JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Acetylation-defective mutant of Ppar? is associated with decreased lipid synthesis in breast cancer cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In our prior publications we characterized a conserved acetylation motif (K(R)xxKK) of evolutionarily related nuclear receptors. Recent reports showed that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) deacetylation by SIRT1 is involved in delaying cellular senescence and maintaining the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue. However, it still remains unknown whether lysyl residues 154 and 155 (K154/155) of the conserved acetylation motif (RIHKK) in Ppar?1 are acetylated. Herein, we demonstrate that Ppar?1 is acetylated and regulated by both endogenous TSA-sensitive and NAD-dependent deacetylases. Acetylation of lysine 154 was identified by mass spectrometry (MS) while deacetylation of lysine 155 by SIRT1 was confirmed by in vitro deacetylation assay. An in vivo labeling assay revealed K154/K155 as bona fide acetylation sites. The conserved acetylation sites of Ppar?1 and the catalytic domain of SIRT1 are both required for the interaction between Ppar?1 and SIRT1. Sirt1 and Ppar?1 converge to govern lipid metabolism in vivo. Acetylation-defective mutants of Ppar?1 were associated with reduced lipid synthesis in ErbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. Together, these results suggest that the conserved lysyl residues K154/K155 of Ppar?1 are acetylated and play an important role in lipid synthesis in ErbB2-positive breast cancer cells.
Related JoVE Video
Mangiferin stimulates carbohydrate oxidation and protects against metabolic disorders induced by high-fat diets.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Excessive dietary fat intake causes systemic metabolic toxicity, manifested in weight gain, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. In addition, carbohydrate utilization as a fuel is substantially inhibited. Correction or reversal of these effects during high-fat diet (HFD) intake is of exceptional interest in light of widespread occurrence of diet-associated metabolic disorders in global human populations. Here we report that mangiferin (MGF), a natural compound (the predominant constituent of Mangifera indica extract from the plant that produces mango), protected against HFD-induced weight gain, increased aerobic mitochondrial capacity and thermogenesis, and improved glucose and insulin profiles. To obtain mechanistic insight into the basis for these effects, we determined that mice exposed to an HFD combined with MGF exhibited a substantial shift in respiratory quotient from fatty acid toward carbohydrate utilization. MGF treatment significantly increased glucose oxidation in muscle of HFD-fed mice without changing fatty acid oxidation. These results indicate that MGF redirects fuel utilization toward carbohydrates. In cultured C2C12 myotubes, MGF increased glucose and pyruvate oxidation and ATP production without affecting fatty acid oxidation, confirming in vivo and ex vivo effects. Furthermore, MGF inhibited anaerobic metabolism of pyruvate to lactate but enhanced pyruvate oxidation. A key target of MGF appears to be pyruvate dehydrogenase, determined to be activated by MGF in a variety of assays. These findings underscore the therapeutic potential of activation of carbohydrate utilization in correction of metabolic syndrome and highlight the potential of MGF to serve as a model compound that can elicit fuel-switching effects.
Related JoVE Video
SIRT2 induces the checkpoint kinase BubR1 to increase lifespan.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mice overexpressing the mitotic checkpoint kinase gene BubR1 live longer, whereas mice hypomorphic for BubR1 (BubR1(H/H)) live shorter and show signs of accelerated aging. As wild-type mice age, BubR1 levels decline in many tissues, a process that is proposed to underlie normal aging and age-related diseases. Understanding why BubR1 declines with age and how to slow this process is therefore of considerable interest. The sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that can delay age-related diseases. Here, we show that the loss of BubR1 levels with age is due to a decline in NAD(+) and the ability of SIRT2 to maintain lysine-668 of BubR1 in a deacetylated state, which is counteracted by the acetyltransferase CBP. Overexpression of SIRT2 or treatment of mice with the NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) increases BubR1 abundance in vivo. Overexpression of SIRT2 in BubR1(H/H) animals increases median lifespan, with a greater effect in male mice. Together, these data indicate that further exploration of the potential of SIRT2 and NAD(+) to delay diseases of aging in mammals is warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Multifunctionalization of cetuximab with bioorthogonal chemistries and parallel EGFR profiling of cell-lines using imaging, FACS and immunoprecipitation approaches.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ability to derivatize antibodies is currently limited by the chemical structure of antibodies as polypeptides. Modern methods of bioorthogonal and biocompatible chemical modifications could make antibody functionalization more predictable and easier, without compromising the functions of the antibody. To explore this concept, we modified the well-known anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) drug, cetuximab (Erbitux®), with 5-azido-2-nitro-benzoyl (ANB) modifications by optimization of an acylation protocol. We then show that the resulting ANB-cetuximab can be reliably modified with dyes (TAMRA and carboxyrhodamine) or a novel synthesized cyclooctyne modified biotin. The resulting dye- and biotin-modified cetuximabs were then tested across several assay platforms with several cell lines including U87, LN229, F98EGFR, F98WT and HEK293 cells. The assay platforms included fluorescence microscopy, FACS and biotin-avidin based immunoprecipitation methods. The modified antibody performs consistently in all of these assay platforms, reliably determining relative abundances of EGFR expression on EGFR expressing cells (LN229 and F98EGFR) and failing to cross react with weak to negative EGFR expressing cells (U87, F98WT and HEK293). The ease of achieving diverse and assay relevant functionalizations as well as the consequent rapid construction of highly correlated antigen expression data sets highlights the power of bioorthogonal and biocompatible methods to conjugate macromolecules. These data provide a proof of concept for a multifunctionalization strategy that leverages the biochemical versatility and antigen specificity of antibodies.
Related JoVE Video
Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase knockdown protects against diet-induced obesity.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In obesity and type 2 diabetes, Glut4 glucose transporter expression is decreased selectively in adipocytes. Adipose-specific knockout or overexpression of Glut4 alters systemic insulin sensitivity. Here we show, using DNA array analyses, that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (Nnmt) is the most strongly reciprocally regulated gene when comparing gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) from adipose-specific Glut4-knockout or adipose-specific Glut4-overexpressing mice with their respective controls. NNMT methylates nicotinamide (vitamin B3) using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. Nicotinamide is a precursor of NAD(+), an important cofactor linking cellular redox states with energy metabolism. SAM provides propylamine for polyamine biosynthesis and donates a methyl group for histone methylation. Polyamine flux including synthesis, catabolism and excretion, is controlled by the rate-limiting enzymes ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine-spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT; encoded by Sat1) and by polyamine oxidase (PAO), and has a major role in energy metabolism. We report that NNMT expression is increased in WAT and liver of obese and diabetic mice. Nnmt knockdown in WAT and liver protects against diet-induced obesity by augmenting cellular energy expenditure. NNMT inhibition increases adipose SAM and NAD(+) levels and upregulates ODC and SSAT activity as well as expression, owing to the effects of NNMT on histone H3 lysine 4 methylation in adipose tissue. Direct evidence for increased polyamine flux resulting from NNMT inhibition includes elevated urinary excretion and adipocyte secretion of diacetylspermine, a product of polyamine metabolism. NNMT inhibition in adipocytes increases oxygen consumption in an ODC-, SSAT- and PAO-dependent manner. Thus, NNMT is a novel regulator of histone methylation, polyamine flux and NAD(+)-dependent SIRT1 signalling, and is a unique and attractive target for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacological Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases improves fitness and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously demonstrated that the deletion of the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (Parp)-1 gene in mice enhances oxidative metabolism, thereby protecting against diet-induced obesity. However, the therapeutic use of PARP inhibitors to enhance mitochondrial function remains to be explored. Here, we show tight negative correlation between Parp-1 expression and energy expenditure in heterogeneous mouse populations, indicating that variations in PARP-1 activity have an impact on metabolic homeostasis. Notably, these genetic correlations can be translated into pharmacological applications. Long-term treatment with PARP inhibitors enhances fitness in mice by increasing the abundance of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and boosting mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Furthermore, PARP inhibitors reverse mitochondrial defects in primary myotubes of obese humans and attenuate genetic defects of mitochondrial metabolism in human fibroblasts and C. elegans. Overall, our work validates in worm, mouse, and human models that PARP inhibition may be used to treat both genetic and acquired muscle dysfunction linked to defective mitochondrial function.
Related JoVE Video
NAD(+)-dependent activation of Sirt1 corrects the phenotype in a mouse model of mitochondrial disease.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitochondrial disorders are highly heterogeneous conditions characterized by defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been proposed as an effective means to correct the biochemical defects and ameliorate the clinical phenotype in these severely disabling, often fatal, disorders. Pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis are targets of Sirtuin1, a NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase. As NAD(+) boosts the activity of Sirtuin1 and other sirtuins, intracellular levels of NAD(+) play a key role in the homeostatic control of mitochondrial function by the metabolic status of the cell. We show here that supplementation with nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD(+) precursor, or reduction of NAD(+) consumption by inhibiting the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, leads to marked improvement of the respiratory chain defect and exercise intolerance of the Sco2 knockout/knockin mouse, a mitochondrial disease model characterized by impaired cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis. This strategy is potentially translatable into therapy of mitochondrial disorders in humans.
Related JoVE Video
Dual mode action of mangiferin in mouse liver under high fat diet.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic over-nutrition is a major contributor to the spread of obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Development of therapeutics has been slow compared to the speedy increase in occurrence of these metabolic disorders. We have identified a natural compound, mangiferin (MGF) (a predominant component of the plants of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Mangifera indica), that can protect against high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby MGF exerts these beneficial effects are unknown. To understand MGF mechanisms of action, we performed unbiased quantitative proteomic analysis of protein profiles in liver of mice fed with HFD utilizing 15N metabolically labeled liver proteins as internal standards. We found that out of 865 quantified proteins 87 of them were significantly differentially regulated by MGF. Among those 87 proteins, 50% of them are involved in two major processes, energy metabolism and biosynthesis of metabolites. Further classification indicated that MGF increased proteins important for mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative activity including oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E1 (Dhtkd1) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1 (Cox6b1). Conversely, MGF reduced proteins critical for lipogenesis such as fatty acid stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (Acac1). These mass spectrometry data were confirmed and validated by western blot assays. Together, data indicate that MGF upregulates proteins pivotal for mitochondrial bioenergetics and downregulates proteins controlling de novo lipogenesis. This novel mode of dual pharmacodynamic actions enables MGF to enhance energy expenditure and inhibit lipogenesis, and thereby correct HFD induced liver steatosis and prevent adiposity. This provides a molecular basis supporting development of MGF or its metabolites into therapeutics to treat metabolic disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This review focuses upon the biology and metabolism of a trace component in foods called nicotinamide riboside. Nicotinamide riboside is a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), and is a source of Vitamin B3. Evidence indicates that nicotinamide riboside has unique properties as a Vitamin B3. We review knowledge of the metabolism of this substance, as well as recent work suggesting novel health benefits that might be associated with nicotinamide riboside taken in larger quantities than is found naturally in foods.
Related JoVE Video
Sirtuin deacetylases as therapeutic targets in the nervous system.
Neurotherapeutics
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sirtuins are a conserved family of deacetylases whose activities are dependent on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Sirtuins act in different cellular compartments, such as the nucleus where they deacetylate histones and transcriptional factors, in the cytoplasm where they modulate cytoskeletal and signaling molecules, and in the mitochondria where they engage components of the metabolic machinery. Collectively, they tune metabolic processes to energy availability, and modulate stress responses, protein aggregation, inflammatory processes, and genome stability. As such, they have garnered much interest and have been widely studied in aging and age-related neurodegeneration. In this chapter, we review the identification of sirtuins and their biological targets. We focus on their biological mechanisms of action and how they might be regulated, including via NAD metabolism, transcriptional and posttranscriptional control, and as targets of pharmacological agents. Lastly, we highlight the numerous studies suggesting that sirtuins are efficacious therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative disease and injury.
Related JoVE Video
SIRT4 represses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? activity to suppress hepatic fat oxidation.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sirtuins are a family of protein deacetylases, deacylases, and ADP-ribosyltransferases that regulate life span, control the onset of numerous age-associated diseases, and mediate metabolic homeostasis. We have uncovered a novel role for the mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT4 in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism during changes in nutrient availability. We show that SIRT4 levels decrease in the liver during fasting and that SIRT4 null mice display increased expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) target genes associated with fatty acid catabolism. Accordingly, primary hepatocytes from SIRT4 knockout (KO) mice exhibit higher rates of fatty acid oxidation than wild-type hepatocytes, and SIRT4 overexpression decreases fatty acid oxidation rates. The enhanced fatty acid oxidation observed in SIRT4 KO hepatocytes requires functional SIRT1, demonstrating a clear cross talk between mitochondrial and nuclear sirtuins. Thus, SIRT4 is a new component of mitochondrial signaling in the liver and functions as an important regulator of lipid metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Nicotinamide riboside restores cognition through an upregulation of proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1? regulated ?-secretase 1 degradation and mitochondrial gene expression in Alzheimers mouse models.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)(+), a coenzyme involved in redox activities in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, has been identified as a key regulator of the lifespan-extending effects, and the activation of NAD(+) expression has been linked with a decrease in beta-amyloid (A?) toxicity in Alzheimers disease (AD). Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a NAD(+) precursor, it promotes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1 (PGC)-1? expression in the brain. Evidence has shown that PGC-1? is a crucial regulator of A? generation because it affects ?-secretase (BACE1) degradation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that NR treatment in an AD mouse model could attenuate A? toxicity through the activation of PGC-1?-mediated BACE1 degradation. Using the Tg2576 AD mouse model, using in vivo behavioral analyses, biochemistry assays, small hairpin RNA (shRNA) gene silencing and electrophysiological recording, we found (1) dietary treatment of Tg2576 mice with 250 mg/kg/day of NR for 3 months significantly attenuates cognitive deterioration in Tg2576 mice and coincides with an increase in the steady-state levels of NAD(+) in the cerebral cortex; (2) application of NR to hippocampal slices (10 ?M) for 4 hours abolishes the deficits in long-term potentiation recorded in the CA1 region of Tg2576 mice; (3) NR treatment promotes PGC-1? expression in the brain coinciding with enhanced degradation of BACE1 and the reduction of A? production in Tg2576 mice. Further in vitro studies confirmed that BACE1 protein content is decreased by NR treatment in primary neuronal cultures derived from Tg2576 embryos, in which BACE1 degradation was prevented by PGC-1?-shRNA gene silencing; and (4) NR treatment and PGC-1? overexpression enhance BACE1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Our studies suggest that dietary treatment with NR might benefit AD cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, in part by promoting PGC-1?-mediated BACE1 ubiquitination and degradation, thus preventing A? production in the brain.
Related JoVE Video
Crosstalk between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and sirtuin enzymes.
Mol. Aspects Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are NAD(+) dependent enzymes that were identified as DNA repair proteins, however, today it seems clear that PARPs are responsible for a plethora of biological functions. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase enzymes involved in the same biological processes as PARPs raising the question whether PARP and SIRT enzymes may interact with each other in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Hereby we review the current understanding of the SIRT-PARP interplay in regard to the biochemical nature of the interaction (competition for the common NAD(+) substrate, mutual posttranslational modifications and direct transcriptional effects) and the physiological or pathophysiological consequences of the interactions (metabolic events, oxidative stress response, genomic stability and aging). Finally, we give an overview of the possibilities of pharmacological intervention to modulate PARP and SIRT enzymes either directly, or through modulating NAD(+) homeostasis.
Related JoVE Video
PARP-2 regulates SIRT1 expression and whole-body energy expenditure.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
SIRT1 is a NAD(+)-dependent enzyme that affects metabolism by deacetylating key transcriptional regulators of energy expenditure. Here, we tested whether deletion of PARP-2, an alternative NAD(+)-consuming enzyme, impacts on NAD(+) bioavailability and SIRT1 activity. Our results indicate that PARP-2 deficiency increases SIRT1 activity in cultured myotubes. However, this increase was not due to changes in NAD(+) levels, but to an increase in SIRT1 expression, as PARP-2 acts as a direct negative regulator of the SIRT1 promoter. PARP-2 deletion in mice increases SIRT1 levels, promotes energy expenditure, and increases mitochondrial content. Furthermore, PARP-2(-/-) mice were protected against diet-induced obesity. Despite being insulin sensitized, PARP-2(-/-) mice were glucose intolerant due to a defective pancreatic function. Hence, while inhibition of PARP activity promotes oxidative metabolism through SIRT1 activation, the use of PARP inhibitors for metabolic purposes will require further understanding of the specific functions of different PARP family members.
Related JoVE Video
PARP-1 inhibition increases mitochondrial metabolism through SIRT1 activation.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
SIRT1 regulates energy homeostasis by controlling the acetylation status and activity of a number of enzymes and transcriptional regulators. The fact that NAD(+) levels control SIRT1 activity confers a hypothetical basis for the design of new strategies to activate SIRT1 by increasing NAD(+) availability. Here we show that the deletion of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) gene, encoding a major NAD(+)-consuming enzyme, increases NAD(+) content and SIRT1 activity in brown adipose tissue and muscle. PARP-1(-/-) mice phenocopied many aspects of SIRT1 activation, such as a higher mitochondrial content, increased energy expenditure, and protection against metabolic disease. Also, the pharmacologic inhibition of PARP in vitro and in vivo increased NAD(+) content and SIRT1 activity and enhanced oxidative metabolism. These data show how PARP-1 inhibition has strong metabolic implications through the modulation of SIRT1 activity, a property that could be useful in the management not only of metabolic diseases, but also of cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanism-based affinity capture of sirtuins.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ability to probe for catalytic activities of enzymes and to detect their abundance in complex biochemical contexts has traditionally relied on a combination of kinetic assays and techniques such as western blots that use expensive reagents such as antibodies. The ability to simultaneously detect activity and isolate a protein catalyst from a mixture is even more difficult and currently impossible in most cases. In this manuscript we describe a chemical approach that achieves this goal for a unique family of enzymes called sirtuins using novel chemical tools, enabling rapid detection of activity and isolation of these protein catalysts. Sirtuin deacetylases are implicated in the regulation of many physiological functions including energy metabolism, DNA-damage response, and cellular stress resistance. We synthesized an aminooxy-derivatized NAD(+) and a pan-sirtuin inhibitor that reacts on sirtuin active sites to form a chemically stable complex that can subsequently be crosslinked to an aldehyde-substituted biotin. Subsequent retrieval of the biotinylated sirtuin complexes on streptavidin beads followed by gel electrophoresis enabled simultaneous detection of active sirtuins, isolation and molecular weight determination. We show that these tools are cross reactive against a variety of human sirtuin isoforms including SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT5, SIRT6 and can react with microbial derived sirtuins as well. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to simultaneously detect multiple sirtuin isoforms in reaction mixtures with this methodology, establishing proof of concept tools for chemical studies of sirtuins in complex biological samples.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of nicotinamidases: steady state kinetic parameters, classwide inhibition by nicotinaldehydes, and catalytic mechanism.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nicotinamidases are metabolic enzymes that hydrolyze nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are widely distributed across biology, with examples found encoded in the genomes of Mycobacteria, Archaea, Eubacteria, Protozoa, yeast, and invertebrates, but there are none found in mammals. Although recent structural work has improved our understanding of these enzymes, their catalytic mechanism is still not well understood. Recent data show that nicotinamidases are required for the growth and virulence of several pathogenic microbes. The enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans regulate life span in their respective organisms, consistent with proposed roles in the regulation of NAD(+) metabolism and organismal aging. In this work, the steady state kinetic parameters of nicotinamidase enzymes from C. elegans, Sa. cerevisiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae (a pathogen responsible for human pneumonia), Borrelia burgdorferi (the pathogen that causes Lyme disease), and Plasmodium falciparum (responsible for most human malaria) are reported. Nicotinamidases are generally efficient catalysts with steady state k(cat) values typically exceeding 1 s(-1). The K(m) values for nicotinamide are low and in the range of 2 -110 ?M. Nicotinaldehyde was determined to be a potent competitive inhibitor of these enzymes, binding in the low micromolar to low nanomolar range for all nicotinamidases tested. A variety of nicotinaldehyde derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors in kinetic assays. Inhibitions are consistent with reaction of the universally conserved catalytic Cys on each enzyme with the aldehyde carbonyl carbon to form a thiohemiacetal complex that is stabilized by a conserved oxyanion hole. The S. pneumoniae nicotinamidase can catalyze exchange of (18)O into the carboxy oxygens of nicotinic acid with H(2)(18)O. The collected data, along with kinetic analysis of several mutants, allowed us to propose a catalytic mechanism that explains nicotinamidase and nicotinic acid (18)O exchange chemistry for the S. pneumoniae enzyme involving key catalytic residues, a catalytic transition metal ion, and the intermediacy of a thioester intermediate.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor target gene TiPARP as a mediator of suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and of nicotinamide as a corrective agent for this effect.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The environmental toxin TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, dioxin) produces diverse toxic effects including a lethal wasting syndrome whose hallmark is suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis. All TCDD toxicities require activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. Whereas the mechanism for AHR induction of target genes is well understood, it is not known how AHR activation produces any TCDD toxicity. This report identifies for the first time an AHR target gene, TiPARP (TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, PARP7) that can mediate a TCDD toxicity, i.e. suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. TCDD suppressed hepatic glucose production, expression of key gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and NAD(+) levels, and increased PARP activity and TiPARP expression. TCDD also increased acetylation and ubiquitin-dependent proteosomal degradation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1 ? (PGC1?), a coactivator of PEPCK and G6Pase transcription. TiPARP overexpression reproduced TCDD effects on glucose output and NAD(+) levels whereas TiPARP silencing diminished them. TiPARP overexpression also increased PGC1? acetylation and decreased PGC1? levels. In contrast, silencing of cytochromes P450 (CYP) 1A, main AHR-induced genes, did not alter TCDD suppression of gluconeogenesis. The vitamin B3 constituent, nicotinamide (NAM), prevented TCDD suppression of glucose output, NAD(+), and gluconeogenic genes and stabilized PGC1?. The corrective effects of NAM could be attributed to increased NAD(+) levels and suppression of AHR target gene induction. The results reveal that TiPARP can mediate a TCDD effect, that the AHR is linked to PGC1? function and stability and that NAM has novel AHR antagonist activity.
Related JoVE Video
High-resolution crystal structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae nicotinamidase with trapped intermediates provide insights into the catalytic mechanism and inhibition by aldehydes .
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nicotinamidases are salvage enzymes that convert nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are essential for the recycling of nicotinamide into NAD(+) in most prokaryotes and most single-cell and multicellular eukaryotes, but not in mammals. The significance of these enzymes for nicotinamide salvage and for NAD(+) homeostasis has stimulated interest in nicotinamidases as possible antibiotic targets. Nicotinamidases are also regulators of intracellular nicotinamide concentrations, thereby regulating signaling of downstream NAD(+)-consuming enzymes, such as the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases (sirtuins). Here, we report several high-resolution crystal structures of the nicotinamidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpNic) in unliganded and ligand-bound forms. The structure of the C136S mutant in complex with nicotinamide provides details about substrate binding, while a trapped nicotinoyl thioester in a complex with SpNic reveals the structure of the proposed thioester reaction intermediate. Examination of the active site of SpNic reveals several important features, including a metal ion that coordinates the substrate and the catalytically relevant water molecule and an oxyanion hole that both orients the substrate and offsets the negative charge that builds up during catalysis. Structures of this enzyme with bound nicotinaldehyde inhibitors elucidate the mechanism of inhibition and provide further details about the catalytic mechanism. In addition, we provide a biochemical analysis of the identity and role of the metal ion that orients the ligand in the active site and activates the water molecule responsible for hydrolysis of the substrate. These data provide structural evidence of several proposed reaction intermediates and allow for a more complete understanding of the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme.
Related JoVE Video
Transition state of ADP-ribosylation of acetyllysine catalyzed by Archaeoglobus fulgidus Sir2 determined by kinetic isotope effects and computational approaches.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sirtuins are protein-modifying enzymes distributed throughout all forms of life. These enzymes bind NAD(+), a universal metabolite, and react it with acetyllysine residues to effect deacetylation of protein side chains. This NAD(+)-dependent deacetylation reaction has been observed for sirtuin enzymes derived from archaeal, eubacterial, yeast, metazoan, and mammalian species, suggesting conserved chemical mechanisms for these enzymes. The first chemical step of deacetylation is the reaction of NAD(+) with an acetyllysine residue which forms an enzyme-bound ADPR-peptidylimidate intermediate and nicotinamide. In this manuscript, the transition state for the ADP-ribosylation of acetyllysine is solved for an Archaeoglobus fulgidus sirtuin (Af2Sir2). Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were obtained by the competitive substrate method and were [1(N)-(15)N] = 1.024(2), [1(N)-(14)C] = 1.014(4), [1(N)-(3)H] = 1.300(3), [2(N)-(3)H] = 1.099(5), [4(N)-(3)H] = 0.997(2), [5(N)-(3)H] = 1.020(5), [4(N)-(18)O] = 0.984(5). KIEs were calculated for candidate transition state structures using computational methods (Gaussian 03 and ISOEFF 98) in order to match computed and experimentally determined KIEs to solve the transition state. The results indicate that the enzyme stabilizes a highly dissociated oxocarbenium ionlike transition state with very low bond orders to the leaving group nicotinamide and the nucleophile acetyllysine. A concerted yet highly asynchronous substitution mechanism forms the ADPR-peptidylimidate intermediate of the sirtuin deacetylation reaction.
Related JoVE Video
Efficient syntheses of clofarabine and gemcitabine from 2-deoxyribonolactone.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The development of a new methodology to achieve electrophilic fluorination of triisopropylsilyl-protected 2-deoxyribonolactone has been employed to synthesize clofarabine and gemcitabine with improved synthetic efficiency versus prior synthetic methods. These studies highlight the versatility of this new methodology to obtain medically relevant 2-fluoronucleosides.
Related JoVE Video
Vitamin B3, the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides and aging.
Mech. Ageing Dev.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Organism aging is a process of time and maturation culminating in senescence and death. The molecular details that define and determine aging have been intensely investigated. It has become appreciated that the process is partly an accumulation of random yet inevitable changes, but it can be strongly affected by genes that alter lifespan. In this review, we consider how NAD(+) metabolism plays important roles in the random patterns of aging, and also in the more programmatic aspects. The derivatives of NAD(+), such as reduced and oxidized forms of NAD(P)(+), play important roles in maintaining and regulating cellular redox state, Ca(2+) stores, DNA damage and repair, stress responses, cell cycle timing and lipid and energy metabolism. NAD(+) is also a substrate for signaling enzymes like the sirtuins and poly-ADP-ribosylpolymerases, members of a broad family of protein deacetylases and ADP-ribosyltransferases that regulate fundamental cellular processes such as transcription, recombination, cell division, proliferation, genome maintenance, apoptosis, stress resistance and senescence. NAD(+)-dependent enzymes are increasingly appreciated to regulate the timing of changes that lead to aging phenotypes. We consider how metabolism, specifically connected with Vitamin B3 and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides and their derivatives, occupies a central place in the aging processes of mammals.
Related JoVE Video
Sirtuin chemical mechanisms.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sirtuins are ancient proteins widely distributed in all lifeforms of earth. These proteins are universally able to bind NAD(+), and activate it to effect ADP-ribosylation of cellular nucleophiles. The most commonly observed sirtuin reaction is the ADP-ribosylation of acetyllysine, which leads to NAD(+)-dependent deacetylation. Other types of ADP-ribosylation have also been observed, including protein ADP-ribosylation, NAD(+) solvolysis and ADP-ribosyltransfer to 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, a reaction involved in eubacterial cobalamin biosynthesis. This review broadly surveys the chemistries and chemical mechanisms of these enzymes.
Related JoVE Video
A synchrotron radiation study of the one-dimensional complex of sodium with (1S)-N-carboxylato-1-(9-deazaadenin-9-yl)-1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitol, a member of the immucillin family.
Acta Crystallogr C
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The sodium salt of [immucillin-A-CO(2)H](-) (Imm-A), namely catena-poly[[[triaquadisodium(I)](mu-aqua)[mu-(1S)-N-carboxylato-1-(9-deazaadenin-9-yl)-1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitol][triaquadisodium(I)][mu-(1S)-N-carboxylato-1-(9-deazaadenin-9-yl)-1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitol]] tetrahydrate], {[Na(2)(C(12)H(13)N(4)O(6))(2)(H(2)O)(7)] x 4 H(2)O}(n), (I), forms a polymeric chain via Na(+)-O interactions involving the carboxylate and keto O atoms of two independent Imm-A molecules. Extensive N,O-H...O hydrogen bonding utilizing all water H atoms, including four waters of crystallization, provides crystal packing. The structural definition of this novel compound was made possible through the use of synchrotron radiation utilizing a minute fragment (volume approximately 2.4 x 10(-5) mm(-3)) on a beamline optimized for protein data collection. A summary of intra-ring conformations for immucillin structures indicates considerable flexibility while retaining similar intra-ring orientations.
Related JoVE Video
Diastereocontrolled electrophilic fluorinations of 2-deoxyribonolactone: syntheses of all corresponding 2-deoxy-2-fluorolactones and 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-NAD+s.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Methods to construct 2-deoxy-2-fluoro nucleosides have undergone limited improvement in the last 20 years in spite of the substantially increased value of these compounds as pharmaceuticals and as tools for studying biological processes. We herein describe a consolidated approach to synthesize precursors to these commercially and scientifically valuable compounds via diastereocontrolled fluorination of the readily available precursor 2-deoxy-d-ribonolactone. With employment of appropriate sterically bulky silyl protecting groups at the 3 and 5 positions, controlled electrophilic fluorination of the Li-ribonolactone enolate by N-fluorodibenzenesulfonamide yielded the corresponding 2-deoxy-2-fluoroarabinolactone in high isolated yield (72%). The protected 2-deoxy-2,2-difluororibonolactone was obtained similarly in high yield from a second round of electrophilic fluorination (two steps, 51% from protected ribonolactone starting material). Accomplishment of the difficult ribofluorination of the lactone was achieved by the directive effects of a diastereoselectively installed alpha-trimethylsilyl group. Electrophilic fluorination of a protected 2-deoxy-2-trimethylsilylarabinolactone via enolate generation provided the protected 2-deoxy-2-fluororibolactone as the exclusive fluorinated product. The reaction also yielded the starting material, the desilylated protected 2-deoxyribonolactone, which was recycled to provide a 38% chemical yield of the fluorinated product (versus initial protected ribonolactone) after consecutive silylation and fluorination cycles. Using our fluorinated sugar precursors, we prepared the 2-fluoroarabino-, 2-fluororibo-, and 2,2-difluoronicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD(+)) of potential biological interest. These syntheses provide the most consolidated and efficient methods for production of sugar precursors of 2-deoxy-2-fluoronucleosides and have the advantage of utilizing an air-stable electrophilic fluorinating agent. The fluorinated NAD(+)s are anticipated to be useful for studying a variety of cellular metabolic and signaling processes.
Related JoVE Video
Global analysis of transcriptional regulation by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) are enzymes that modify target proteins by the addition and removal, respectively, of ADP-ribose polymers. Although a role for PARP-1 in gene regulation has been well established, the role of PARG is less clear. To investigate how PARP-1 and PARG coordinately regulate global patterns of gene expression, we used short hairpin RNAs to stably knock down PARP-1 or PARG in MCF-7 cells followed by expression microarray analyses. Correlation analyses showed that the majority of genes affected by the knockdown of one factor were similarly affected by the knockdown of the other factor. The most robustly regulated common genes were enriched for stress-response and metabolic functions. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, PARP-1 and PARG localized to the promoters of positively and negatively regulated target genes. The levels of chromatin-bound PARG at a given promoter generally correlated with the levels of PARP-1 across the subset of promoters tested. For about half of the genes tested, the binding of PARP-1 at the promoter was dependent on the binding of PARG. Experiments using stable re-expression of short hairpin RNA-resistant catalytic mutants showed that PARP-1 and PARG enzymatic activities are required for some, but not all, target genes. Collectively, our results indicate that PARP-1 and PARG, nuclear enzymes with opposing enzymatic activities, localize to target promoters and act in a similar, rather than antagonistic, manner to regulate gene expression.
Related JoVE Video
Enzymes in the NAD+ salvage pathway regulate SIRT1 activity at target gene promoters.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In mammals, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMNAT-1) constitute a nuclear NAD(+) salvage pathway which regulates the functions of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes such as the protein deacetylase SIRT1. One of the major functions of SIRT1 is to regulate target gene transcription through modification of chromatin-associated proteins. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which NAD(+) biosynthetic enzymes regulate SIRT1 activity to control gene transcription in the nucleus. In this study we show that stable short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of NAMPT or NMNAT-1 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells reduces total cellular NAD(+) levels and alters global patterns of gene expression. Furthermore, we show that SIRT1 plays a key role in mediating the gene regulatory effects of NAMPT and NMNAT-1. Specifically, we found that SIRT1 binds to the promoters of genes commonly regulated by NAMPT, NMNAT-1, and SIRT1 and that SIRT1 histone deacetylase activity is regulated by NAMPT and NMNAT-1 at these promoters. Most significantly, NMNAT-1 interacts with, and is recruited to target gene promoters by SIRT1. Collectively, our results reveal a mechanism for the direct control of SIRT1 deacetylase activity at a set of target gene promoters by NMNAT-1. This mechanism, in collaboration with NAMPT-dependent regulation of nuclear NAD(+) production, establishes an important pathway for transcription regulation by NAD(+).
Related JoVE Video
Pharmaceutical strategies for activating sirtuins.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The sirtuins are protein modifying enzymes widely distributed in all forms of life. The sirtuins are principally NAD(+)-dependent protein acetyl-lysine deacetylases that reverse acetyl-modifications of proteins. The sirtuins are implicated in a variety of adaptations to reduced nutritional intake, and increase lifespan in several model organisms, such as yeast, flies and worms. The human sirtuins (SIRT1-7) have been identified to regulate a variety of biological processes, such as glucose homeostasis, gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, insulin secretion, adipogenesis and adipolysis, apoptosis, senescence and metabolism. The potency of sirtuins in regulating mammalian biological processes invites consideration of them as potential drug targets. This review considers small molecule approaches to activate sirtuins in a biochemical and biological context. These approaches include allosteric activation, which has been demonstrated for the SIRT1 enzyme. Another approach discussed is enhancement of NAD+ levels in cells, since sirtuins appear to be responsive to increased cellular NAD+. Finally, a sirtuin-specific approach is considered that is called nicotinamide derepression. This approach is designed to antagonize physiologic nicotinamide inhibition of sirtuins as a means to upregulate sirtuin function. Biological data that provides evidence of effectiveness of these approaches in in vitro and in vivo contexts is presented along with a discussion of the theoretical considerations that underpin these strategies. Efficacies and shortcomings of the various approaches are also discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Sirtuins: NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase mechanism and regulation.
Curr Opin Chem Biol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases involved in chemical reversal of acetyllysine modifications of cellular proteins. Deacetylation catalyzed by sirtuins is implicated in regulating diverse biological processes, including energy homeostasis. The mechanism of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylation is proposed to occur via an ADPR-peptidyl-imidate intermediate, resulting from reaction of NAD(+) and an acetyllysine residue. This mechanism enables sirtuins to respond dynamically to intracellular fluctuations of NAD(+) and nicotinamide. Chemical probes such as nicotinamide antagonists and thioacetyl compounds provide key support for the imidate mechanism of sirtuin deacetylation catalysis. Novel new directions include chemical probes to study sirtuins in cells, and the discovery of novel post-translational modifications besides acetyl, such as succinyl and malonyl, that are regulated by sirtuins.
Related JoVE Video
The NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity.
Cell Metab.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As NAD(+) is a rate-limiting cosubstrate for the sirtuin enzymes, its modulation is emerging as a valuable tool to regulate sirtuin function and, consequently, oxidative metabolism. In line with this premise, decreased activity of PARP-1 or CD38-both NAD(+) consumers-increases NAD(+) bioavailability, resulting in SIRT1 activation and protection against metabolic disease. Here we evaluated whether similar effects could be achieved by increasing the supply of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a recently described natural NAD(+) precursor with the ability to increase NAD(+) levels, Sir2-dependent gene silencing, and replicative life span in yeast. We show that NR supplementation in mammalian cells and mouse tissues increases NAD(+) levels and activates SIRT1 and SIRT3, culminating in enhanced oxidative metabolism and protection against high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. Consequently, our results indicate that the natural vitamin NR could be used as a nutritional supplement to ameliorate metabolic and age-related disorders characterized by defective mitochondrial function.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.