Recent studies have demonstrated important roles of nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in promoting protective antibody responses against several viruses. To dissect how recognition of nucleic acids by TLRs enhances germinal center (GC) responses, mice selectively deleted for myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88) in B cells or dendritic cells (DCs) were immunized with a haptenated protein antigen bound to a TLR9 ligand. TLR9 signaling in DCs led to greater numbers of follicular helper T (TFH) cells and GC B cells, and accelerated production of broad-affinity antihapten IgG. In addition to modulating GC selection by increasing inducible costimulator (ICOS) expression on TFH cells and reducing the number of follicular regulatory T cells, MyD88-dependent signaling in B cells enhanced GC output by augmenting a class switch to IgG2a, affinity maturation, and the memory antibody response. Thus, attachment of a TLR9 ligand to an oligovalent antigen acted on DCs and B cells to coordinate changes in the T-cell compartment and also promoted B cell-intrinsic effects that ultimately programmed a more potent GC response.
Low-grade systemic inflammation is often associated with metabolic syndrome, which plays a critical role in the development of the obesity-associated inflammatory diseases, including insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Here, we investigate how Toll-like receptor-MyD88 signaling in myeloid and endothelial cells coordinately participates in the initiation and progression of high fat diet-induced systemic inflammation and metabolic inflammatory diseases. MyD88 deficiency in myeloid cells inhibits macrophage recruitment to adipose tissue and their switch to an M1-like phenotype. This is accompanied by substantially reduced diet-induced systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. MyD88 deficiency in endothelial cells results in a moderate reduction in diet-induced adipose macrophage infiltration and M1 polarization, selective insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue, and amelioration of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Both in vivo and ex vivo studies suggest that MyD88-dependent GM-CSF production from the endothelial cells might play a critical role in the initiation of obesity-associated inflammation and development of atherosclerosis by priming the monocytes in the adipose and arterial tissues to differentiate into M1-like inflammatory macrophages. Collectively, these results implicate a critical MyD88-dependent interplay between myeloid and endothelial cells in the initiation and progression of obesity-associated inflammatory diseases.
The intracellular tyrosine kinase Lyn mediates inhibitory receptor function in B cells and myeloid cells, and Lyn(-/-) mice spontaneously develop an autoimmune and inflammatory disease that closely resembles human systemic lupus erythematosus. TLR-signaling pathways have been implicated in the production of anti-nuclear Abs in systemic lupus erythematosus and mouse models of it. We used a conditional allele of Myd88 to determine whether the autoimmunity of Lyn(-/-) mice is dependent on TLR/MyD88 signaling in B cells and/or in dendritic cells (DCs). The production of IgG anti-nuclear Abs, as well as the deposition of these Abs in the glomeruli of the kidneys, leading to glomerulonephritis in Lyn(-/-) mice, were completely abolished by selective deletion of Myd88 in B cells, and autoantibody production and glomerulonephritis were delayed or decreased by deletion of Myd88 in DCs. The reduced autoantibody production in mice lacking MyD88 in B cells or DCs was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the spontaneous germinal center (GC) response, suggesting that autoantibodies in Lyn(-/-) mice may depend on GC responses. Consistent with this view, IgG anti-nuclear Abs were absent if T cells were deleted (TCR?(-/-) TCR?(-/-) mice) or if T cells were unable to contribute to GC responses as the result of mutation of the adaptor molecule SAP. Thus, the autoimmunity of Lyn(-/-) mice was dependent on T cells and on TLR/MyD88 signaling in B cells and in DCs, supporting a model in which DC hyperactivity combines with defects in tolerance in B cells to lead to a T cell-dependent systemic autoimmunity in Lyn(-/-) mice.
The Lyn tyrosine kinase regulates inhibitory signaling in B and myeloid cells: loss of Lyn results in a lupus-like autoimmune disease with hyperactive B cells and myeloproliferation. We have characterized the relative contribution of Lyn-regulated signaling pathways in B cells specifically to the development of autoimmunity by crossing the novel lyn(flox/flox) animals with mice carrying the Cre recombinase under the control of the Cd79a promoter, resulting in deletion of Lyn in B cells. The specific deletion of Lyn in B cells is sufficient for the development of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. The B cell-specific Lyn-deficient mice have no defects in early bone marrow B cell development but have reduced numbers of mature B cells with poor germinal centers, as well as increased numbers of plasma and B1a cells, similar to the lyn(-/-) animals. Within 8 mo of life, B cell-specific Lyn mutant mice develop high titers of IgG anti-Smith Ag ribonucleoprotein and anti-dsDNA autoantibodies, which deposit in their kidneys, resulting in glomerulonephritis. B cell-specific Lyn mutant mice also develop myeloproliferation, similar to the lyn(-/-) animals. The additional deletion of MyD88 in B cells, achieved by crossing lyn(flox/flox)Cd79a-cre mice with myd88(flox/flox) animals, reversed the autoimmune phenotype observed in B cell-specific Lyn-deficient mice by blocking production of class-switched pathogenic IgG autoantibodies. Our results demonstrate that B cell-intrinsic Lyn-dependent signaling pathways regulate B cell homeostasis and activation, which in concert with B cell-specific MyD88 signaling pathways can drive the development of autoimmune disease.
Signaling downstream of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is tightly regulated to enable cells to gauge the strength and duration of antigen-receptor interactions and to respond appropriately. We investigated whether metabolism of the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) by members of the family of DAG kinases (DGKs) played a role in modulating the magnitude of signaling by DAG downstream of the BCR. In the absence of DGK?, the threshold for BCR signaling, measured as activation of the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, was markedly reduced in mature follicular B cells, which resulted in enhanced responses to antigen in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of DAG signaling by DGK? limited the number of antibody-secreting cells that were generated early in response to T cell-independent type 2 antigens, as well as to T cell-dependent antigens. Furthermore, the effect of loss of DGK? closely resembled the effect of increasing the affinity of the BCR for antigen during the T cell-dependent antibody response. These results suggest that the magnitude of DAG signaling is important for translating the affinity of the BCR for antigen into the amount of antibody produced during the early stages of an immune response.
Deletion of lyn, a Src-family tyrosine kinase expressed by B, myeloid, and dendritic cells (DCs), triggers lupus-like disease in mice, characterized by autoantibody production and renal immune complex deposition leading to chronic glomerulonephritis. B cells from these mice are hyperactive to antigen-receptor stimulation owing to a loss of inhibitory signaling mediated by Lyn kinase. The hyperactive B-cell responses are thought to underlie the development of autoimmunity in this model. Lyn-deficient mice also manifest significant myeloexpansion. To test the contribution of different immune cell types to the lupus-like disease in this model, we generated a lyn(flox/flox) transgenic mouse strain. To our surprise, when we crossed these mice to Cd11c-cre animals, generating DC-specific deletion of Lyn, the animals developed spontaneous B- and T-cell activation and subsequent production of autoantibodies and severe nephritis. Remarkably, the DC-specific Lyn-deficient mice also developed severe tissue inflammatory disease, which was not present in the global lyn(-/-) strain. Lyn-deficient DCs were hyperactivated and hyperresponsive to Toll-like receptor agonists and IL-1?. To test whether dysregulation of these signaling pathways in DCs contributed to the inflammatory/autoimmune phenotype, we crossed the lyn(f/f) Cd11c-cre(+) mice to myd88(f/f) animals, generating double-mutant mice lacking both Lyn and the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in DCs, specifically. Deletion of MyD88 in DCs alone completely reversed the inflammatory autoimmunity in the DC-specific Lyn-mutant mice. Thus, we demonstrate that hyperactivation of MyD88-dependent signaling in DCs is sufficient to drive pathogenesis of lupus-like disease, illuminating the fact that dysregulation in innate immune cells alone can lead to autoimmunity.
Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. The Tnip1 gene encodes A20 binding and inhibitor of NF-?B-1 (ABIN-1) protein and is strongly associated with susceptibility to psoriasis in humans. ABIN-1, a widely expressed ubiquitin-binding protein, restricts TNF- and TLR-induced signals. In this study, we report that mice lacking ABIN-1 specifically in dendritic cells (DCs), ABIN-1(fl) CD11c-Cre mice, exhibit perturbed immune homeostasis. ABIN-1-deficient DCs display exaggerated NF-?B and MAPK signaling and produce more IL-23 than do normal cells in response to TLR ligands. Challenge of ABIN-1(fl) CD11c-Cre mice with topical TLR7 ligand leads to greater numbers of Th17 and TCR?? T cells and exacerbated development of psoriaform lesions. These phenotypes are reversed by DC-specific deletion of the TLR adaptor MyD88. These studies link ABIN-1 with IL-23 and IL-17, and they provide cellular and molecular mechanisms by which ABIN-1 regulates susceptibility to psoriasis.
The intracellular signaling molecule TRAF6 is critical for Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated activation of dendritic cells (DCs). We now report that DC-specific deletion of TRAF6 (TRAF6?DC) resulted, unexpectedly, in loss of mucosal tolerance, characterized by spontaneous development of T helper 2 (Th2) cells in the lamina propria and eosinophilic enteritis and fibrosis in the small intestine. Loss of tolerance required the presence of gut commensal microbiota but was independent of DC-expressed MyD88. Further, TRAF6?DC mice exhibited decreased regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers in the small intestine and diminished induction of iTreg cells in response to model antigen. Evidence suggested that this defect was associated with diminished DC expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Finally, we demonstrate that aberrant Th2 cell-associated responses in TRAF6?DC mice could be mitigated via restoration of Treg cell activity. Collectively, our findings reveal a role for TRAF6 in directing DC maintenance of intestinal immune tolerance through balanced induction of Treg versus Th2 cell immunity.
Lyn kinase deficient mice represent a well established genetic model of autoimmune/autoinflammatory disease that resembles systemic lupus erythematosus. We report that IL-10 plays a crucial immunosuppressive role in this model, modulating the inflammatory component of the disease caused by myeloid and T-cell activation. Double-mutant lyn(-/-)IL-10(-/-) mice manifested severe splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, dramatically increased proinflammatory cytokine production, and severe tissue inflammation. Single-mutant lyn(-/-)mice showed expansion of IL-10-producing B cells. Interestingly, WT B cells adoptively transferred into lyn(-/-) mice showed increased differentiation into IL-10-producing B cells that assumed a similar phenotype to endogenous lyn(-/-) IL-10-producing B cells, suggesting that the inflammatory environment present in lyn(-/-) mice induces IL-10-producing B-cell differentiation. B cells, but not T or myeloid cells, were the critical source of IL-10 able to reduce inflammation and autoimmunity in double mutant lyn(-/-)IL-10(-/-) mice. IL-10 secretion by B cells was also crucial to sustain transcription factor Forkhead Box P3 (Foxp3) expression in regulatory T cells during disease development. These data reveal a dominant immunosuppressive function of B-cell-derived IL-10 in the Lyn-deficient model of autoimmunity, extending our current understanding of the role of IL-10 and IL-10-producing B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Lyn, an Src-family protein tyrosine kinase expressed in B lymphocytes, contributes to initiation of BCR signaling and is also responsible for feedback inhibition of BCR signaling. Lyn-deficient mice have a decreased number of follicular B cells and also spontaneously develop a lupus-like autoimmunity. We used flow cytometric analysis, BrdU labeling and our mathematical models of B-cell population dynamics, to analyze how Lyn deficiency impacts B-cell maturation and survival. We found that Lyn-deficient transitional 1 (T1) cells develop normally, but T2 cells develop primarily from the T1 subset in the spleen and fail to also develop directly from BM immature B cells. Lyn-deficient T2 cells either mature to the follicular B-cell type at a close to normal rate, or die in this compartment rather than access the T3 anergic subset. The ? 40% of WT follicular cells that were short-lived exited primarily by joining the T3 anergic subset, whereas the ? 15% Lyn(-/-) follicular cells that were not long lived had a high death rate and died in this compartment rather than entering the T3 subset. We hypothesize that exaggerated BCR signaling resulting from weak interactions with self-antigens is largely responsible for these alterations in Lyn-deficient B cells.
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors thousands of bacterial species that include symbionts as well as potential pathogens. The immune responses that limit access of these bacteria to underlying tissue remain poorly defined. Here we show that ?? intraepithelial lymphocytes (?? IEL) of the small intestine produce innate antimicrobial factors in response to resident bacterial "pathobionts" that penetrate the intestinal epithelium. ?? IEL activation was dependent on epithelial cell-intrinsic MyD88, suggesting that epithelial cells supply microbe-dependent cues to ?? IEL. Finally, ?? T cells protect against invasion of intestinal tissues by resident bacteria specifically during the first few hours after bacterial encounter, indicating that ?? IEL occupy a unique temporal niche among intestinal immune defenses. Thus, ?? IEL detect the presence of invading bacteria through cross-talk with neighboring epithelial cells and are an essential component of the hierarchy of immune defenses that maintain homeostasis with the intestinal microbiota.
The Src-family tyrosine kinase Lyn negatively regulates BCR signaling and also myeloid cell activity. Mice deficient in Lyn have substantially decreased numbers of peripheral B cells, despite spontaneously producing IgG anti-DNA antibodies. Here, we examine the mechanism underlying the B-cell depletion in these mice. Lyn-deficient B cells were out-competed by WT B cells in mixed BM chimeras at two steps, at the T1 to T2 transitional maturation stage in the spleen and again between the T2 or T3 stage and the mature follicular B-cell population. Lyn-deficient T2 and follicular B cells expressed elevated levels of the pro-apoptotic factor Bim and deletion of Bim restored splenic B cells of Lyn-deficient mice to close to WT numbers. Lyn-deficient T2 and later stage B cells also had changes in cell surface phenotype consistent with increased in vivo BCR signaling. Similarly, an increased proportion of T2 and follicular B cells had elevated basal intracellular free calcium levels. Overall, these observations suggest that increased BCR signaling is responsible for increased death of weakly self-reactive Lyn-deficient B cells both at the T2 stage and additionally as these cells mature to follicular B cells.
Dendritic cells (DCs), which are known to support immune activation during infection, may also regulate immune homeostasis in resting animals. Here we show that mice lacking the ubiquitin-editing molecule A20 specifically in DCs spontaneously showed DC activation and population expansion of activated T cells. Analysis of DC-specific epistasis in compound mice lacking both A20 and the signaling adaptor MyD88 specifically in DCs showed that A20 restricted both MyD88-independent signals, which drive activation of DCs and T cells, and MyD88-dependent signals, which drive population expansion of T cells. In addition, mice lacking A20 specifically in DCs spontaneously developed lymphocyte-dependent colitis, seronegative ankylosing arthritis and enthesitis, conditions stereotypical of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our findings indicate that DCs need A20 to preserve immune quiescence and suggest that A20-dependent DC functions may underlie IBD and IBD-associated arthritides.
Inflammatory signals induced during infection regulate T-cell expansion, differentiation, and memory formation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are inflammatory mediators that allow innate immune cells to recognize and respond to invading pathogens. In addition to their role in innate immune cells, we have found that signals delivered through the TLR adapter protein myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) play a critical, T cell-intrinsic role in supporting the survival and accumulation of antigen-specific effector cells after acute viral infection. However, the importance of MyD88-dependent signals in regulating the generation and maintenance of memory T cells remained unclear. To address this, we used a novel, inducible knockout system to examine whether MyD88 is required for optimal memory CD8 T-cell generation and responses after lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. We show that whereas MyD88 is critical for initial T-cell expansion, it is not required for the subsequent differentiation and stable maintenance of a memory T-cell population. Furthermore, in contrast to naive CD8 T cells, memory CD8 T cells do not depend on MyD88 for their secondary expansion. Our findings clarify the importance of MyD88 during distinct phases of the antiviral T-cell response and establish differential dependence on MyD88 signaling as a novel characteristic that distinguishes naive from memory CD8 T cells.
The contribution of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling to T cell-dependent (TD) antibody responses was assessed by using mice lacking the TLR signaling adaptor MyD88 in individual cell types. When a soluble TLR9 ligand was used as adjuvant for a protein antigen, MyD88 was required in dendritic cells but not in B cells to enhance the TD antibody response, regardless of the inherent immunogenicity of the antigen. In contrast, a TLR9 ligand contained within a virus-like particle substantially augmented the TD germinal center IgG antibody response, and this augmentation required B cell MyD88. The ability of B cells to discriminate between antigens based on the physical form of a TLR ligand probably reflects an adaptation to facilitate strong antiviral antibody responses.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in host defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. We addressed the mechanism by which TLRs contribute to host defense against the lethal parasite Toxoplasma gondii by using mice with targeted inactivation of the TLR adaptor protein myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in different innate cell types. Lack of MyD88 in dendritic cells (DCs), but not in macrophages or neutrophils, resulted in high susceptibility to the T. gondii infection. In the mice deficient in MyD88 in DCs, the early IL-12 response by DCs was ablated, the IFN-? response by natural killer cells was delayed, and the recruited inflammatory monocytes were incapable of killing the T. gondii parasites. The T-cell response, although attenuated in these mice, was sufficient to eradicate the parasite during the chronic stage, provided that defects in DC activation were compensated by IL-12 treatment early after infection. These results demonstrate a central role of DCs in orchestrating the innate immune response to an intracellular pathogen and establish that defects in pathogen recognition by DCs can predetermine sensitivity to infection.
Autoimmunity is traditionally attributed to altered lymphoid cell selection and/or tolerance, whereas the contribution of innate immune cells is less well understood. Autoimmunity is also associated with increased levels of B cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF; also known as B lymphocyte stimulator), a cytokine that promotes survival of self-reactive B cell clones. We describe an important role for myeloid cells in autoimmune disease progression. Using Lyn-deficient mice, we show that overproduction of BAFF by hyperactive myeloid cells contributes to inflammation and autoimmunity in part by acting directly on T cells to induce the release of IFN-gamma. Genetic deletion of IFN-gamma or reduction of BAFF activity, achieved by either reducing myeloid cell hyperproduction or by treating with an anti-BAFF monoclonal antibody, reduced disease development in lyn(-/-) mice. The increased production of IFN-gamma in lyn(-/-) mice feeds back on the myeloid cells to further stimulate BAFF release. Expression of BAFF receptor on T cells was required for their full activation and IFN-gamma release. Overall, our data suggest that the reciprocal production of BAFF and IFN-gamma establishes an inflammatory loop between myeloid cells and T cells that exacerbates autoimmunity in this model. Our findings uncover an important pathological role of BAFF in autoimmune disorders.
To better understand whether autoimmunity in Lyn-deficient mice arises from compromised central or peripheral B cell tolerance, we examined BCR signaling properties of wild-type and Lyn-deficient B cells at different stages of development. Wild-type mature follicular B cells were less sensitive to BCR stimulation than were immature transitional stage 1 B cells with regard to BCR-induced calcium elevation and ERK MAPK activation. In the absence of Lyn, mature B cell signaling was greatly enhanced, whereas immature B cell signaling was minimally affected. Correspondingly, Lyn deficiency substantially enhanced the sensitivity of mature B cells to activation via the BCR, but minimally affected events associated with tolerance induction at the immature stage. The effects of CD22 deficiency on BCR signaling were very similar in B cells at different stages of maturation. These results indicate that the Lyn-CD22-Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 inhibitory pathway largely becomes operational as B cell mature, and sets a threshold for activation that appears to be critical for the maintenance of tolerance in the B cell compartment.
Dietary sodium indiscretion frequently contributes to hospitalizations in elderly heart failure patients. Animal models suggest an important role for dietary sodium intake in the pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved systolic function. The documentation and effects of hospital discharge recommendations, particularly for sodium-restricted diet, have not been extensively investigated in heart failure with preserved systolic function.
AVID (Angiography Versus Intravascular ultrasound-Directed stent placement) is a multicenter, randomized controlled trial designed to assess the effect of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-directed stent placement on the 12-month rate of target lesion revascularization (TLR).
Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by pathogens triggers cytokine production and T cell activation, immune defense mechanisms that are linked to immunopathology. Here we show that IFN-? production by CD4(+) T(H)1 cells during mucosal responses to the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii resulted in dysbiosis and the elimination of Paneth cells. Paneth cell death led to loss of antimicrobial peptides and occurred in conjunction with uncontrolled expansion of the Enterobacteriaceae family of Gram-negative bacteria. The expanded intestinal bacteria were required for the parasite-induced intestinal pathology. The investigation of cell type-specific factors regulating T(H)1 polarization during T. gondii infection identified the T cell-intrinsic TLR pathway as a major regulator of IFN-? production in CD4(+) T cells responsible for Paneth cell death, dysbiosis and intestinal immunopathology.
Type I interferons (T1IFNs) are among the earliest cytokines produced during infections due to their direct regulation by innate immune signaling pathways. Reports have suggested that T1IFNs are produced during malaria infection, but little is known about the in vivo cellular origins of T1IFNs or their role in protection. We have found that in addition to plasmacytoid dendritic cells, splenic red pulp macrophages (RPMs) can generate significant quantities of T1IFNs in response to P. chabaudi infection in a TLR9-, MYD88-, and IRF7-dependent manner. Furthermore, T1IFNs regulate expression of interferon-stimulated genes redundantly with Interferon-gamma (IFNG), resulting in redundancy for resistance to experimental malaria infection. Despite their role in sensing and promoting immune responses to infection, we observe that RPMs are dispensable for control of parasitemia. Our results reveal that RPMs are early sentinels of malaria infection, but that effector mechanisms previously attributed to RPMs are not essential for control.
We have investigated the intracellular sources and physiological function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in primary B cells in response to BCR stimulation. BCR stimulation of primary resting murine B cells induced the rapid production of ROS that occurred within minutes and was maintained for at least 24 h after receptor stimulation. While the early production of ROS (0-2 h) was dependent on the Nox2 isoform of NADPH oxidase, at later stages of B cell activation (6-24 h) ROS were generated by a second pathway, which appeared to be dependent on mitochondrial respiration. B cells from mice deficient in the Nox2 NADPH oxidase complex lacked detectable early production of extracellular and intracellular ROS after BCR stimulation but had normal proximal BCR signaling and BCR-induced activation and proliferation in vitro and mounted normal or somewhat elevated Ab responses in vivo. In contrast, neutralizing both pathways of BCR-derived ROS with the scavenger N-acetylcysteine resulted in impaired in vitro BCR-induced activation and proliferation and attenuated BCR signaling through the PI3K pathway at later times. These results indicate that the production of ROS downstream of the BCR is derived from at least two distinct cellular sources and plays a critical role at the later stages of B cell activation by promoting sustained BCR signaling via the PI3K pathway, which is needed for effective B cell responses to Ag.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have emerged as one of the most important families of innate immune receptors for initiating inflammation and also for promoting adaptive immune responses. Recent studies have examined the ability of TLRs to promote antibody responses, including T-cell-dependent antibody responses. Initial study suggested that TLR stimulation promotes primarily an extrafollicular antibody response, which rapidly produces moderate affinity antibodies made by short-lived plasma cells. Recent studies, however, have shown that TLRs can also enhance the germinal center response, which produces high affinity class-switched antibody made by long-lived plasma cells. TLR stimulation can increase the magnitude of the latter response and also enhance selection for high affinity IgG. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles of TLRs in B cells and also in other cell types for enhancement of antibody responses, with an emphasis on T-cell-dependent and germinal center antibody responses.
IL-1 has been shown to have strong mucosal adjuvant activities, but little is known about its mechanism of action. We vaccinated IL-1R1 bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice to determine whether IL-1R1 expression on stromal cells or hematopoietic cells was sufficient for the maximal adjuvant activity of nasally delivered IL-1? as determined by the acute induction of cytokine responses and induction of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF)-specific adaptive immunity. Cytokine and chemokine responses induced by vaccination with IL-1? were predominantly derived from the stromal cell compartment and included G-CSF, IL-6, IL-13, MCP-1, and keratinocyte chemoattractant. Nasal vaccination of Il1r1(-/-) (knock-out [KO]) mice given wild-type (WT) BM (WT?KO) and WT?WT mice with LF + IL-1? induced maximal adaptive immune responses, whereas vaccination of WT mice given Il1r1(-/-) BM (KO?WT) resulted in significantly decreased production of LF-specific serum IgG, IgG subclasses, lethal toxin-neutralizing Abs, and mucosal IgA compared with WT?KO and WT?WT mice (p < 0.05). IL-1? adjuvant activity was not dependent on mast cells. However, the ability of IL-1? to induce serum LF-specific IgG2c and lethal toxin-neutralizing Abs was significantly impaired in CD11c-Myd88(-/-) mice when compared with WT mice (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that CD11c(+) cells must be directly activated by nasally administered IL-1? for maximal adjuvant activity and that, although stromal cells are required for maximal adjuvant-induced cytokine production, the adjuvant-induced stromal cell cytokine responses are not required for effective induction of adaptive immunity.
The Toll-like receptor adaptor protein MyD88 is essential for the regulation of intestinal homeostasis in mammals. In this study, we determined that Myd88-deficient mice are susceptible to colonic damage that is induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration resulting from uncontrolled dissemination of intestinal commensal bacteria. The DSS-induced mortality of Myd88-deficient mice was completely prevented by antibiotic treatment to deplete commensal bacteria. By using cell type-specific Myd88-deficient mice, we established that B cell-intrinsic MyD88 signaling plays a central role in the resistance to DSS-induced colonic damage via the production of IgM and complement-mediated control of intestinal bacteria. Our results indicate that the lack of intact MyD88 signaling in B cells, coupled with impaired epithelial integrity, enables commensal bacteria to function as highly pathogenic organisms, causing rapid host death.
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