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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A multi-targeted drug candidate with dual anti-HIV and anti-HSV activity.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is often accompanied by infection with other pathogens, in particular herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The resulting coinfection is involved in a vicious circle of mutual facilitations. Therefore, an important task is to develop a compound that is highly potent against both viruses to suppress their transmission and replication. Here, we report on the discovery of such a compound, designated PMEO-DAPym. We compared its properties with those of the structurally related and clinically used acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) tenofovir and adefovir. We demonstrated the potent anti-HIV and -HSV activity of this drug in a diverse set of clinically relevant in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo systems including (i) CD4(+) T-lymphocyte (CEM) cell cultures, (ii) embryonic lung (HEL) cell cultures, (iii) organotypic epithelial raft cultures of primary human keratinocytes (PHKs), (iv) primary human monocyte/macrophage (M/M) cell cultures, (v) human ex vivo lymphoid tissue, and (vi) athymic nude mice. Upon conversion to its diphosphate metabolite, PMEO-DAPym markedly inhibits both HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and HSV DNA polymerase. However, in striking contrast to tenofovir and adefovir, it also acts as an efficient immunomodulator, inducing ?-chemokines in PBMC cultures, in particular the CCR5 agonists MIP-1?, MIP-1? and RANTES but not the CXCR4 agonist SDF-1, without the need to be intracellularly metabolized. Such specific ?-chemokine upregulation required new mRNA synthesis. The upregulation of ?-chemokines was shown to be associated with a pronounced downmodulation of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 which may result in prevention of HIV entry. PMEO-DAPym belongs conceptually to a new class of efficient multitargeted antivirals for concomitant dual-viral (HSV/HIV) infection therapy through inhibition of virus-specific pathways (i.e. the viral polymerases) and HIV transmission prevention through interference with host pathways (i.e. CCR5 receptor down regulation).
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The effect of novel [3-fluoro-(2-phosphonoethoxy)propyl]purines on the inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and human hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferases.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Protozoan parasites from the Plasmodiidae family are the causative agents of malaria. Inhibition of hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferase (HG(X)PRT) has been suggested as a target for development of new anti-malarial therapeutics. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) are potent and selective inhibitors of plasmodial HG(X)PRTs. A new series of ANPs, based on the chemical structure and inhibitory activity of three ANPs, 2-(phosphonoethoxy)ethyl with either guanine or hypoxanthine as the base (PEEG and PEEHx) and 3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl with guanine as the base (HPMPG), were prepared. These compounds are stereoisomers of 3-fluoro-(2-phosphonoethoxy)propyl (FPEPs) and 3-fluoro-(2-phosphonomethoxy)propyl (FPMPs) analogues. Both the (R)- and (S)-isomers of these fluorinated derivatives have higher Ki values (by 10- to 1000-fold) for human HGPRT and Plasmodium falciparum HGXPRT than the non-fluorinated ANPs. Possible explanations for these changes in affinity are proposed based on docking studies using the known crystal structures of human HGPRT in complex with PEEG.
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Determination of the antioxidative activity of substituted 5-aminopyrimidines.
Free Radic. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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The aminopyrimidine structural motif can be found in diverse biologically active compounds. This study aimed to describe the antioxidant activity of a series of di- and tri-substituted 5-aminopyrimidines using in vitro (TEAC, LPO) and cell-based assays. 2,4,6-trisubstituted 5-aminopyrimidines displayed the highest activity in the TEAC and LPO assays whereas compounds with protected 5-aminogroup were active in the cellular assay. This is most likely because of their better membrane permeability and intracellular metabolic activation. In summary, we have identified the antioxidant activity of a series of substituted 5-aminopyrimidines and their potential prodrugs which may have implications in the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases.
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Synthesis of purine N9-[2-hydroxy-3-O-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] derivatives and their side-chain modified analogs as potential antimalarial agents.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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6-Oxopurine acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) have been shown to be potent inhibitors of hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT), a key enzyme of the purine salvage pathway in human malarial parasites. These compounds also exhibit antimalarial activity against parasites grown in culture. Here, a new series of ANPs, hypoxanthine and guanine 9-[2-hydroxy-3-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] derivatives with different chemical substitutions in the 2-position of the aliphatic chain were prepared and tested as inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) HGXPRT, Plasmodium vivax (Pv) HGPRT and human HGPRT. The attachment of an hydroxyl group to this position and the movement of the oxygen by one atom distal from N(9) in the purine ring compared with 2-(phosphonoethoxy)ethyl hypoxanthine (PEEHx) and 2-(phosphonoethoxy)ethyl guanine (PEEG) changes the affinity and selectivity for human HGPRT, PfHGXPRT and PvHGPRT. This is attributed to the differences in the three-dimensional structure of these inhibitors which affects their mode of binding. A novel observation is that these molecules are not always strictly competitive with 5-phospho-?-d-ribosyl-1-pyrophosphate. 9-[2-Hydroxy-3-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]hypoxanthine (iso-HPMP-Hx) is a very weak inhibitor of human HGPRT but remains a good inhibitor of both the parasite enzymes with K(i) values of 2?M and 5?M for PfHGXPRT and PvHGPRT, respectively. The addition of pyrophosphate to the assay decreased the K(i) values for the parasite enzymes by sixfold. This suggests that the covalent attachment of a second group to the ANPs mimicking pyrophosphate and occupying its binding pocket could increase the affinity for these enzymes.
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Synthesis of 9-phosphonoalkyl and 9-phosphonoalkoxyalkyl purines: evaluation of their ability to act as inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and human hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferases.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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The purine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferase [HG(X)PRT], catalyses the synthesis of the purine nucleoside monophosphates, IMP, GMP or XMP essential for DNA/RNA production. In protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, this is the only route available for their synthesis as they lack the de novo pathway which is present in human cells. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), analogs of the purine nucleoside monophosphates, have been found to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) HGXPRT and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) HGPRT with K(i) values as low as 100 nM. They arrest parasitemia in cell based assays with IC(50) values of the order of 1-10 ?M. ANPs with phosphonoalkyl and phosphonoalkoxyalkyl moieties linking the purine base and phosphonate group were designed and synthesised to evaluate the influence of this linker on the potency and/or selectivity of the ANPs for the human and malarial enzymes. This data shows that variability in the linker, as well as the positioning of the oxygen in this linker, influences binding. The human enzyme binds the ANPs with K(i) values of 0.5 ?M when the number of atoms in the linker was 5 or 6 atoms. However, the parasite enzymes have little affinity for such long chains unless oxygen is included in the three-position. In comparison, all three enzymes have little affinity for ANPs where the number of atoms linking the base and the phosphonate group is of the order of 2-3 atoms. The chemical nature of the purine base also effects the K(i) values. This data shows that both the linker and the purine base play an important role in the binding of the ANPs to these three enzymes.
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6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase: a target for the development of antimalarial drugs.
Curr Top Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Malaria remains the most serious parasitic diseases affecting humans in the world today, resulting in 1-2 million fatalities each year. Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) are the predominant causative agents. Both are responsible for widespread mortality and morbidity and are a serious socio-economic burden, especially for countries in the developing world. One of the most important defences against malaria has been the use of chemotherapeutic drugs (e.g. chloroquine, artemisinins, pyrimethamine) but these have mainly been found by serendipity. Their mechanisms was not understood at the time of their discovery and, even today, are still not unequivocal. For many of these compounds, the parasite is now resistant and, hence, there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic drugs directed to validated targets. One metabolic pathway crucial for the survival and replication and survival of the parasite is the synthesis of the purine nucleoside monophosphates essential for the production of DNA/RNA molecules. A key enzyme in this pathway is the 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase (PRTase). The focus of this review is on the identification and characterization of inhibitors of the enzymes from both Pf and Pv as antimalarial drug leads. The acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) appear to be excellent candidates because they are good inhibitors of the two Plasmodium enzymes, can be selective compared to the human enzyme, can arrest parasitemia in cell based assays, have low cytotoxicity to the human host cell and, because of their stable carbon-phosphorous bond, are stable within the cell.
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A novel and efficient one-pot synthesis of symmetrical diamide (bis-amidate) prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates and evaluation of their biological activities.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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A novel and efficient method for the one-pot synthesis of diamide (bis-amidate) prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, starting from free phosphonic acids or phosphonate diesters is reported. The approach from phosphonate diesters via their bis(trimethylsilyl) esters is highly convenient, eliminates isolation and tedious purification of the phosphonic acids, and affords the corresponding bis-amidates in excellent yields (83-98%) and purity. The methodology has been applied to the synthesis of the potent anticancer agent GS-9219, and symmetrical bis-amidates of other biologically active phosphonic acids. Anti-HIV, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities of the compounds are discussed including the bis-amidate prodrugs 14 and 17 that exhibited anti-HIV activity at submicromolar concentrations with minimal cytotoxicity.
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Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates with a branched 2-(2-phosphonoethoxy)ethyl chain: efficient synthesis and antiviral activity.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Series of novel acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) with various nucleobases and 2-(2-phosphonoethoxy)ethyl (PEE) chain bearing various substituents in ?-position to the phosphonate moiety were prepared. The influence of structural alternations on antiviral activity was studied. Several derivatives exhibit antiviral activity against HIV and vaccinia virus (middle micromolar range), HSV-1 and HSV-2 (lower micromolar range) and VZV and CMV (nanomolar range), although the parent unbranched PEE-ANPs are inactive. Adenine as a nucleobase and the methyl group attached to the PEE chain proved to be a prerequisite to afford pronounced antiviral activity.
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Differential effects of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates on nitric oxide and cytokines in rat hepatocytes and macrophages.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2011
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Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANP) are virostatics effective against viruses like hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus. Our previous reports indicated immunomodulatory activities of ANP in mouse and human innate immune cells. Recently, evidence has increased that hepatocytes may play an active role in immune regulation of the liver homeostasis or injury. In this study we investigated possible immunomodulatory effects of ANP on rat hepatocytes and macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) production and secretion of cytokines (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-18, IFN-?, TNF-? and GM-CSF) were analyzed under in vitro conditions. Test compounds included: 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA; adefovir); 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]-2,6-diaminopurine (PMEDAP); (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine [(R)-PMPA; tenofovir] and [(S)-PMPA]; 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine [(R)-PMPDAP] and [(S)-PMPDAP]. The group of test compounds also included their N(6)-substituted derivatives. Some of ANP which are able to induce NO production and cytokine secretion in cultured macrophages possess the same immunobiological activity in isolated hepatocytes. The extent of responses is in range of LPS/IFN-? stimulation in both types of cells. The effects of active ANP on NO expression and cytokine secretion are dose- and time-dependent. Interestingly, the spectrum of detected cytokines induced by ANP is broader in hepatocytes. The results also confirm immunomodulatory effects of some ANP on rodent macrophages. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time immunobiological reactivity of primary rat hepatocytes induced by exogenous ANP compounds. The potential of hepatocytes to synthesize cytokines can contribute to better understanding of liver immune function and can serve for pharmacological intervention in liver diseases.
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Enhanced topical and transdermal delivery of antineoplastic and antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cPr-PMEDAP.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates possess unique antiviral and antineoplastic activities; however, their polar phosphonate moiety is associated with low ability to cross biological membranes. We explored the potential of transdermal and topical delivery of 2,6-diaminopurine derivative cPr-PMEDAP.
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Antiviral activity of tenofovir against Cauliflower mosaic virus and its metabolism in Brassica pekinensis plants.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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The antiviral effect of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate tenofovir (R)-PMPA on double-stranded DNA Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) in Brassica pekinensis plants grown in vitro on liquid medium was evaluated. Double antibody sandwich ELISA and PCR were used for relative quantification of viral protein and detecting nucleic acid in plants. (R)-PMPA at concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/l significantly reduced CaMV titers in plants within 6-9 weeks to levels detectable neither by ELISA nor by PCR. Virus-free plants were obtained after 3-month cultivation of meristem tips on semisolid medium containing 50 mg/l (R)-PMPA and their regeneration to whole plants in the greenhouse. Studying the metabolism of (R)-PMPA in B. pekinensis revealed that mono- and diphosphate, structural analogs of NDP and/or NTP, are the only metabolites formed. The data indicate very low substrate activity of the enzymes toward (R)-PMPA as substrate. The extent of phosphorylation in the plants leaves represents only 4.5% of applied labeled (R)-PMPA. In roots, we detected no radioactive peaks of phosphorylated metabolites of (R)-PMPAp or (R)-PMPApp.
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Synthesis and antiviral activity of N9-[3-fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] analogues derived from N6-substituted adenines and 2,6-diaminopurines.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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An efficient method for the synthesis of N(9)-[3-fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] (FPMP) derivatives of purine bases has been developed. Both (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of the N(6)-substituted FPMP derivatives of adenine and 2,6-diaminopurine were prepared and their anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anti-Moloney murine sarcoma virus (MSV) activity was evaluated. Whereas none of the 6-substituted FPMPA derivatives showed any antiviral activity, several FPMPDAP derivatives had a moderate antiretroviral activity. Moreover, the data obtained from the study of the substrate activity of the active derivatives towards N(6)-methyl-AMP aminohydrolase support the notion that the studied N(6)-substituted FPMPDAP derivatives act as prodrugs of the antiretroviral FPMPG analogues.
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Point mutations in human guanylate kinase account for acquired resistance to anticancer nucleotide analogue PMEG.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Acyclic nucleotide analogue PMEG represents promising drug candidate against lymphomas. In the present work we describe the ability of PMEG to induce resistance and we elucidate the mechanisms involved in this process. CCRF-CEM T-lymphoblastic cells resistant to either PMEG or its 6-amino congener PMEDAP were prepared and assayed for the expression of membrane transporters, PMEG and PMEDAP uptake and intracellular metabolism. Genes for guanylate kinase (GUK) and adenylate kinase (AK) isolated from PMEG- and PMEDAP-resistant cells were sequenced and cloned into mammalian expression vectors. PMEG-resistant cells were transfected with GUK vectors and catalytic activities of GUKs isolated from PMEG-sensitive and resistant cells were compared. PMEG phosphorylation to PMEG mono- and diphosphate was completely impaired in resistant cells. GUK obtained from PMEG-resistant cells revealed two point mutations S(35)N V(168)F that significantly suppressed its catalytic activity. Transfection of resistant cells with wtGUK led to the recovery of phosphorylating activity as well as sensitivity towards PMEG cytotoxicity. No differences in PMEG uptake have been found between sensitive and resistant cells. In contrast to GUK no changes in primary sequence of AK isolated from PMEDAP resistant cells were identified. Therefore, resistance induced by PMEDAP appears to be conferred by other mechanisms. In conclusion, we have identified GUK as the sole molecular target for the development of acquired resistance to the cytotoxic nucleotide PMEG. Therefore, PMEG is unlikely to cause cross-resistance in combination therapeutic protocols with most other commonly used anticancer drugs.
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New prodrugs of Adefovir and Cidofovir.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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New Adefovir (PMEA) prodrugs with a pro-moiety consisting of decyl or decyloxyethyl chain bearing hydroxyl function(s), hexaethyleneglycol or a (5-methyl-2-oxo-1,3-dioxolen-4-yl)methyl unit were prepared starting from the tetrabutylammonium salt of the phosphonate drug and an appropriate alkyl bromide or tosylate. Analogously, two esters of Cidofovir [(S)-HPMPC] bearing a hexaethyleneglycol moiety were prepared. The activity of the prodrugs was evaluated in vitro against different virus families. A loss in the antiviral activities of the hydroxylated decyl or decyloxyethyl esters and hexaethyleneglycol esters of PMEA against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpesviruses [including herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and human cytomegalovirus (CMV)] occurred in comparison with the parent compound. On the other hand, the (5-methyl-2-oxo-1,3-dioxolen-4-yl)methyl ester of PMEA showed significant activities against HIV and herpesviruses. (S)-HPMPC prodrugs exhibited anti-cytomegalovirus activities in the same range as the parent drug, whereas the anti-HSV and anti-VZV activities were one- to seven-fold lower than that of Cidofovir.
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Inhibition of SAH-hydrolase activity during seed germination leads to deregulation of flowering genes and altered flower morphology in tobacco.
Mol. Genet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Developmental processes are closely connected to certain states of epigenetic information which, among others, rely on methylation of chromatin. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) are key cofactors of enzymes catalyzing DNA and histone methylation. To study the consequences of altered SAH/SAM levels on plant development we applied 9-(S)-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-adenine (DHPA), an inhibitor of SAH-hydrolase, on tobacco seeds during a short phase of germination period (6 days). The transient drug treatment induced: (1) dosage-dependent global DNA hypomethylation mitotically transmitted to adult plants; (2) pleiotropic developmental defects including decreased apical dominance, altered leaf and flower symmetry, flower whorl malformations and reduced fertility; (3) dramatic upregulation of floral organ identity genes NTDEF, NTGLO and NAG1 in leaves. We conclude that temporal SAH-hydrolase inhibition deregulated floral genes expression probably via chromatin methylation changes. The data further show that plants might be particularly sensitive to accurate setting of SAH/SAM levels during critical developmental periods.
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Role of caspases and CD95/Fas in the apoptotic effects of a nucleotide analog PMEG in CCRF-CEM cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl] guanine (PMEG) is a guanine acyclic nucleotide analog whose targeted prodrugs are being investigated for chemotherapy of lymphomas. Its antiproliferative effects have been attributed to cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis, however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the requirements for caspase and CD95/Fas activation in PMEG-induced apoptosis. Additionally, the influence of PMEG on cell cycle regulatory proteins was explored.
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Metal ion-binding properties of 9-[(2-phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]-2-aminopurine (PME2AP), an isomer of the antiviral nucleotide analogue 9-[(2-phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA). Steric guiding of metal ion-coordination by the purine-amino group.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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The acidity constants of 3-fold protonated 9-[(2-phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]-2-aminopurine, H(3)(PME2AP)(+), and the stability constants of the M(H;PME2AP)(+) and M(PME2AP) complexes with M(2+) = Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) or Cd(2+) have been determined by potentiometric pH titrations in aqueous solution (25 degrees C; I = 0.1 M, NaNO(3)). It is concluded that in the M(H;PME2AP)(+) species, the proton is at the phosphonate group and the metal ion at N7 of the purine residue. This "open" form allows macrochelate formation of M(2+) with the monoprotonated phosphonate residue. The formation degree of this macrochelate amounts on average to 64 +/- 13% (3sigma) for those metal ions for which an evaluation was possible (Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+)). The identity of this formation degree indicates that the M(2+)/P(O)(2)(-)(OH) interaction occurs in an outersphere manner. The application of previously determined straight-line plots of log K(M)(M(R-PO(3)))versus pK(H)(H(R-PO(3))) for simple phosph(on)ate ligands, R-PO(3)(2-), where R represents a residue that does not affect metal ion binding, proves that all the M(PME2AP) complexes have larger stabilities than is expected for a sole phosphonate coordination of M(2+). Combination with previous results allows the following conclusions: (i) The increased stability of the M(PME2AP) complexes of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) is due to the formation of 5-membered chelates involving the ether-oxygen atom of the -CH(2)-O-CH(2)-PO(3)(2-) residue; the formation degrees of these M(PME2AP)(cl/O) chelates for the mentioned metal ions vary between about 25% (Ca(2+)) to 40% (Mn(2+)). (ii) For the M(PME2AP) complexes of Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) or Cd(2+) next to the mentioned 5-membered chelates a further isomer is formed, namely a macrochelate involving N7, M(PME2AP)(cl/N7). The formation degrees of these macrochelates vary between about 30% (Cd(2+)) and 85% (Ni(2+)). (iii) The most remarkable observation of this study is that the shift of the NH(2) group from C6 to C2 facilitates very significantly macrochelate formation of a PO(3)(2-)-coordinated M(2+) with N7 due to the removal of steric hindrance in the M(PME2AP) complexes. However, any M(2+) interaction with N3 is completely suppressed, thus leading to significantly different coordination patterns than those observed previously with the antivirally active PMEA(2-) species.
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Distinct modulation of telomere length in two T-lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines by cytotoxic nucleoside phosphonates PMEG and PMEDAP.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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We have previously shown that PMEG diphosphate (PMEGpp) and PMEDAP diphosphate (PMEDAPpp) inhibit the enzymatic activity of human telomerase in a cell-free assay. Here, we investigated the ability of PMEG and PMEDAP to induce telomere shortening and telomerase inhibition at both transcriptional and activity level in T-lymphoblastic leukemia cells CCRF-CEM and MOLT-4. At defined time points (3days and 9weeks), the telomerase activity and relative levels of hTERT and c-myc mRNA were determined using real-time RT-PCR. Telomere length was measured by the flow-FISH method. Both PMEDAP and PMEG induced telomere shortening in CCRF-CEM cells after 9weeks of exposure by 50% and 20%, respectively, without major impairment of telomerase activity. The effect of the tested compounds on telomere length in MOLT-4 cells was the opposite, with telomere elongation by 50% and 40% after 9-week treatment with PMEDAP and PMEG, respectively. At this time point, telomerase activity in MOLT-4 cells appeared to be slightly higher than that of CCRF-CEM cells, nevertheless no correlation between telomerase activity and telomere length was found. Both compounds down-regulated the expression of hTERT and c-myc mRNA in CCRF-CEM and MOLT-4 cells at 72h in a concentration-dependent manner while prolonged exposure to PMEG or PMEDAP for 9weeks had weaker effects. In conclusion, PMEDAP and PMEG are able to modulate telomere length in leukemic cells and this effect is cell-type specific. It is neither due to direct telomerase inhibition nor impairment of hTERT expression and it is likely to be telomerase-independent.
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Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel coxsackievirus B3 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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The synthesis and SAR study of a novel class of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) inhibitors are reported. These compounds could be considered as the 6-chloropurines substituted at position 9 with variously substituted bicyclic scaffolds (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane/ene-norbornane or norbornene). The synthesis and biological evaluation of 31 target compounds are described. Several of the analogues inhibited CVB3 in the low micromolar range (0.66-2muM). Minimal or no cytotoxicity was observed.
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The acyclic 2,4-diaminopyrimidine nucleoside phosphonate acts as a purine mimetic in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase DNA polymerization.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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The acyclic pyrimidine nucleoside phosphonate (ANP) phosphonylmethoxyethoxydiaminopyrimidine (PMEO-DAPym) differs from other ANPs in that the aliphatic alkyloxy linker is bound to the C-6 of the 2,4-diaminopyrimidine base through an ether bond, instead of the traditional alkyl linkage to the N-1 or N-9 of the pyrimidine or purine base. In this study, we have analyzed the molecular interactions between PMEO-DAPym-diphosphate (PMEO-DAPym-pp) and the active sites of wild-type (WT) and drug-resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Pre-steady-state kinetic analyses revealed that PMEO-DAPym-pp is a good substrate for WT HIV-1 RT: its catalytic efficiency of incorporation (k(pol)/K(d)) is only 2- to 3-fold less than that of the corresponding prototype purine nucleotide analogs PMEA-pp or (R)PMPA-pp. HIV-1 RT recognizes PMEO-DAPym-pp as a purine base instead of a pyrimidine base and incorporates it opposite to thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Molecular modeling demonstrates that PMEO-DAPym-pp fits into the active site of HIV-1 RT without significant perturbation of key amino acid residues and mimics an open incomplete purine ring that allows the canonical Watson-Crick base pairing to be maintained. PMEO-DAPym-pp is incorporated more efficiently than (R)PMPA-pp by mutant K65R HIV-1 RT and is not as efficiently excised as (R)PMPA by HIV-1 RT containing thymidine analog mutations. Overall, the data revealed that PMEO- DAPym represents the prototype compound of a novel class of pyrimidine acyclic nucleoside phosphonates that are recognized as a purine nucleotide and should form the rational basis for the design and development of novel purine nucleo(s)(t)ide mimetics as potential antiviral or antimetabolic agents.
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Plasmodium vivax hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase: a target for anti-malarial chemotherapy.
Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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The malarial parasite, Plasmodium vivax (Pv), causes a serious infectious disease found primarily in Asia and the Americas. For protozoan parasites, 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases (PRTases) provide the only metabolic pathway to synthesize the purine nucleoside monophosphates essential for DNA/RNA production. We have purified the recombinant Pv 6-oxopurine (PRTase) and compared its properties with the human and Pf enzymes. The Pv enzyme uses hypoxanthine and guanine with similar catalytic efficiency to the Pf enzyme but xanthine is not a substrate, hence we identify this enzyme as PvHGPRT. Mass spectrometry suggests that PvHGPRT contains bound magnesium ions that are removed by EDTA resulting in loss of activity. However, the addition of Mg(2+) restores activity. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) are good inhibitors of PvHGPRT having K(i) values as low as 3 microM. These compounds can form the basis for the design of new drugs aimed at combating malaria caused by Pv.
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Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates with 5-azacytosine base moiety substituted in C-6 position.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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Two methods for preparation of 6-substituted derivatives of anti DNA-viral agent 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-5-azacytosine (HPMP-5-azaC) were developed: (1) ammonia mediated ring-opening reaction of diisopropyl esters of HPMP-5-azaC (4) to carbamoylguanidine derivatives followed by ring-closure reaction with orthoesters and (2) condensation reaction of 6-substituted 5-azacytosines with diisopropyl (1S)-[2-hydroxy-1-tosyloxymethyl)ethoxy]methylphosphonate (15). Deprotection of diisopropyl esters to free phosphonic acids was performed with bromotrimethylsilane in acetonitrile followed by hydrolysis. In contrast to parent compound HPMP-5-azaC, a substantial decrease of antiviral activity in case of 6-substituted analogues occurred. Surprisingly, N-3 isomer of 6-methyl-HPMP-5-azaC in the form of isopropyl ester revealed activity against RNA viruses (Sindbis virus).
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Acyclic nucleoside bisphosphonates: synthesis and properties of chiral 2-amino-4,6-bis[(phosphonomethoxy)alkoxy]pyrimidines.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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2-Amino-4,6-bis[(phosphonomethoxy)alkoxy]pyrimidines bearing two equal or different achiral or chiral phosphonoalkoxy chains have been prepared either by aromatic nucleophilic substitution of 2-amino-4,6-dichloropyrimidine or by alkylation of 4,6-dihydroxy-2-(methylsulfanyl)pyrimidine with appropriate phosphonate-bearing building block. Alkylation of 4,6-dihydroxy-2-(methylsulfanyl)pyrimidine proved to be the method of choice for efficient preparation of variety of bisphosphonates. The enantiomeric purity of selected compounds was determined by capillary electrophoresis. Antiviral activity of bisphosphonates is discussed.
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Chiral analysis of anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome drug, 9-(R)-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (tenofovir), and related antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonates by CE using beta-CD as chiral selector.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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A new CZE method has been developed for chiral analysis of an important anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome drug, 9-(R)-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine ((R)-PMPA, tenofovir), and six related antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonates using beta-CD as a chiral selector. The influence of the composition, concentration and pH of the BGE and the type and concentration of chiral selector on enantiomer resolution was investigated. Complete separations of (R,S)-enantiomers of PMPA with very good resolution (R(s)=1.50-3.64) were achieved within a short time (4-15 min) in 20-50 mM sodium borate or sodium tetraborate BGEs, pH 10.0, at 20 mg/mL concentration of beta-CD. (R,S)-enantiomers of five similar PMPA analogs containing purine bases (adenine, diaminopurine or guanine) and hydroxyl or fluor substituents at C3 carbon atom of propyl chain were baseline separated within 10-17 min in 35 mM sodium tetraborate BGE, pH 10.0, at 20 mg/mL beta-CD concentration. Another important antiviral used by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, derived from pyrimidine base cytosine, 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine (cidofovir), and the (R)-enantiomer of this drug were successfully separated in 50 mM sodium tetraborate BGE, pH 10.5, at 20 mg/mL beta-CD concentration within 45 min. Using the UV-absorption detection at 206 nm, the concentration detection limits of the analyzed acyclic nucleoside phosphonates were determined in the submicromolar to micromolar range (0.15-2.51 microg/mL level).
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Inhibition of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase by acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: a new class of antimalarial therapeutics.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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The purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT) is essential for purine nucleotide and hence nucleic acid synthesis in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) are analogues of the nucleotide product of the reaction, comprising a purine base joined by a linker to a phosphonate moiety. K(i) values for 19 ANPs were determined for Pf HGXPRT and the corresponding human enzyme, HGPRT. Values for Pf HGXPRT were as low as 100 nM, with selectivity for the parasite enzyme of up to 58. Structures of human HGPRT in complex with three ANPs are reported. On binding, a large mobile loop in the free enzyme moves to partly cover the active site. For three ANPs, the IC(50) values for Pf grown in cell culture were 1, 14, and 46 microM, while the cytotoxic concentration for the first compound was 489 microM. These results provide a basis for the design of potent and selective ANP inhibitors of Pf HGXPRT as antimalarial drug leads.
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Synthesis of branched 9-[2-(2-phosphonoethoxy)ethyl]purines as a new class of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates which inhibit Plasmodium falciparum hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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The malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) lacks the de novo pathway and relies on the salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT), for the synthesis of the 6-oxopurine nucleoside monophosphates. Specific acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) inhibit PfHGXPRT and possess anti-plasmodial activity. Two series of novel branched ANPs derived from 9-[2-(2-phosphonoethoxy)ethyl]purines were synthesized to investigate their inhibition of PfHGXPRT and human HGPRT. The best inhibitor of PfHGXPRT has a K(i) of 1 microM. The data showed that both the position and nature of the hydrophobic substituent change the potency and selectivity of the ANPs.
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In vivo modulation of angiogenic gene expression by acyclic nucleoside phosphonates PMEDAP and PMEG.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates PMEDAP and PMEG modulate expression of selected proangiogenic genes in SD-lymphoma bearing rats. Antiangiogenic efficacy of PMEDAP is relatively weak and is manifested mainly by down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR detectable 24 hours after treatment. Compound PMEG (an active metabolite of the prodrug GS-9219) down-regulates selected proangiogenic genes EGF, FGF, PDGF, VEGF, EGFR, FGFR, PDGFR and VEGFR much more efficiently. Its antiangiogenic potency persists and is more intensive 48 hours after treatment. Findings show that in vivo antitumour efficacy of both antimitotic acyclic nucleoside phosphonates PMEDAP and PMEG consequently affect the angiogenesis in T-cell lymphoma.
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Compound instability in dimethyl sulphoxide, case studies with 5-aminopyrimidines and the implications for compound storage and screening.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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The oxidation reactions of 5-aminopyrimidine derivatives in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) were studied. The DMSO solutions of the studied compounds became deeply coloured within a few hours or days. The oxidation products can undergo further condensation reactions with the starting pyrimidines to yield bipyrimidines and/or pyrimidopteridines. The reaction mechanism of the oxidation-condensation reaction was also supported by reactions of the 5-aminopyrimidines with alloxan (2,4,5,6-tetraoxopyrimidine). DMSO is often used as the solvent in in vitro tests of biological activities, but it is also an oxidising agent and may react with solute molecules and significantly affect the quality of the generated biochemical data.
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Extent of intramolecular ?-stacks in aqueous solution in mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes formed by heteroaromatic amines and several 2-aminopurine derivatives of the antivirally active nucleotide analog 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA).
Chem. Biodivers.
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The acidity constants of twofold protonated, antivirally active, acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), H(2)(PE)(±), where PE(2-)=9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA(2-)), 2-amino-9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]purine (PME2AP(2-)), 2,6-diamino-9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]purine (PMEDAP(2-)), or 2-amino-6-(dimethylamino)-9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]purine (PME(2A6DMAP)(2-)), as well as the stability constants of the corresponding ternary Cu(Arm)(H;PE)(+) and Cu(Arm)(PE) complexes, where Arm=2,2-bipyridine (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), are compared. The constants for the systems containing PE(2-)=PMEDAP(2-) and PME(2A6DMAP)(2-) have been determined now by potentiometric pH titrations in aqueous solution at I=0.1M (NaNO(3)) and 25°; the corresponding results for the other ANPs were taken from our earlier work. The basicity of the terminal phosphonate group is very similar for all the ANP(2-) species, whereas the addition of a second amino substituent at the pyrimidine ring of the purine moiety significantly increases the basicity of the N(1) site. Detailed stability-constant comparisons reveal that, in the monoprotonated ternary Cu(Arm)(H;PE)(+) complexes, the proton is at the phosphonate group, that the ether O-atom of the -CH(2)-O-CH(2)-P(O)(2)(-)(OH) residue participates, next to the P(O)(2)(-)(OH) group, to some extent in Cu(Arm)(2+) coordination, and that ?-? stacking between the aromatic rings of Cu(Arm)(2+) and the purine moiety is rather important, especially for the H·PMEDAP(-) and H·PME(2A6DMAP)(-) ligands. There are indications that ternary Cu(Arm)(2+)-bridged stacks as well as unbridged (binary) stacks are formed. The ternary Cu(Arm)(PE) complexes are considerably more stable than the corresponding Cu(Arm)(R-PO(3)) species, where R-PO(3)(2-) represents a phosph(on)ate ligand with a group R that is unable to participate in any kind of intramolecular interaction within the complexes. The observed stability enhancements are mainly attributed to intramolecular-stack formation in the Cu(Arm)(PE) complexes and also, to a smaller extent, to the formation of five-membered chelates involving the ether O-atom present in the -CH(2)-O-CH(2)-PO(3)(2-) residue of the PE(2-) species. The quantitative analysis of the intramolecular equilibria involving three structurally different Cu(Arm)(PE) isomers shows that, e.g., ca. 1.5% of the Cu(phen)(PMEDAP) system exist with Cu(phen)(2+) solely coordinated to the phosphonate group, 4.5% as a five-membered chelate involving the ether O-atom of the -CH(2)-O-CH(2)-PO(3)(2-) residue, and 94% with an intramolecular ?-? stack between the purine moiety of PMEDAP(2-) and the aromatic rings of phen. Comparison of the various formation degrees of the species formed reveals that, in the Cu(phen)(PE) complexes, intramolecular-stack formation is more pronounced than in the Cu(bpy)(PE) species. Within a given Cu(Arm)(2+) series the stacking intensity increases in the order PME2AP(2-)
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An enzymatic glycosylation of nucleoside analogues using ?-galactosidase from Escherichia coli.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
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A new enzymatic method for the synthesis of ?-galactosides of nucleosides and acyclic nucleoside analogues has been developed, using ?-galactosidase from Escherichia coli as a catalyst and lactose as a sugar donor. The method is very rapid, feasible and last but not least inexpensive. Its applicability has been proven for a broad variety of possible substrates with respect to its scaling up for preparative use. Five new compounds from a series of nucleoside and acyclic nucleoside analogues have been prepared on a scale of several hundred milligrams, in all cases revealing very good results of the method concerning the reproducibility of the reaction yields and simplicity of the purification process.
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Antiviral effect of HPMPC (Cidofovir®), entrapped in cationic liposomes: in vitro study on MDBK cell and BHV-1 virus.
J Control Release
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We designed and synthesised a series of new cationic lipids based on spermine linked to various hydrophobic anchors. These lipids could be potentially useful for the preparation of stable cationic liposomes intended for the construction of drug targeting systems applicable in the field of anticancer/antiviral therapy, vaccine carriers, and vectors for the gene therapy. Low in vitro toxicity was found for these compounds, especially for LD1, in several cell lines. The delivery of both a fluorescence marker (calcein) and antiviral drugs into cells has been achieved owing to a large extent of internalization of cationic liposomes (labelled by Lyssamine-Rhodamine PE or fluorescein-PE) as demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy and quantified by flow cytometry. The bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1) virus infection in vitro model using MDBK cells was employed to study the effect of the established antiviral drug HPMPC (Cidofovir®) developed by Prof. A. Holý. Inhibition of BHV-1 virus replication was studied by quantitative RT-PCR and confirmed by both Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We found that in vitro antiviral activity of HPMPC was significantly improved by formulation in cationic liposomes, which decreased the viral replication by about 2 orders of magnitude.
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Involvement of MAP kinases in the cytotoxicity of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates.
Anticancer Res.
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9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl] guanine (PMEG) is a nucleotide analogue with anticancer activity. Here we investigate the role of ERK, p38, JNK and AKT kinases in PMEG-induced apoptosis.
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