Assays measuring platelet aggregation (thrombus formation) at arterial shear rate mostly use collagen as only platelet-adhesive surface. Here we report a multi-surface and multi-parameter flow assay to characterize thrombus formation in whole blood from healthy subjects and patients with platelet function deficiencies. A systematic comparison is made of 52 adhesive surfaces with components activating the main platelet-adhesive receptors, and of eight output parameters reflecting distinct stages of thrombus formation. Three types of thrombus formation can be identified with a predicted hierarchy of the following receptors: glycoprotein (GP)VI, C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2)>GPIb>?6?1, ?IIb?3>?2?1>CD36, ?5?1, ?v?3. Application with patient blood reveals distinct abnormalities in thrombus formation in patients with severe combined immune deficiency, Glanzmann's thrombasthenia, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, May-Hegglin anomaly or grey platelet syndrome. We suggest this test may be useful for the diagnosis of patients with suspected bleeding disorders or a pro-thrombotic tendency.
In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, high transplant related mortality after busulfan-based myeloablative regimens has been observed. Conditioning regimens with reduced toxicity based on melphalan or treosulfan are promising alternatives. We retrospectively analyzed hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in 19 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients after conditioning with fludarabine, treosulfan, alemtuzumab, with or without thiotepa. Overall and disease-free survivals were 100% (follow-up 7-31 m). Two patients required second transplant (1 after haploidentical transplantation). In 6 patients, overall donor chimerism dropped below 75% and prompted donor lymphocyte infusions. Administration of donor lymphocytes or second transplantion were significantly more frequent after transplantation from a human leukocyte antigen mismatched (9/10) vs. matched (10/10) donor (p=0.018). The toxicity profile was favorable, with 1 veno-occlusive disease, 1 graft-versus-host- disease III after donor lymphocyte infusion, and 2 severe viral infections (1 influenza, 1 Epstein Barr virus). In conclusion, the treosulfan-based regimen in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is effective with low toxicity and renders excellent overall and disease-free survivals. In the future, the incidence of mixed chimerism particularly after human leukocyte antigen mismatched transplants needs to be addressed.
A subgroup of severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) is characterized by lack of T and B cells and is caused by defects in genes required for T- and B-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Several of these genes are also involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand break repair, the largest subgroup consisting of patients with T(-)B(-)NK(+)SCID due to DCLRE1C/ARTEMIS defects. We postulated that in patients with ARTEMIS deficiency early and late complications following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) might be more prominent compared to patients with T(-)B(-)NK(+)SCID caused by RAG1/2 deficiencies. We analyzed 69 patients with ARTEMIS and 76 patients with RAG 1/2 deficiencies transplanted either from HLA identical donors without conditioning or from HLA non-identical donors without or with conditioning. There was no difference in survival or in the incidence or severity of acute graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD) regardless of exposure to alkylating agents. Secondary malignancies were not observed. Immune reconstitution was comparable in both groups, however ARTEMIS deficient patients had a significantly higher occurrence of infections in long-term follow-up. There is a highly significant association between poor growth in ARTEMIS deficiency and use of alkylating agents. Furthermore abnormalities in dental development and endocrine late-effects were associated with alkylation therapy in ARTEMIS deficiency.
Osteopetrosis is a genetic condition of increased bone mass, which is caused by defects in osteoclast formation and function. Both autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant forms exist, but this Review focuses on autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO), also known as malignant infantile osteopetrosis. The genetic basis of this disease is now largely uncovered: mutations in TCIRG1, CLCN7, OSTM1, SNX10 and PLEKHM1 lead to osteoclast-rich ARO (in which osteoclasts are abundant but have severely impaired resorptive function), whereas mutations in TNFSF11 and TNFRSF11A lead to osteoclast-poor ARO. In osteoclast-rich ARO, impaired endosomal and lysosomal vesicle trafficking results in defective osteoclast ruffled-border formation and, hence, the inability to resorb bone and mineralized cartilage. ARO presents soon after birth and can be fatal if left untreated. However, the disease is heterogeneous in clinical presentation and often misdiagnosed. This article describes the genetics of ARO and discusses the diagnostic role of next-generation sequencing methods. The management of affected patients, including guidelines for the indication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (which can provide a cure for many types of ARO), are outlined. Finally, novel treatments, including preclinical data on in utero stem cell treatment, RANKL replacement therapy and denosumab therapy for hypercalcaemia are also discussed.
Infantile malignant osteopetrosis (IMO) is a rare, lethal, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by non-functional osteoclasts. More than 50% of the patients have mutations in the TCIRG1 gene, encoding for a subunit of the osteoclast proton pump. The aim of this study was to restore the resorptive function of IMO osteoclasts by lentiviral mediated gene transfer of the TCIRG1 cDNA. CD34(+) cells from peripheral blood of five IMO patients and from normal cord blood were transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing TCIRG1 and GFP under a SFFV promoter, expanded in culture and differentiated on bone slices to mature osteoclasts. qPCR analysis and western blot revealed increased mRNA and protein levels of TCIRG1, comparable to controls. Vector corrected IMO osteoclasts generated increased release of Ca(2+) and bone degradation product CTX-I into the media as well as increased formation of resorption pits in the bone slices, while non-corrected IMO osteoclasts failed to resorb bone. Resorption was approximately 70-80% of that of osteoclasts generated from cord blood. Furthermore, transduced CD34(+) cells successfully engrafted in NSG-mice. In conclusion we provide the first evidence of lentiviral-mediated correction of a human genetic disease affecting the osteoclastic lineage.
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare primary immune disorder defined by mutations in the syntaxin binding protein 2 (STXBP2) alias MUNC18-2. Despite defective immunity and a hyper-inflammatory state, clinical findings such as neurological, gastrointestinal, and bleeding disorders are present in a significant number of patients and suggest an impaired expression and function of STXBP2 in cells other than cytotoxic lymphocytes.
Immunodeficiency with centromeric instability and facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency, predominantly characterized by agammaglobulinemia or hypoimmunoglobulinemia, centromere instability and facial anomalies. Mutations in two genes have been discovered to cause ICF syndrome: DNMT3B and ZBTB24. To characterize the clinical features of this syndrome, as well as genotype-phenotype correlations, we compared clinical and genetic data of 44 ICF patients. Of them, 23 had mutations in DNMT3B (ICF1), 13 patients had mutations in ZBTB24 (ICF2), whereas for 8 patients, the gene defect has not yet been identified (ICFX). While at first sight these patients share the same immunological, morphological and epigenetic hallmarks of the disease, systematic evaluation of all reported informative cases shows that: (1) the humoral immunodeficiency is generally more pronounced in ICF1 patients, (2) B- and T-cell compartments are both involved in ICF1 and ICF2, (3) ICF2 patients have a significantly higher incidence of intellectual disability and (4) congenital malformations can be observed in some ICF1 and ICF2 cases. It is expected that these observations on prevalence and clinical presentation will facilitate mutation-screening strategies and help in diagnostic counseling.
Human Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis (ARO) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by reduced bone resorption by osteoclasts. In 2000, we found that mutations in the TCIRG1 gene encoding for a subunit of the proton pump (V-ATPase) are responsible for more than one-half of ARO cases. Since then, five additional genes have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, leaving approximately 25% of cases that could not be associated with a genotype. Very recently, a mutation in the sorting nexin 10 (SNX10) gene, whose product is suggested to interact with the proton pump, has been found in 3 consanguineous families of Palestinian origin, thus adding a new candidate gene in patients not previously classified. Here we report the identification of 9 novel mutations in this gene in 14 ARO patients from 12 unrelated families of different geographic origin. Interestingly, we define the molecular defect in three cases of "Västerbottenian osteopetrosis," named for the Swedish Province where a higher incidence of the disease has been reported. In our cohort of more than 310 patients from all over the world, SNX10-dependent ARO constitutes 4% of the cases, with a frequency comparable to the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL), receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK) and osteopetrosis-associated transmembrane protein 1 (OSTM1)-dependent subsets. Although the clinical presentation is relatively variable in severity, bone seems to be the only affected tissue and the defect can be almost completely rescued by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). These results confirm the involvement of the SNX10 gene in human ARO and identify a new subset with a relatively favorable prognosis as compared to TCIRG1-dependent cases. Further analyses will help to better understand the role of SNX10 in osteoclast physiology and verify whether this protein might be considered a new target for selective antiresorptive therapies.
In this retrospective collaborative study, we have analyzed long-term outcome and donor cell engraftment in 194 patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) who have been treated by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the period 1980- 2009. Overall survival was 84.0% and was even higher (89.1% 5-year survival) for those who received HCT since the year 2000, reflecting recent improvement of outcome after transplantation from mismatched family donors and for patients who received HCT from an unrelated donor at older than 5 years. Patients who went to transplantation in better clinical conditions had a lower rate of post-HCT complications. Retrospective analysis of lineage-specific donor cell engraftment showed that stable full donor chimerism was attained by 72.3% of the patients who survived for at least 1 year after HCT. Mixed chimerism was associated with an increased risk of incomplete reconstitution of lymphocyte count and post-HCT autoimmunity, and myeloid donor cell chimerism < 50% was associated with persistent thrombocytopenia. These observations indicate continuous improvement of outcome after HCT for WAS and may have important implications for the development of novel protocols aiming to obtain full correction of the disease and reduce post-HCT complications.
In high-burden countries, Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered in newborn to prevent severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Because life-threatening disseminated BCG disease may occur in children with primary immunodeficiency, vaccination strategy against tuberculosis should be redefined in non-high-burden countries. We report the case of a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) who developed disseminated BCG disease, highlighting the specific strategies adopted.
Autosomal-recessive immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome is mainly characterized by recurrent, often fatal, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. About 50% of patients carry mutations in the DNA methyltransferase 3B gene (DNMT3B) (ICF1). The remaining patients carry unknown genetic defects (ICF2) but share with ICF1 patients the same immunological and epigenetic features, including hypomethylation of juxtacentromeric repeat sequences. We performed homozygosity mapping in five unrelated ICF2 patients with consanguineous parents and then performed whole-exome sequencing in one of these patients and Sanger sequencing in all to identify mutations in the zinc-finger- and BTB (bric-a-bric, tramtrack, broad complex)-domain-containing 24 (ZBTB24) gene in four consanguineously descended ICF2 patients. Additionally, we found ZBTB24 mutations in an affected sibling pair and in one patient for whom it was not known whether his parents were consanguineous. ZBTB24 belongs to a large family of transcriptional repressors that include members, such as BCL6 and PATZ1, with prominent regulatory roles in hematopoietic development and malignancy. These data thus indicate that ZBTB24 is involved in DNA methylation of juxtacentromeric DNA and in B cell development and/or B and T cell interactions. Because ZBTB24 is a putative DNA-binding protein highly expressed in the lymphoid lineage, we predict that by studying the molecular function of ZBTB24, we will improve our understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of ICF syndrome and of lymphocyte biology in general.
Targeted irradiation of the bone marrow with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (radioimmunotherapy) represents a novel therapeutic approach with both myeloablative and antileukemic potential. In an open-label, single-center pilot study, 30 pediatric and adolescent patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation for malignant (n = 16) and nonmalignant (n = 14) disorders received treatment with a ??Y-labeled anti-CD66 monoclonal antibody. Patients with a high risk of relapse (n = 7) received additional treatment with standard conditioning based on either total body irradiation or busulfan to intensify the antileukemic effect. In patients with comorbidities (n = 23), radioimmunotherapy was combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to reduce systemic toxicity. Preferential irradiation of the bone marrow was achieved in all patients. Nonrelapse mortality was 4 (13%) of 30 patients. In patients with malignant diseases, the probabilities of overall and disease-free survival at 2 years were 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.37-0.87) and 0.46 (95% confidence interval 0.19-0.70), respectively. In patients with nonmalignant diseases, the probability of both overall and disease-free survival at 2 years was 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.63-0.99). This pilot study demonstrates that radioimmunotherapy is effective in achieving myeloablation with low additional toxicity when used in combination with standard or reduced-intensity conditioning in young patients.
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency-III (LAD-III) also called leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1/variant (LAD1v) is a rare congenital disease caused by defective integrin activation of leukocytes and platelets. Patients with LAD-III present with non-purulent infections and increased bleeding symptoms. We report on a novel integrin-dependent platelet dysfunction in two brothers with LAD-III syndrome caused by a homozygous mutation 1717C>T in the FERMT3 gene leading to a premature stop codon R573X in the focal adhesion protein kindlin-3. Stimulation of patients platelets with all used agonists resulted in a severely decreased binding of soluble fibrinogen indicating a defect in inside-out activation of the integrin alpha(IIb) beta(3) (GPIIb/IIIa). Patients platelets did not respond to the alpha(2)beta(1)-integrin agonist aggretin-A at all. Our data on granula secretion indicate for the first time that the thrombin receptor PAR-4 but not PAR-1 may be important in integrin-triggered granule secretion in response to thrombin. In contrast, collagen mediated platelet granule secretion was not affected in LAD-III-patients. Thus, integrin-signalling may be not essential in collagen-induced granule secretion. The patients peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed a severe loss of adhesion capacity to VCAM-1 and to endothelial cells compared to cells from healthy donors. Rap-1 activation after PMA stimulation could be observed in controls but not in patients cells. After haematogenesis stem cell transplantation (HSCT) the brothers showed no symptoms of bleeding or immunodeficiency and the integrin-dependent platelet and leukocyte functions normalised.
In this report, we present an analysis in 39 WAS patients treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in our center since 1983. Fifteen patients received transplants from HLA-identical unrelated donors, 15 from nonidentical parental donors, and 9 from matched siblings. The overall survival rate is 90% in patients with matched donors and 50% in patients after nonidentical transplantation, with a mean follow-up time of 11 years. Treatment failures in the latter group were mainly related to graft rejections and to GvHD and infections following repeat transplants. Long-term survivors in both patient groups remain with few exceptions free of late complications and with stable graft function and complete donor cell chimerism. Based on our findings, we recommend early and prompt treatment of each diagnosed WAS patient if an HLA-matched, related or unrelated, donor can be identified. If this is not the case, HLA-nonidentical donor transplantation represents an alternative to be considered early in patients with severe disease.
Activation of osteoclasts and their acidification-dependent resorption of bone is thought to maintain proper serum calcium levels. Here we show that osteoclast dysfunction alone does not generally affect calcium homeostasis. Indeed, mice deficient in Src, encoding a tyrosine kinase critical for osteoclast activity, show signs of osteopetrosis, but without hypocalcemia or defects in bone mineralization. Mice deficient in Cckbr, encoding a gastrin receptor that affects acid secretion by parietal cells, have the expected defects in gastric acidification but also secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis and modest hypocalcemia. These results suggest that alterations in calcium homeostasis can be driven by defects in gastric acidification, especially given that calcium gluconate supplementation fully rescues the phenotype of the Cckbr-mutant mice. Finally, mice deficient in Tcirg1, encoding a subunit of the vacuolar proton pump specifically expressed in both osteoclasts and parietal cells, show hypocalcemia and osteopetrorickets. Although neither Src- nor Cckbr-deficient mice have this latter phenotype, the combined deficiency of both genes results in osteopetrorickets. Thus, we find that osteopetrosis and osteopetrorickets are distinct phenotypes, depending on the site or sites of defective acidification.
The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein (WASp) is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton in hematopoietic cells. Mutations of the WASp gene cause WAS. Although WASp is involved in various immune cell functions, its role in invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells has never been investigated. Defects of iNKT cells could indeed contribute to several WAS features, such as recurrent infections and high tumor incidence. We found a profound reduction of circulating iNKT cells in WAS patients, directly correlating with the severity of clinical phenotype. To better characterize iNKT cell defect in the absence of WASp, we analyzed was(-/-) mice. iNKT cell numbers were significantly reduced in the thymus and periphery of was(-/-) mice as compared with wild-type controls. Moreover analysis of was(-/-) iNKT cell maturation revealed a complete arrest at the CD44(+) NK1.1(-) intermediate stage. Notably, generation of BM chimeras demonstrated a was(-/-) iNKT cell-autonomous developmental defect. was(-/-) iNKT cells were also functionally impaired, as suggested by the reduced secretion of interleukin 4 and interferon gamma upon in vivo activation. Altogether, these results demonstrate the relevance of WASp in integrating signals critical for development and functional differentiation of iNKT cells and suggest that defects in these cells may play a role in WAS pathology.
Candida dubliniensis is an emerging fungal pathogen, especially in immunodeficient patients. We report what is to the best of our knowledge the first case of multifocal osteomyelitis following disseminated infection in a patient after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PFGE for typing of C. dubliniensis was developed and the necessity of long-term antifungal therapy is discussed.
Human severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) are phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous diseases. Reticular dysgenesis is the most severe form of inborn SCID. It is characterized by absence of granulocytes and almost complete deficiency of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, hypoplasia of the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs, and lack of innate and adaptive humoral and cellular immune functions, leading to fatal septicemia within days after birth. In bone marrow of individuals with reticular dysgenesis, myeloid differentiation is blocked at the promyelocytic stage, whereas erythro- and megakaryocytic maturation is generally normal. These features exclude a defect in hematopoietic stem cells but point to a unique aberration of the myelo-lymphoid lineages. The dramatic clinical course of reticular dysgenesis and its unique hematological phenotype have spurred interest in the unknown genetic basis of this syndrome. Here we show that the gene encoding the mitochondrial energy metabolism enzyme adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) is mutated in individuals with reticular dysgenesis. Knockdown of zebrafish ak2 also leads to aberrant leukocyte development, stressing the evolutionarily conserved role of AK2. Our results provide in vivo evidence for AK2 selectivity in leukocyte differentiation. These observations suggest that reticular dysgenesis is the first example of a human immunodeficiency syndrome that is causally linked to energy metabolism and that can therefore be classified as a mitochondriopathy.
Osteoclasts are known to be important for the coupling process between bone resorption and formation. The aim of this study was to address when osteoclasts are anabolically active. Human monocytes were differentiated into mature osteoclasts by treatment with M-CSF and RANKL. Conditioned medium was collected from macrophages, pre-osteoclasts, and mature functional or non-resorbing osteopetrotic osteoclasts on either bone, plastic, decalcified bone or dentine with or without diphyllin, E64 or GM6001. Osteoclasts numbers were measured by TRACP activity. Bone resorption was evaluated by CTX-I and calcium release. The osteoblastic cell line 2T3 was treated with 50% of CM or non-CM for 12days. Bone formation was assessed by Alizarin Red extraction. CM from mature osteoclasts induced bone formation, while CM from macrophages did not. Non-resorbing osteoclasts generated from osteopetrosis patients showed little resorption, but still an induction of bone formation by osteoblasts. Mimicking the reduction in bone resorption using the V-ATPase inhibitor Diphyllin, the cysteine proteinase inhibitor E64 and the MMP-inhibitor GM6001 showed that CM from diphyllin and E64 treated osteoclasts showed reduced ability to induce bone formation compared to CM from vehicle treated osteoclasts, while CM from GM6001 treated osteoclasts equaled vehicle CM. Osteoclasts on either dentine or decalcified bone showed strongly attenuated anabolic capacities. In conclusion, we present evidence that osteoclasts, both dependent and independent of their resorptive activity, secrete factors stimulating osteoblastic bone formation.
Hepatic veno-occlusive disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We aimed to assess whether defibrotide can reduce the incidence of veno-occlusive disease in this setting.
Pediatric patients with SCID constitute medical emergencies. In the absence of an HLA-identical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donor, mismatched related-donor transplantation (MMRDT) or unrelated-donor umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) are valuable treatment options. To help transplantation centers choose the best treatment option, we retrospectively compared outcomes after 175 MMRDTs and 74 UCBTs in patients with SCID or Omenn syndrome. Median follow-up time was 83 months and 58 months for UCBT and MMRDT, respectively. Most UCB recipients received a myeloablative conditioning regimen; most MMRDT recipients did not. UCB recipients presented a higher frequency of complete donor chimerism (P = .04) and faster total lymphocyte count recovery (P = .04) without any statistically significance with the preparative regimen they received. The MMRDT and UCBT groups did not differ in terms of T-cell engraftment, CD4(+) and CD3(+) cell recoveries, while Ig replacement therapy was discontinued sooner after UCBT (adjusted P = .02). There was a trend toward a greater incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD (P = .06) and more chronic GVHD (P = .03) after UCBT. The estimated 5-year overall survival rates were 62% ± 4% after MMRDT and 57% ± 6% after UCBT. For children with SCID and no HLA-identical sibling donor, both UCBT and MMRDT represent available HSC sources for transplantation with quite similar outcomes.
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder attributed to reduced bone resorption by osteoclasts. Most human AROs are classified as osteoclast rich, but recently two subsets of osteoclast-poor ARO have been recognized as caused by defects in either TNFSF11 or TNFRSF11A genes, coding the RANKL and RANK proteins, respectively. The RANKL/RANK axis drives osteoclast differentiation and also plays a role in the immune system. In fact, we have recently reported that mutations in the TNFRSF11A gene lead to osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis associated with hypogammaglobulinemia. Here we present the characterization of five additional unpublished patients from four unrelated families in which we found five novel mutations in the TNFRSF11A gene, including two missense and two nonsense mutations and a single-nucleotide insertion. Immunological investigation in three of them showed that the previously described defect in the B cell compartment was present only in some patients and that its severity seemed to increase with age and the progression of the disease. HSCT performed in all five patients almost completely cured the disease even when carried out in late infancy. Hypercalcemia was the most important posttransplant complication. Overall, our results further underline the heterogeneity of human ARO also deriving from the interplay between bone and the immune system, and highlight the prognostic and therapeutic implications of the molecular diagnosis.
Multiple intestinal atresia (MIA) is a rare cause of bowel obstruction that is sometimes associated with a combined immunodeficiency (CID), leading to increased susceptibility to infections. The factors underlying this rare disease are poorly understood. We characterized the immunological and intestinal features of 6 unrelated MIA-CID patients. All patients displayed a profound, generalized lymphocytopenia, with few lymphocytes present in the lymph nodes. The thymus was hypoplastic and exhibited an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells. Patients also had profound disruption of the epithelial barrier along the entire gastrointestinal tract. Using linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing, we identified 10 mutations in tetratricopeptide repeat domain-7A (TTC7A), all of which potentially abrogate TTC7A expression. Intestinal organoid cultures from patient biopsies displayed an inversion of apicobasal polarity of the epithelial cells that was normalized by pharmacological inhibition of Rho kinase. Our data indicate that TTC7A deficiency results in increased Rho kinase activity, which disrupts polarity, growth, and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells, and which impairs immune cell homeostasis, thereby promoting MIA-CID development.
Osteopetrosis is an inherited disorder of impaired bone resorption with the most commonly affected genes being CLCN7 and TCIRG1, encoding the Cl(-) /H(+) exchanger CLC-7 and the a3 subunit of the vacuolar H(+) -ATPase, respectively. We, and others have previously shown that the disease is frequently accompanied by osteomalacia, and that this additional pathology is also found in Tcirg1-deficient oc/oc mice. The remaining question was, whether osteoid enrichment is specifically associated with TCIRG1 inactivation, or whether CLCN7 mutations would also cause skeletal mineralization defects. Here we describe a complete osteologic assessment of one family carrying a novel mutation in CLCN7 (D145G), which impairs the activation and relaxation kinetics of the CLC-7 ion transporter. The two siblings carrying the mutation in the homozygous state displayed high bone mass, increased serum levels of bone formation markers, but no impairment of calcium homeostasis when compared to the other family members. Most importantly however, undecalcified processing of an iliac crest biopsy from one of the affected children clearly demonstrated a pathological increase of trabecular bone mass, but no signs of osteomalacia. Given the potential relevance of these findings we additionally performed undecalcified histology of iliac crest biopsies from seven additional cases with osteopetrosis caused by a mutation in TNFRSF11A (n?=?1), CLCN7 (n?=?3) or TCIRG1 (n?=?3). Here we observed that all cases with TCIRG1-dependent osteopetrosis displayed severe osteoid accumulation and decreased calcium content within the mineralized matrix. In contrast, there was no detectable bone mineralization defect in the cases with TNFRSF11A- or CLCN7-dependent osteopetrosis. Taken together, our analysis demonstrates that CLCN7 and TCIRG1 mutations differentially affect bone matrix mineralization, and that there is a need to modify the current classification of osteopetrosis.
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