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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Changes in 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and effects of angiotensin II receptor blockade during acute and prolonged high-altitude exposure: a randomized clinical trial.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Many hypertensive subjects travel to high altitudes, but little is known on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) changes and antihypertensive drugs' efficacy under acute and prolonged exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. In particular, the efficacy of angiotensin receptor blockers in this condition is unknown. This may be clinically relevant considering that renin-angiotensin system activity changes at altitude. The HIGHCARE-HIMALAYA study assessed changes in 24 h ABP under acute and prolonged exposure to increasing altitude and blood pressure-lowering efficacy and safety of an angiotensin receptor blockade in this setting.
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Blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol targets for prevention of recurrent strokes and cognitive decline in the hypertensive patient: design of the European Society of Hypertension-Chinese Hypertension League Stroke in Hypertension Optimal Treatment randomized trial.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The SBP values to be achieved by antihypertensive therapy in order to maximize reduction of cardiovascular outcomes are unknown; neither is it clear whether in patients with a previous cardiovascular event, the optimal values are lower than in the low-to-moderate risk hypertensive patients, or a more cautious blood pressure (BP) reduction should be obtained. Because of the uncertainty whether 'the lower the better' or the 'J-curve' hypothesis is correct, the European Society of Hypertension and the Chinese Hypertension League have promoted a randomized trial comparing antihypertensive treatment strategies aiming at three different SBP targets in hypertensive patients with a recent stroke or transient ischaemic attack. As the optimal level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is also unknown in these patients, LDL-C-lowering has been included in the design.
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Blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol lowering for prevention of strokes and cognitive decline: a review of available trial evidence.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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It is well established by a large number of randomized controlled trials that lowering blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by drugs are powerful means to reduce stroke incidence, but the optimal BP and LDL-C levels to be achieved are largely uncertain. Concerning BP targets, two hypotheses are being confronted: first, the lower the BP, the better the treatment outcome, and second, the hypothesis that too low BP values are accompanied by a lower benefit and even higher risk. It is also unknown whether BP lowering and LDL-C lowering have additive beneficial effects for the primary and secondary prevention of stroke, and whether these treatments can prevent cognitive decline after stroke.
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Duration of postoperative delirium is an independent predictor of 6-month mortality in older adults after hip fracture.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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To evaluate the association between number of days with delirium and 6-month mortality in elderly adults after hip fracture surgery.
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Factors involved in the discontinuation of antihypertensive drug therapy: an analysis from real life data.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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We have previously shown that in Italian region of Lombardy (about 10 million citizens), adherence to antihypertensive treatment is low, and that this is associated with a greater risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular events. In this study, we used a healthcare database to study the factors involved in discontinuation of antihypertensive drug prescriptions in real life.
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Sarcopenia and malnutrition in acutely ill hospitalized elderly: Prevalence and outcomes.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Data about the prevalence of sarcopenia among hospitalized patients is lacking and it is unclear whether the diagnostic criteria commonly used in community-dwellers is applicable in acutely ill subjects. The aims of this report are: (i) to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia among hospitalized patients; (ii) to assess whether the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria are applicable in an acute care setting; and (iii) to assess the mortality rate at 3 months.
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Cost-effectiveness of enhancing adherence with oral bisphosphonates treatment in osteoporotic women: an empirical approach based on healthcare utilisation databases.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Adherence with bisphosphonates therapy is generally low. Enhancing adherence with bisphosphonates would be effective in achieving the full benefits of therapy albeit a growth in the expenditure for supporting incremented drug use is expected. The cost-effectiveness of enhancing adherence with oral bisphosphonates in a large population of osteoporotic women has been assessed in the current study.
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Long term survival of HER2-positive early breast cancer treated with trastuzumab-based adjuvant regimen: A large cohort study from clinical practice.
Breast
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Trastuzumab-based regimens for the adjuvant treatment of HER2-positive early breast cancer significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) in large randomized trials, with sustained benefits at four-year follow-up. We assessed long-term survival estimates and predictors in a large cohort of Italian women with early breast cancer treated with trastuzumab in clinical practice. Through a record linkage between five regional healthcare databases, we identified women treated with trastuzumab for early breast cancer in Lombardy (2006-2009). DFS and OS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and independent predictors were assessed using proportional hazard models. 2046 women received trastuzumab in early breast cancer adjuvant setting. Overall, the proportion of patients surviving free of disease was 93.9% at one year, 85.8% at 2 years, 79.4% at 3 years, and 75.0% at 4 years. OS estimates were 98.7%, 95.4%, 91.5% and 89.4% at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Significant independent predictors of worse survival outcomes were age <40 or ?70 years compared to age 40-69 years, positive nodal status, radical breast surgery, combination therapy with paclitaxel, having at least one comorbidity (i.e. diabetes, cardiovascular disease), and a trastuzumab-based regimen lasting less than six months. Long term survival rates of women treated with trastuzumab for early breast cancer in clinical practice were consistent with estimates from clinical trials testing the drug in the adjuvant setting.
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Effectiveness of oral bisphosphonates for primary prevention of osteoporotic fractures: evidence from the AIFA-BEST observational study.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Osteoporosis is a chronic disease of the bone, whose incidence increases progressively with aging. The main consequences of osteoporosis are fragility fractures, which have considerable medical, social, and economic implications. Adequate treatment of osteoporosis must be considered as a compelling public health intervention. Bisphosphonates (BPs) represent the most significant advance in this field in the past decade, and they are widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis. However, evidence for their effectiveness is limited to secondary prevention, whereas their effect in primary prevention is uncertain and needs further investigation.
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User-only design to assess drug effectiveness in clinical practice: application to bisphosphonates and secondary prevention of fractures.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Different strategies applicable to control for confounding by indication in observational studies were compared in a large population-based study regarding the effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) for secondary prevention of fractures.
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Statins and primary liver cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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Statins are among the most commonly prescribed drugs used to manage dyslipidemia. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third leading cause of cancer mortality and its rates have recently been increasing in central and northern Europe and USA. To quantify the association between statin use and risk for HCC, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies. We conducted a MEDLINE search for observational studies reporting the association between exposure to statins and risk for incident liver cancer until March 2012. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Moreover, between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using adequate statistical tests. Five observational studies (two case-control and three cohort studies) based on 2574 cases of HCC were included. Statin treatment, compared with no treatment, was inversely related to HCC (summary RR=0.58; 95% CI 0.46-0.74). Between-study heterogeneity was significant (P<0.001) and numerically relevant (I=65%). When only longest statin use was considered, the RR was 0.66 (95% CI 0.55-0.80). Influence analysis on the overall estimate showed that heterogeneity was largely because of one study; when omitting it, the I dropped to 27% (P=0.240), whereas the summary RR was only marginally modified (RR=0.52; 95% CI 0.44-0.62). There was no evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests a favorable effect of statins on HCC, in the absence, however, of a duration-risk relationship.
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Trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity in early breast cancer: a cohort study.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Concerns have been raised about the cardiac safety profile of trastuzumab for the adjuvant treatment of early stage breast cancer in clinical practice. We assessed trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity and its predictors in a large cohort of Italian women.
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The sequential organ failure assessment score predicts 30-day mortality in a geriatric acute care setting.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Several tools to predict patients survival have been proposed in medical wards, though they are often time consuming and difficult to apply. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) is a promising tool that has been validated in intensive care units but never in acute medical wards. The aim of this study was to assess whether the SOFA score predicts short-term (30 days) mortality in a population of elderly patients admitted to a geriatric ward.
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Long-term use of statins reduces the risk of hospitalization for dementia.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Dementia is a major public health problem because of its high prevalence in elderly individuals, particularly in the growing category of subjects aged 80 years or more. There is accumulating evidence that cholesterol may be implicated in the pathogenesis of dementia, and this has led us to assess the relationship between time spent with statins available and the risk of hospitalization for dementia.
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Cancer risk for patients using thiazolidinediones for type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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To clarify and quantify the effect of thiazolidinediones (TZDs; e.g., pioglitazone, rosiglitazone) on the risk of bladder cancer, other selected cancers, and overall cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
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Performance of the 2010 classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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To evaluate the performance of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) 2010 classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis.
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Risk of Severe Upper Gastrointestinal Complications among Oral Bisphosphonate Users.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Oral bisphosphonates (BPs) are the primary agents for the treatment of osteoporosis. Although BPs are generally well tolerated, serious gastrointestinal adverse events have been observed.
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Cardiovascular protection by initial and subsequent combination of antihypertensive drugs in daily life practice.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Guidelines recommend a combination of 2 drugs to be used as first-step treatment strategy in high-risk hypertensive individuals to achieve timely blood pressure control and avoid early events. The evidence that this is associated with cardiovascular (CV) benefits compared with initial monotherapy is limited, however. The objective of this study was to assess whether, compared with antihypertensive monotherapy, a combination of antihypertensive drugs provides a greater CV protection in daily clinical practice. A population-based, nested case-control study was carried out by including the cohort of 209 650 patients from Lombardy (Italy) aged 40 to 79 years who were newly treated with antihypertensive drugs between 2000 and 2001. Cases were the 10 688 patients who experienced a hospitalization for CV disease from initial prescription until 2007. Three controls were randomly selected for each case. Logistic regression was used to model the CV risk associated with starting on and/or continuing with combination therapy. A Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis was performed to account for unmeasured confounders. Patients starting on combination therapy had an 11% CV risk reduction with respect to those starting on monotherapy (95% CI: 5% to 16%). Compared with patients who maintained monotherapy also during follow-up, those who started on combination therapy and kept it along the entire period of observation had 26% reduction of CV risk (95% CI: 15% to 35%). In daily life practice, a combination of antihypertensive drugs is associated with a great reduction of CV risk. The indication for using combination of blood pressure drugs should be broadened.
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Better compliance to antihypertensive medications reduces cardiovascular risk.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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The effect of compliance with antihypertensive medications on the risk of cardiovascular outcomes in a population without a known history of cardiovascular disease has been addressed by a large population-based prospective, cohort study carried out by linking Italian administrative databases.
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Venous thromboembolism after major orthopaedic surgery: a population-based cohort study.
Intern Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following major orthopaedic surgery. However, the incidence of VTE and the role of additional risk factors have not yet been well explored in Italian clinical practice. The objective of the study is to estimate the incidence of VTE in the 3 months following elective hip and knee replacement (HR, KR) in a large cohort of patients, and the association between some selected risk factors and the occurrence of VTE. A large cohort study based on the record linkage between automated archives of the National Health System was analysed. In particular, all the residents in the Lombardy Region (Italy) who underwent HR and KR between 2005 and 2008 were followed for 3 months after surgery. The odds ratio (OR) of VTE associated with selected known risk factors was estimated by multivariate logistic regression. Amongst the 69,770 patients included in the study, 2,393 experienced at least one VTE event during the follow-up; the overall risk of VTE after HR or KR was 3.4%. The adjusted odds of experiencing a VTE event was higher in male patients (OR 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.21), aged 60 years or older (1.30; 1.00-1.68), undergoing KR (1.47; 1.35-1.61), with previous deep vein thrombosis (1.96; 1.20-3.19), pulmonary embolism (3.25; 1.84-5.75) or cancer (1.21; 1.00-1.46). In conclusion, the incidence of VTE after elective HR and KR in the Italian clinical practice is high. Our results suggest the need of optimising the management of thromboprophylaxis to further reduce postoperative VTE.
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Reduced discontinuation of antihypertensive treatment by two-drug combination as first step. Evidence from daily life practice.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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To measure persistence with antihypertensive drug therapy in patients initiating treatment with mono or combination therapy.
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Setting of methods for analysis of mucosal antibodies in seminal and vaginal fluids of HIV seropositive subjects from Cambodian and Italian cohorts.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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Genital mucosae play a key role in protection from STD and HIV infection, due to their involvement in both horizontal and vertical disease transmission. High variability of published observations concerning IgA isolation and quantification underlies the strong requirement of specific methods able to maximize investigation on HIV-specific IgA.
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Multiple outcomes associated with the use of metformin and sulphonylureas in type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study in Italy.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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To compare the effect of metformin and sulphonylureas on the risks of switching to insulin therapy, hospitalisation for macrovascular disease and all-cause mortality.
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Effect of macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibacterials on the risk of ventricular arrhythmia and cardiac arrest: an observational study in Italy using case-control, case-crossover and case-time-control designs.
Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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To compare the effect of macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibacterials on the onset of ventricular arrhythmia and cardiac arrest using three different observational designs.
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Overweight and perception of overweight as predictors of smokeless tobacco use and of cigarette smoking in a cohort of Swedish adolescents.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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To study the association between measured or perceived overweight in adolescence and subsequent uptake of cigarette smoking and of the Swedish smokeless tobacco snus (oral moist snuff).
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C-reactive protein distribution and correlation with traditional cardiovascular risk factors in the Italian population.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
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C-reactive protein (CRP) increases during an inflammatory response; its plasma levels are believed to be an independent predictor of future atherosclerotic disease. We report the distribution of plasma levels of CRP and its possible relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors in an Italian cohort.
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External adjustment for unmeasured confounders improved drug-outcome association estimates based on health care utilization data.
J Clin Epidemiol
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Health care utilization (HCU) databases are widespread sources of data for pharmacoepidemiologic investigations. Possible confounders are typically not measured in such databases. We show how to assess the impact of confounders in a study aimed at comparing cardiovascular (CV) risk according to drug regimen prescribed at starting antihypertensive therapy, nominally one agent (monotherapy) or a combination of agents in a unique tablet (fixed-dose combination) or in at least two distinct tablets (extemporaneous combination).
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The combined effect of ADL impairment and delay in time from fracture to surgery on 12-month mortality: an observational study in orthogeriatric patients.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
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Delayed surgery (ie, >48 hours from arrival in hospital) and pre-fracture disability are thought to be long-term risk factors for mortality in patients with hip fracture (HF). However, the combined effect on mortality of these two conditions has not been satisfactorily assessed in previous studies.
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Cancer risk associated with use of metformin and sulfonylurea in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.
Oncologist
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Oral antidiabetic drugs (including metformin and sulfonylurea) may play a role in the relationship between type 2 diabetes and cancer. To quantify the association between metformin and sulfonylurea and the risk of cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of available studies on the issue.
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Tissue Doppler, triplane echocardiography, and speckle tracking echocardiography: different ways of measuring longitudinal myocardial velocity and deformation parameters. A comparative clinical study.
Echocardiography
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The aim of our study was to compare global and segmental longitudinal myocardial velocity and deformation obtained from three different echocardiographic techniques of postprocessing analysis (two-dimensional tissue Doppler imaging (2D TDI), triplane tissue Doppler imaging (3D TDI), and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE)), in a group of consecutive subjects referred to echocardiography with different clinical indications, and to assess their reproducibility.
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Incidence of cardiovascular events in Italian patients with early discontinuations of antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic treatments.
Am. J. Hypertens.
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Aim of the present investigation was to quantify the early discontinuation phenomenon in patients treated for hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes, and to assess their clinical characteristics and incidence of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes to see whether an incorrect diagnosis was involved or treatment continuation might have been indicated.
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Relationships of different types of event to cardiovascular death in trials of antihypertensive treatment: an aid to definition of total cardiovascular disease risk in hypertension.
J. Hypertens.
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Guidelines for management of cardiovascular diseases stratify absolute cardiovascular risk into categories with a high-risk threshold defined at a 20% cardiovascular events risk in 10 years, but it is unclear whether only major events or the Framingham-extended definition should be considered. The 2013 ESH-ESC hypertension guidelines, instead, define cardiovascular risk as a risk of cardiovascular death in 10 years, as in the SCORE model, setting the threshold for high risk at the 5% level. It would be therefore convenient to know the quantitative relationship between the risks of the different outcomes adopted by the different guidelines, especially because some outcome definitions include serious nonfatal cardiovascular events relevant in cardiovascular prevention. We have therefore analysed these relationships in trials of antihypertensive therapy as an aid to defining total cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.