730, rs3743078, rs3813567 from the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster for association with ND, measures of cognitive performance and gene expression. As expected, we found all SNPs being associated with ND in three independent cohorts (KORA, NCOOP, ESTHER) comprising 5,561 individuals. In an overlapping sample of 2,186 subjects we found three SNPs (rs16969968, rs1051730, rs3743078) being associated with cognitive domains from the Wechsler-Adult-Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R)-most notably in the performance subtest "object assembly" and the verbal subtest "similarities." In a refined analysis of a subsample of 485 subjects, two of these three SNPs (rs16969968, rs1051730) were associated with n-back task performance/Continuous Performance Test. Furthermore, two CHRNA5 risk alleles (rs684513, rs637137) were associated with CHRNA5 mRNA expression levels in whole blood in a subgroup of 190 subjects. We here report for the first time an association of CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene variants with cognition possibly mediating in part risk for developing ND. The observed phenotype-genotype associations may depend on altered levels of gene expression. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Homer-1 polymorphisms are associated with psychopathology and response to treatment in schizophrenic patients.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The HOMER 1 protein plays a crucial role in mediating glutamatergic neurotransmission. It has previously shown to be a candidate gene for etiology and pathophysiology of different psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. To identify genes involved in response to antipsychotics, subgroups of animals were treated with haloperidol (1 mg/kg, n = 11) or saline (n = 12) for one week. By analyzing microarray data, we replicated the observed increase of Homer 1 gene expression. Furthermore, we genotyped 267 schizophrenic patients, who were treated monotherapeutically with different antipsychotics within randomized-controlled trials. Psychopathology was measured weekly using the PANSS for a minimum of four and a maximum of twelve weeks. Correlations between PANSS subscale scores at baseline and PANSS improvement scores after four weeks of treatment and genotypes were calculated by using a linear model for all investigated SNPs. We found an association between two HOMER 1 polymorphisms (rs2290639 and rs4704560) and different PANSS subscales at baseline. Furthermore all seven investigated polymorphisms were found to be associated with therapy response in terms of a significant correlation with different PANSS improvement subscores after four weeks of antipsychotic treatment. Most significant associations have been shown between the rs2290639 HOMER 1 polymorphism and PANSS subscales both at baseline conditions and after four weeks of antipsychotic treatment. This is the first study which shows an association between HOMER 1 polymorphisms and psychopathology data at baseline and therapy response in a clinical sample of schizophrenic patients. Thus, these data might further help in detecting differential therapy response in individuals with schizophrenia.
Related JoVE Video
A large replication study and meta-analysis in European samples provides further support for association of AHI1 markers with schizophrenia.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Abelson helper integration site 1 (AHI1) gene locus on chromosome 6q23 is among a group of candidate loci for schizophrenia susceptibility that were initially identified by linkage followed by linkage disequilibrium mapping, and subsequent replication of the association in an independent sample. Here, we present results of a replication study of AHI1 locus markers, previously implicated in schizophrenia, in a large European sample (in total 3907 affected and 7429 controls). Furthermore, we perform a meta-analysis of the implicated markers in 4496 affected and 18,920 controls. Both the replication study of new samples and the meta-analysis show evidence for significant overrepresentation of all tested alleles in patients compared with controls (meta-analysis; P = 8.2 x 10(-5)-1.7 x 10(-3), common OR = 1.09-1.11). The region contains two genes, AHI1 and C6orf217, and both genes-as well as the neighbouring phosphodiesterase 7B (PDE7B)-may be considered candidates for involvement in the genetic aetiology of schizophrenia.
Related JoVE Video
Catechol-o-methyltransferase gene modulation on suicidal behavior and personality traits: review, meta-analysis and association study.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among young adults. Both genetic and personality factors plausibly have a role on suicidal behavior. We focused on the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) and we performed: a review of studies investigating the association between COMT and both suicidal behavior and personality; a meta-analysis of studies investigating the association between suicidal behavior and COMT rs4680 polymorphism; an association study investigating the link between seven COMT polymorphisms (rs737865, rs5844402, rs5993883, rs4680, rs4633, rs165599 and rs9332377) and both personality traits and suicidal behavior. For the review and the meta-analysis we performed an electronic search to identify studies focused on the association between COMT and both suicidal behavior and personality. The sample of the association study was composed of three groups: 289 German healthy controls, 111 German suicide attempters and 70 Italian mood disorder patients. From the review, the meta-analysis and the association study no relationship emerged between COMT and suicidal behavior. Nevertheless, from both review and association study several links were found between COMT and personality traits. In particular, in the association study we found a significant correlation between rs4633 and Reward Dependence (Temperament and Character Inventory). As secondary results we found an association between rs737865 and Angry Reaction (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory) and between rs9332377 and Irritability (Questionnaire for Measuring Factors of Aggression). Our findings suggested that COMT variants may not be directly implicated in suicidal behavior, however evidence of a COMT role in the modulation of personality traits has been found.
Related JoVE Video
Do the estrogen receptors 1 gene variants influence the temperament and character inventory scores in suicidal attempters and healthy subjects?
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several studies investigated possible associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the temperament and character inventory (TCI) scores. The possible association between TCI scores and the estrogen receptors 1 (ESR1) polymorphisms, which are expressed in cerebral regions that are involved in the development of temperament and character, has not been investigated yet. The aim of the present study is to investigate possible associations between specific ESR1 polymorphisms and TCI scores. Two hundred eighty-nine healthy subjects and 111 suicide attempters were enrolled in the study. All subjects compiled TCI. Rs827421, rs1913474, rs1801132, rs722207, rs974276, and rs910416 in ESR1 were genotyped. Rs722207 was associated with Harm Avoidance (HA) in the healthy sample (P = 0.003). Further associations have been found for two HA subscales, HA2 and HA3, in the healthy sample. Additionally, the haplotype rs722207-rs974276 showed an association with HA (P = 0.0003) and HA2 (P = 0.0002) in the global sample and in healthy volunteers and HA3 showed an association in the global sample. Our study showed a moderate association between ESR1 variants and TCI scores. The main finding concerns the association between rs722207 and HA in the healthy sample. Further research is needed to replicate our findings and to investigate further ESR1 polymorphisms.
Related JoVE Video
Personality and attempted suicide. Analysis of anger, aggression and impulsivity.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, mortality from suicide being approximately 2%. Attempted suicide appears to be a major risk factor for suicide completion. Anger, aggression and impulsivity are personality traits associated with suicide attempt. In this study we analysed a part of a previously reported sample in order to test anger, impulsivity and temperament/character scales as predictors of aggression and self-aggression in suicide attempters and to compare anger- and aggression-related traits between impulsive and premeditated suicide attempts as well as between violent and non-violent suicide methods. One-hundred-eleven consecutively admitted inpatients with a lifetime history of attempted suicide were assessed for anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, STAXI), aggression (Questionnaire for Measuring Factors of Aggression, FAF) and temperament/character (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI). Higher aggression scores, as measured by FAF, were predicted by being male, meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder and having higher angry temperament scores as assessed by STAXI; low cooperativeness was also associated with aggression but not after controlling for STAXI scales. TCI dimensions associated with self-aggression were high harm avoidance, high impulsivity and low self-directedness; state anger, inwardly directed anger and inhibition of aggression were also predictors of self-aggression. In conclusion, impulsivity and harm avoidance have emerged as temperament dimensions independently associated with self-aggressive tendencies in personality. Such interactions could explain the correlation between temperament and suicidality but further research is needed. Anger and self-directedness appear to have some effects on suicide attempt.
Related JoVE Video
Serotonin receptor HTR1A and HTR2C variants and personality traits in suicide attempters and controls.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serotonin has been extensively studied in relation to both personality features and suicidal behaviours.
Related JoVE Video
Disruption of the neurexin 1 gene is associated with schizophrenia.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Deletions within the neurexin 1 gene (NRXN1; 2p16.3) are associated with autism and have also been reported in two families with schizophrenia. We examined NRXN1, and the closely related NRXN2 and NRXN3 genes, for copy number variants (CNVs) in 2977 schizophrenia patients and 33 746 controls from seven European populations (Iceland, Finland, Norway, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy and UK) using microarray data. We found 66 deletions and 5 duplications in NRXN1, including a de novo deletion: 12 deletions and 2 duplications occurred in schizophrenia cases (0.47%) compared to 49 and 3 (0.15%) in controls. There was no common breakpoint and the CNVs varied from 18 to 420 kb. No CNVs were found in NRXN2 or NRXN3. We performed a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel exact test to estimate association between all CNVs and schizophrenia (P = 0.13; OR = 1.73; 95% CI 0.81-3.50). Because the penetrance of NRXN1 CNVs may vary according to the level of functional impact on the gene, we next restricted the association analysis to CNVs that disrupt exons (0.24% of cases and 0.015% of controls). These were significantly associated with a high odds ratio (P = 0.0027; OR 8.97, 95% CI 1.8-51.9). We conclude that NRXN1 deletions affecting exons confer risk of schizophrenia.
Related JoVE Video
Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, caused by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Research on pathogenesis has traditionally focused on neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly those involving dopamine. Schizophrenia has been considered a separate disease for over a century, but in the absence of clear biological markers, diagnosis has historically been based on signs and symptoms. A fundamental message emerging from genome-wide association studies of copy number variations (CNVs) associated with the disease is that its genetic basis does not necessarily conform to classical nosological disease boundaries. Certain CNVs confer not only high relative risk of schizophrenia but also of other psychiatric disorders. The structural variations associated with schizophrenia can involve several genes and the phenotypic syndromes, or the genomic disorders, have not yet been characterized. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genome-wide association studies with the potential to implicate individual genes in complex diseases may reveal underlying biological pathways. Here we combined SNP data from several large genome-wide scans and followed up the most significant association signals. We found significant association with several markers spanning the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6p21.3-22.1, a marker located upstream of the neurogranin gene (NRGN) on 11q24.2 and a marker in intron four of transcription factor 4 (TCF4) on 18q21.2. Our findings implicating the MHC region are consistent with an immune component to schizophrenia risk, whereas the association with NRGN and TCF4 points to perturbation of pathways involved in brain development, memory and cognition.
Related JoVE Video
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein G regulates splice site selection by binding to CC(A/C)-rich regions in pre-mRNA.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Almost every protein-coding gene undergoes pre-mRNA splicing, and the majority of these pre-mRNAs are alternatively spliced. Alternative exon usage is regulated by the transient formation of protein complexes on the pre-mRNA that typically contain heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). Here we characterize hnRNP G, a member of the hnRNP class of proteins. We show that hnRNP G is a nuclear protein that is expressed in different concentrations in various tissues and that interacts with other splicing regulatory proteins. hnRNP G is part of the supraspliceosome, where it regulates alternative splice site selection in a concentration-dependent manner. Its action on alternative exons can occur without a functional RNA-recognition motif by binding to other splicing regulatory proteins. The RNA-recognition motif of hnRNP G binds to a loose consensus sequence containing a CC(A/C) motif, and hnRNP G preferentially regulates alternative exons where this motif is clustered in close proximity. The X-chromosomally encoded hnRNP G regulates different RNAs than its Y-chromosomal paralogue RNA-binding motif protein, Y-linked (RBMY), suggesting that differences in alternative splicing, evoked by the sex-specific expression of hnRNP G and RBMY, could contribute to molecular sex differences in mammals.
Related JoVE Video
Tyrosine hydroxylase and DOPA decarboxylase gene variants in personality traits.
Neuropsychobiology
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Personality influences several characteristics of normal and pathologic behaviors and it is associated with neurotransmitter systems that are under genetic control. The dopaminergic system has been proposed to play a role in the modulation of personality traits. In the present study, variants of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) genes (for TH: rs3842727, rs6356; for DDC: rs1451371, rs1470750, rs998850) were investigated in 111 suicide attempters and 289 healthy subjects to assess the involvement of the dopaminergic synthesis pathway in personality traits. No strong evidence was found for the associations between personality and TH or DDC in overall tests. An interaction effect of genotype and diagnosis was present, with TH and DDC SNPs having a greater effect on the respective personality dimensions in the group of suicide attempters. Because of the risk of false positives, these findings should be interpreted with highest caution. Direct replication attempts within independent groups of suicide attempters will help to resolve this question.
Related JoVE Video
A genome-wide investigation of SNPs and CNVs in schizophrenia.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a genome-wide assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs) in schizophrenia. We investigated SNPs using 871 patients and 863 controls, following up the top hits in four independent cohorts comprising 1,460 patients and 12,995 controls, all of European origin. We found no genome-wide significant associations, nor could we provide support for any previously reported candidate gene or genome-wide associations. We went on to examine CNVs using a subset of 1,013 cases and 1,084 controls of European ancestry, and a further set of 60 cases and 64 controls of African ancestry. We found that eight cases and zero controls carried deletions greater than 2 Mb, of which two, at 8p22 and 16p13.11-p12.4, are newly reported here. A further evaluation of 1,378 controls identified no deletions greater than 2 Mb, suggesting a high prior probability of disease involvement when such deletions are observed in cases. We also provide further evidence for some smaller, previously reported, schizophrenia-associated CNVs, such as those in NRXN1 and APBA2. We could not provide strong support for the hypothesis that schizophrenia patients have a significantly greater "load" of large (>100 kb), rare CNVs, nor could we find common CNVs that associate with schizophrenia. Finally, we did not provide support for the suggestion that schizophrenia-associated CNVs may preferentially disrupt genes in neurodevelopmental pathways. Collectively, these analyses provide the first integrated study of SNPs and CNVs in schizophrenia and support the emerging view that rare deleterious variants may be more important in schizophrenia predisposition than common polymorphisms. While our analyses do not suggest that implicated CNVs impinge on particular key pathways, we do support the contribution of specific genomic regions in schizophrenia, presumably due to recurrent mutation. On balance, these data suggest that very few schizophrenia patients share identical genomic causation, potentially complicating efforts to personalize treatment regimens.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of functional variant of neuronal nitric oxide synthase on impulsive behaviors in humans.
Arch. Gen. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human personality is characterized by substantial heritability but few functional gene variants have been identified. Although rodent data suggest that the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS-I) modifies diverse behaviors including aggression, this has not been translated to human studies.
Related JoVE Video
MAOA and MAOB polymorphisms and anger-related traits in suicidal participants and controls.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MAOA and, to a lesser extent, MAOB polymorphisms have been related to aggression traits and suicidality. We aimed to investigate the role of MAOA and MAOB in suicidal versus non-suicidal participants and interactions between genetic variation and suicidal status on aggression and anger-related traits. The sample was composed of three groups: one group of suicide attempters (n = 171, males 35.1 %), one group of suicide completers (n = 90, males 57.8 %) and a healthy control group (n = 317, males 43.8 %). We examined the following markers: MAOA rs909525, rs6323, and rs2064070, and MAOB rs1799836. Anger traits were measured with the state-trait anger expression inventory (STAXI) and aggression traits with the questionnaire for measuring factors of aggression (FAF). Associations were separately examined for males and females. Variation in the three MAOA variants was associated with higher levels of anger expressed outwards (STAXI "anger-out" subscale) in male suicidal patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). In females, the C allele of rs6323 showed higher scores on the same subscale ("anger out") (p = 0.002). Allele frequencies of the MAOA rs909525 were associated with suicidality (p < 0.007). Our findings show an association between genetic variation in three polymorphisms of the MAOA and anger traits in suicidal males and one replication for the functional variant rs6323 in females. This relationship was stronger than a direct genetic association with suicide status. Future studies incorporating endophenotypic measures of anger and aggression in suicidal participants are warranted.
Related JoVE Video
No association of a set of candidate genes on haloperidol side effects.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously investigated a sample of patients during an active phase of psychosis in the search for genetic predictors of haloperidol induced side effects. In the present work we extend the genetic association analysis to a wider panel of genetic variations, including 508 variations located in 96 genes. The original sample included 96 patients. An independent group of 357 patients from the CATIE study served as a replication sample. Outcomes in the investigation sample were the variation through time of: 1) the ESRS and UKU total scores 2) ESRS and UKU subscales (neurologic and psychic were included) related to tremors and 3) ESRS and UKU subscales that do not relate to tremors. Outcome in the replication sample was the presence vs absence of motoric side effects from baseline to visit 1 (~ one month of treatment) as assessed by the AIMS scale test. Rs2242480 located in the CYP3A4 was associated with a different distribution of the UKU neurologic scores through time (permutated p = 0.047) along with a trend for a different haloperidol plasma levels (lower in CC subjects). This finding was not replicated in the CATIE sample. In conclusion, we did not find conclusive evidence for a major association between the investigated variations and haloperidol induced motoric side effects.
Related JoVE Video
AKAP13, CACNA1, GRIK4 and GRIA1 genetic variations may be associated with haloperidol efficacy during acute treatment.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously investigated a sample of psychotic patients acutely ill and acutely treated with haloperidol in the search for genetic predictors of response at PANSS scores during the first month of treatment. In the present work we extend the analysis to a wider panel of genetic variations including SNPs harbored by genes whose products are involved in molecular pathways consistent with the latest results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of antipsychotic efficacy. 96 Patients were investigated. The results were replicated in an independent sample of bipolar manic patients treated with antipsychotics (n tot=470, the sample was retrieved from the STEP-BD). Outcomes were the PANSS variation through time in the first sample, and changes of mania symptomatology at any two consecutive observations in the public available STEP-BD replication sample. A list of variations harbored by AKAP13, CACNA1, GRIK4 and GRIA1 were found to be significantly associated with outcome in both samples (different set of variations for each sample). Results did not survived multiple testing in the original sample but were replicated in both samples. This finding stresses the relevance of the glutamatergic system and regulatory molecular cascades in antipsychotic response. Nonetheless, the level of significance and the indirect and incomplete replication mandate cautiousness and further replication.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of ANKK1 and DRD2 polymorphisms in response to haloperidol.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study explores whether ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) variants could predict efficacy and tolerability of haloperidol in the treatment of psychotic patients. We also attempted to replicate findings in a group of schizophrenic patients from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials in Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study. Eighty-eight acutely psychotic patients were genotyped for 9 ANKK1 and 27 DRD2 SNPs. Treatment efficacy and tolerability were assessed using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale and the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser side effects rating scales, respectively. Multivariate analyses were employed to test possible influences of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on clinical and safety variables. Analysis of haplotypes was also performed. Outcomes in the replication sample were response versus nonresponse and the presence versus absence of motor side effects at 1 month of treatment. rs2242592 within ANKK1 gene and rs1124493 within DRD2 gene were associated with clinical improvement (p = 0.008 and p = 0.001, respectively). Results were confirmed in the allelic analysis. Three haplotype blocks, one among ANKK1 and two among DRD2 gene were associated with better clinical improvement. Our results were not replicated in the CATIE sample, although rs11604671, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2242592, was associated with response in the replication sample. Our findings support a possible role of ANKK1 and DRD2 variability on haloperidol efficacy. However, due to the discrepancies between the results in the two samples, our results need further validation.
Related JoVE Video
Increased genetic vulnerability to smoking at CHRNA5 in early-onset smokers.
Sarah M Hartz, Susan E Short, Nancy L Saccone, Robert Culverhouse, LiShiun Chen, Tae-Hwi Schwantes-An, Hilary Coon, Younghun Han, Sarah H Stephens, Juzhong Sun, Xiangning Chen, Francesca Ducci, Nicole Dueker, Nora Franceschini, Josef Frank, Frank Geller, Daniel Gubjartsson, Nadia N Hansel, Chenhui Jiang, Kaisu Keskitalo-Vuokko, Zhen Liu, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Martha Michel, Rajesh Rawal, Albert Rosenberger, Paul Scheet, John R Shaffer, Alexander Teumer, John R Thompson, Jacqueline M Vink, Nicole Vogelzangs, Angela S Wenzlaff, William Wheeler, Xiangjun Xiao, Bao-Zhu Yang, Steven H Aggen, Anthony J Balmforth, Sebastian E Baumeister, Terri Beaty, Siiri Bennett, Andrew W Bergen, Heather A Boyd, Ulla Broms, Harry Campbell, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Jingchun Chen, Yu-Ching Cheng, Sven Cichon, David Couper, Francesco Cucca, Danielle M Dick, Tatiana Foroud, Helena Furberg, Ina Giegling, Fangyi Gu, Alistair S Hall, Jenni Hällfors, Shizhong Han, Annette M Hartmann, Caroline Hayward, Kauko Heikkilä, John K Hewitt, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Majken K Jensen, Pekka Jousilahti, Marika Kaakinen, Steven J Kittner, Bettina Konte, Tellervo Korhonen, Maria-Teresa Landi, Tiina Laatikainen, Mark Leppert, Steven M Levy, Rasika A Mathias, Daniel W McNeil, Sarah E Medland, Grant W Montgomery, Thomas Muley, Tanda Murray, Matthias Nauck, Kari North, Michele Pergadia, Ozren Polašek, Erin M Ramos, Samuli Ripatti, Angela Risch, Ingo Ruczinski, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, David Schlessinger, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Antonio Terracciano, Manuela Uda, Gonneke Willemsen, Xifeng Wu, Goncalo Abecasis, Kathleen Barnes, Heike Bickeböller, Eric Boerwinkle, Dorret I Boomsma, Neil Caporaso, Jubao Duan, Howard J Edenberg, Clyde Francks, Pablo V Gejman, Joel Gelernter, Hans Jörgen Grabe, Hyman Hops, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Jorma Viikari, Mika Kähönen, Kenneth S Kendler, Terho Lehtimäki, Douglas F Levinson, Mary L Marazita, Jonathan Marchini, Mads Melbye, Braxton D Mitchell, Jeffrey C Murray, Markus M Nöthen, Brenda W Penninx, Olli Raitakari, Marcella Rietschel, Dan Rujescu, Nilesh J Samani, Alan R Sanders, Ann G Schwartz, Sanjay Shete, Jianxin Shi, Margaret Spitz, Kari Stefansson, Gary E Swan, Thorgeir Thorgeirsson, Henry Völzke, Qingyi Wei, H-Erich Wichmann, Christopher I Amos, Naomi Breslau, Dale S Cannon, Marissa Ehringer, Richard Grucza, Dorothy Hatsukami, Andrew Heath, Eric O Johnson, Jaakko Kaprio, Pamela Madden, Nicholas G Martin, Victoria L Stevens, Jerry A Stitzel, Robert B Weiss, Peter Kraft, Laura J Bierut.
Arch. Gen. Psychiatry
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide association uncovers shared genetic effects among personality traits and mood states.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Measures of personality and psychological distress are correlated and exhibit genetic covariance. We conducted univariate genome-wide SNP (~2.5 million) and gene-based association analyses of these traits and examined the overlap in results across traits, including a prediction analysis of mood states using genetic polygenic scores for personality. Measures of neuroticism, extraversion, and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and general psychological distress were collected in eight European cohorts (n ranged 546-1,338; maximum total n = 6,268) whose mean age ranged from 55 to 79 years. Meta-analysis of the cohort results was performed, with follow-up associations of the top SNPs and genes investigated in independent cohorts (n = 527-6,032). Suggestive association (P = 8 × 10(-8)) of rs1079196 in the FHIT gene was observed with symptoms of anxiety. Other notable associations (P < 6.09 × 10(-6)) included SNPs in five genes for neuroticism (LCE3C, POLR3A, LMAN1L, ULK3, SCAMP2), KIAA0802 for extraversion, and NOS1 for general psychological distress. An association between symptoms of depression and rs7582472 (near to MGAT5 and NCKAP5) was replicated in two independent samples, but other replication findings were less consistent. Gene-based tests identified a significant locus on chromosome 15 (spanning five genes) associated with neuroticism which replicated (P < 0.05) in an independent cohort. Support for common genetic effects among personality and mood (particularly neuroticism and depressive symptoms) was found in terms of SNP association overlap and polygenic score prediction. The variance explained by individual SNPs was very small (up to 1%) confirming that there are no moderate/large effects of common SNPs on personality and related traits.
Related JoVE Video
Dysequilibrium of neuronal proliferation and apoptosis in a pharmacological animal model of psychosis.
Methods
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Growing evidence implicates that abnormal stem cell proliferation and neurodegenerative mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Here, we studied the underlying pathomechanisms of psychosis. We are employing a translational approach combining in vivo data with supplementary data from an adult neuronal stem cell-derived cell culture model by generating a large number of analytes in our specimens following a multiplexing strategy. In the animal model the NMDA receptor was chronically antagonized by MK-801 at ultralow doses. As a result of this, we were able to demonstrate a roughly twofold increased density of PCNA positive cells in the germinal zone of the dentate gyrus indicating enhanced neuroproliferative activity. In vitro stem cell experiments additionally pointed to this direction showing an increase both in proliferation and neuronal differentiation after MK-801 treatment. These alterations were partially prevented by coapplication of the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol. In addition, apoptotic activity assessed by immunohistochemical demonstration of cleaved caspase-3 stainings was unaffected by MK-801 treatment. These observations were largely supported by microarray gene expression analysis, which permits high-throughput multiplexed assessment of expression data from a comprehensive set of genes and showed parallels with data from human post mortem studies. In conclusion, our data support the notion, that abnormal proliferation due to anti-apoptotic mechanisms may represent a factor in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Thus, research on the exact interplay between glutamatergic neurotransmission and neuronal proliferation deserves more attention. This dual in vivo and in vitro strategy described here may prove as a suitable model for addressing complex neuropsychiatric diseases especially when taking advantage of the potential of multiplex technologies not only in diagnostics but also in basic research.
Related JoVE Video
Lack of association of the 5-HT(3A) receptor with schizophrenia.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The serotonin type 3 (5-HT(3) ) receptor (R) belongs to the family of ligand-gated ion channels. It is supposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and might also represent an interesting target for the pharmacological treatment of this disorder. In this study, we searched for variations within the 5-HT(3A) receptor gene which might be specifically associated to schizophrenia. Twenty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 943 schizophrenic patients compared to 2,343 healthy individuals were analyzed. SNPs were selected taking into account previous results on a 5-HT(3A) receptor domain involved in neuroleptic binding. Dominant logistic and linear regression models were calculated for the phenotypes number of hospitalizations, duration of hospitalization, age at onset and case-control. The data did not show significant associations of any SNP under investigation specific for schizophrenic patients. In conclusion, our study does not support the hypothesis that the 5-HT(3A) receptor plays a major role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
Related JoVE Video
Sensorimotor gating and D2 receptor signalling: evidence from a molecular genetic approach.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Converging evidence from pharmacological investigations, genetic association studies and schizophrenia research indicates an important influence of the dopamine system on sensorimotor gating as measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. In particular, D2 receptor agonists have been shown to disrupt PPI in humans and rodents. In the present study, we investigated the associations of two functional DRD2 related single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs4648317 and rs1800497, the latter also known as DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A) with PPI in two independent healthy human samples (overall n=197; Munich n=101; London n=96). Taq1A is a prominent marker of striatal D2 receptor signalling and was therefore hypothesized to impact on PPI. In line with our hypothesis, we report here reduced PPI levels in individuals with higher striatal D2 receptor signalling as indicated by the Taq1A genotype. Meta-analysis across both samples confirmed this finding. In contrast, an association between rs4648317 and PPI found in the Munich sample could not be confirmed in the London sample. Overall, the present study helps to bridge the gap between pharmacological manipulations of PPI and molecular genetics of the dopaminergic system.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.