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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
PTFE Grafts Versus Tunneled Cuffed Catheters for Hemodialysis: Which Is the Second Choice When Arteriovenous Fistula Is Not Feasible?
Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Vascular access-related complications are still one of the leading causes of morbidity in hemodialysis patients. The aim of this study was to compare polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts versus tunneled cuffed permanent catheters (TCCs) in terms of vascular access and patients' survival. An observational study was carried out with a 2-year follow-up. Eighty-seven chronic hemodialysis patients were enrolled: 31 with a PTFE graft as vascular access for hemodialysis versus 56 with a TCC. Patients' mean age was 63.8?±?14.6 (grafts) versus 73.5?±?11.3 years (TCCs), P?=?0.001. Significantly more patients with TCC had atrial fibrillation than patients with grafts (30.3% versus 6.5%, P?=?0.01). In an unadjusted Kaplan-Meier analysis, median TCC survival at 24 months was 5.4 months longer than that of PTFE grafts but not significantly (log-rank test?=?1.3, P?=?ns). In a Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, number of previous vascular accesses, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and any complication, this lack of significant difference in survival of the vascular access between TCC and PTFE groups was confirmed and diabetes proved to be an independent risk factor for the survival of both vascular accesses considered (P?=?0.02). In an unadjusted Kaplan-Meier analysis, a higher mortality was found in the TCC group than in the PTFE group at 24 months (log-rank test?=?10.07, P?
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ALK Rearrangement Testing by FISH Analysis in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Results of the First Italian External Quality Assurance Scheme.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The Italian Association of Medical Oncology and the Italian Society of Anatomic Pathology and Diagnostic Cytopathology organized an external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement by florescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Assessment of EGFR mutations in circulating tumor cell preparations from NSCLC patients by next generation sequencing: toward a real-time liquid biopsy for treatment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Assessment of EGFR mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is mandatory for optimization of pharmacologic treatment. In this respect, mutation analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may be desirable since they may provide real-time information on patient's disease status.
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Prevalence and clinical outcomes for patients with ALK-positive resected stage I to III adenocarcinoma: results from the European Thoracic Oncology Platform Lungscape Project.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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The prevalence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fusion (ALK positivity) in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies by population examined and detection method used. The Lungscape ALK project was designed to address the prevalence and prognostic impact of ALK positivity in resected lung adenocarcinoma in a primarily European population.
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Optimizing single agent panitumumab therapy in pre-treated advanced colorectal cancer.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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To improve the selection of advanced colorectal cancer patients to panitumumab by optimizing the assessment of RAS (KRAS-NRAS) mutations.
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Relationship between coronary artery disease and C-reactive protein levels in NSTEMI patients with renal dysfunction: a retrospective study.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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While chronic renal damage is a condition with low-grade inflammation, the potential role of inflammation in kidney disease as a marker of cardiovascular damage is of current interest. This study analyzed the relationship between renal dysfunction, chronic inflammation, and extension of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).
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Determinants of noninvasive ventilation outcomes during an episode of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the effects of comorbidities and causes of respiratory failure.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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To investigate the effect of the cause of acute respiratory failure and the role of comorbidities both acute and chronic on the outcome of COPD patients admitted to Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) with acute respiratory failure and treated with NIV.
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microRNAs derived from circulating exosomes as noninvasive biomarkers for screening and diagnosing lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Lung cancer is the highest cause of mortality among tumor pathologies worldwide. There are no validated techniques for an early detection of pulmonary cancer lesions other than low-dose helical computed tomography scan. Unfortunately, this method has some negative effects. Recent studies have laid the basis for development of exosomes-based techniques to screen/diagnose lung cancers. As the isolation of circulating exosomes is a minimally invasive procedure, this technique opens new possibilities for diagnostic applications.
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Incidence and predictors of postoperative atrial fibrillation in kidney transplant recipients.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a complication of cardiothoracic and noncardiothoracic surgery. Kidney transplant recipients bear several known risk factors and may have a higher incidence of POAF. We retrospectively studied kidney and kidney/liver transplant recipients to estimate their POAF incidence and identify relevant risk factors. We also adapted a clinical score originally designed to predict thromboembolic risk in atrial fibrillation (AF; CHA2DS2-VASc) for assessing transplant patients.
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Ligand-dependent activation of EGFR in follicular dendritic cells sarcoma is sustained by local production of cognate ligands.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the biological and clinical significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDC-S).
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Strategies for improving outcomes in NSCLC: A look to the future.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Advances in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) over the past 30 years have led to small increases in 5-year survival rates across Europe, though further improvements may require new treatment strategies. In order to improve efficiency and reduce the cost of development, future trials for new targeted agents in NSCLC should aim to recruit patients on the basis of tumour biology rather than clinical characteristics. However, identification of predictive biomarkers is required to maximise the benefits of new approaches and expedite the drug development process. Nevertheless, the NSCLC landscape is changing rapidly, and recent improvements in our understanding of the molecular biology of the disease will help in the identification of novel targeted agents as well as assisting in the development of personalised strategies for the numerous small subsets of defined NSCLC. Progress in imaging and treatment delivery is also likely to improve outcomes for patients with the disease. This article outlines recent progress in the treatment of NSCLC, identifies current challenges and describes proposals for improving the future management of the disease. It is hoped that implementation of some of these strategies will go some way to improving the outlook for patients with NSCLC.
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Results of the First Italian External Quality Assurance Scheme for somatic EGFR mutation testing in non-small-cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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The Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) and the Italian Society of Pathology and Cytology organized an external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for EGFR mutation testing in non-small-cell lung cancer.
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Recommendations for the analysis of ALK gene rearrangements in non-small-cell lung cancer: a consensus of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology and the Italian Society of Pathology and Cytopathology.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Recent clinical trials led to the approval of crizotinib (PF-02341066; Pfizer) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients whose tumors are positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) alterations. The European Medicines Agency accepted the regulatory submission of crizotinib for the treatment of these patients. Therefore, ALK gene testing has become mandatory to choose the most appropriate therapy.
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Mixed lineage kinase MLK4 is activated in colorectal cancers where it synergistically cooperates with activated RAS signaling in driving tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Colorectal cancers (CRC) are commonly classified into those with microsatellite instability and those that are microsatellite stable (MSS) but chromosomally unstable. The latter are characterized by poor prognosis and remain largely intractable at the metastatic stage. Comprehensive mutational analyses have revealed that the mixed lineage kinase 4 (MLK4) protein kinase is frequently mutated in MSS CRC with approximately 50% of the mutations occurring in KRAS- or BRAF-mutant tumors. This kinase has not been characterized previously and the relevance of MLK4 somatic mutations in oncogenesis has not been established. We report that MLK4-mutated alleles in CRC are constitutively active and increase the transformation and tumorigenic capacity of RAS-mutated cell lines. Gene expression silencing or targeted knockout of MLK4 impairs the oncogenic properties of KRAS- and BRAF-mutant cancer cells both in vitro and in xenograft models. In establishing the role of MLK4 in intracellular signaling, we show it directly phosphorylates MEK1 (MAP2K1) and that MEK/ERK (MAPK1) signaling is impaired in MLK4 knockout cells. These findings suggest that MLK4 inhibitors may be efficacious in KRAS- and BRAF-mutated CRCs and may provide a new opportunity for targeting such recalcitrant tumors.
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KRAS mutations testing in colorectal carcinoma patients in Italy: from guidelines to external quality assessment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Monoclonal antibodies directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) that do not carry KRAS mutations. Therefore, KRAS testing has become mandatory to chose the most appropriate therapy for these patients.
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Clinical features and outcome of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer harboring BRAF mutations.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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To investigate the prevalence, distribution, and prognostic role of BRAF mutations in a large cohort of white patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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A unique microRNA signature associated with plaque instability in humans.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is considered the most important mechanism that underlies the onset of stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Several evidences demonstrated the pivotal role of inflammatory processes in plaque destabilization. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs and represent a new important class of gene regulators. Nevertheless, no data exist about the expression profile of miRNAs in atherosclerotic plaques. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression level of miRNAs in human plaques and to correlate it with clinical features of plaque destabilization.
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Increased detection sensitivity for KRAS mutations enhances the prediction of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody resistance in metastatic colorectal cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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KRAS mutations represent the main cause of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We evaluated whether highly sensitive methods for KRAS investigation improve the accuracy of predictions of anti-EGFR MoAbs efficacy.
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Research trends for early cancer biomarker detection in Italy: an integrated program in oncology (PIO) survey.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2010
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In 2007, an Italian Research Network proposed to the Ministry of Health a concerted action aimed at developing a specific pathway for the analytical and clinical validation of new biomarkers for early cancer diagnosis. The action, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health within the Integrated Program in Oncology (PIO) and coordinated by the National Cancer Institute of Bari, started in 2008 involving 37 national research teams.
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Consensus for EGFR mutation testing in non-small cell lung cancer: results from a European workshop.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Activating somatic mutations of the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have recently been characterized in a subset of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients harboring these mutations in their tumors show excellent response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). The EGFR-TKI gefitinib has been approved in Europe for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with activating mutations of the EGFR TK. Because EGFR mutation testing is not yet well established across Europe, biomarker-directed therapy only slowly emerges for the subset of NSCLC patients most likely to benefit: those with EGFR mutations.
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The Integrated Oncology Program of the Italian Ministry of Health. Analytical and clinical validation of new biomarkers for early diagnosis: network, resources, methodology, quality control, and data analysis.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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In 2007, an Italian cancer research group proposed a specific concerted action aimed at the "analytical and clinica validation of new biomarkers for early diagnosis: Network, resources, methodology, quality control, and data analysis." The proposal united 37 national operative units involved in different biomarker studies and it created a strong coordinative body with the necessary expertise in methodologies, statistical analysis, quality control, and biological resources to perform ad hoc validation studies for new biomarkers of early cancer diagnosis. The action, financed by the Italian Ministry of Health within the Integrated Oncology Program (PIO) coordinated by NCI-Istituto Tumori Bari, started in 2007 and activated 7 projects, each of which focused on disease-specific biomarker studies. Overall, the 37 participating units proposed studies on 50 biomarkers, including analytical and clinical validation procedures. Clusters of units were specifically involved in research of early-detection biomarkers for cancers of the lung, digestive tract, prostate/bladder, and nervous system, as well as female cancers. Furthermore, a cluster involved in biomarkers for bioimaging and infection-related cancers was created. The first investigators meeting, "Analytical and clinical validation of new biomarkers for early diagnosis," was held on 9 September 2008 in Bari. During this meeting, methodological aspects, scientific programs and preliminary results were presented and discussed.
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High-risk human papilloma virus infection, tumor pathophenotypes, and BRCA1/2 and TP53 status in juvenile breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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Juvenile breast cancer is rare and poorly known. We studied a series of five breast cancer patients diagnosed within 25 years of age that included two adolescents, 12- and 15-years-old, and 3 young women, 21-, 21-, and 25-years-old, respectively. All cases were scanned for germline mutations along the entire BRCA1/2 coding sequences and TP53 exons 4-10, using protein truncation test, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. Paraffin-embedded primary tumors (available for 4/5 cases), and a distant metastasis (from the 15-years-old) were characterized for histological and molecular tumor subtype, human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16/18 E6 sequences and tumor-associated mutations in TP53 exons 5-8. A BRCA2 germline mutation (p.Ile2490Thr), previously reported in breast cancer and, as compound heterozygote, in Fanconi anemia, was identified in the 21-year-old patient diagnosed after pregnancy, negative for cancer family history. The tumor was not available for study. Only germline polymorphisms in BRCA1/2 and/or TP53 were detected in the other cases. The tumors of the 15- and 12-years-old were, respectively, classified as glycogen-rich carcinoma with triple negative subtype and as secretory carcinoma with basal subtype. The tumors of the 25-year-old and of the other 21-year-old were, respectively, diagnosed as infiltrating ductal carcinoma with luminal A subtype and as lobular carcinoma with luminal B subtype. No somatic TP53 mutations were found, but tumor-associated HPV 16 E6 sequences were retrieved from the 12- and 25-year-old, while both HPV 16 and HPV 18 E6 sequences were found in the tumor of the 15-year-old and in its associated metastasis. Blood from the 15- and 25-year-old, diagnosed with high-stage disease, resulted positive for HPV 16 E6. All the HPV-positive cases were homozygous for arginine at TP53 codon 72, a genotype associated with HPV-related cancer risk, and the tumors showed p16(INK4A) immunostaining, a marker of HPV-associated cancers. Notably menarche at 11 years was reported for the two adolescents, while the 25-year-old was diagnosed after pregnancy and breast-feeding. Our data suggest that high-risk HPV infection is involved in a subset of histopathologically heterogeneous juvenile breast carcinomas associated with menarche or pregnancy and breast-feeding. Furthermore we implicate BRCA2 in a juvenile breast carcinoma diagnosed at 21 years of age, 4 years after an early full-term pregnancy, in absence of cancer family history.
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Molecular profiling of the "plexinome" in melanoma and pancreatic cancer.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
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Plexins are transmembrane high-affinity receptors for semaphorins, regulating cell guidance, motility, and invasion. Functional evidences implicate semaphorin signals in cancer progression and metastasis. Yet, it is largely unknown whether plexin genes are genetically altered in human tumors. We performed a comprehensive gene copy analysis and mutational profiling of all nine members of the plexin gene family (plexinome), in melanomas and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs), which are characterized by high metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Gene copy analysis detected amplification of PLXNA4 in melanomas, whereas copy number losses of multiple plexin genes were seen in PDACs. Somatic mutations were detected in PLXNA4, PLXNB3, and PLXNC1; providing the first evidence that these plexins are mutated in human cancer. Functional assays in cellular models revealed that some of these missense mutations result in loss of plexin function. For instance, c.1613G>A, p.R538H mutation in the extracellular domain of PLXNB3 prevented binding of the ligand Sema5A. Moreover, although PLXNA4 signaling can inhibit tumor cell migration, the mutated c.5206C>T, p.H1736Y allele had lost this activity. Our study is the first systematic analysis of the "plexinome" in human tumors, and indicates that multiple mutated plexins may be involved in cancer progression.
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Clinical implications of KRAS mutations in lung cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors: an important role for mutations in minor clones.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Mutations inducing resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy may have a clinical impact even if present in minor cell clones which could expand during treatment. We tested this hypothesis in lung cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Eighty-three patients with lung adenocarcinoma treated with erlotinib or gefitinib were included in this study. The mutational status of KRAS and EGFR was investigated by direct sequencing (DS). KRAS mutations were also assessed by mutant-enriched sequencing (ME-sequencing). DS detected KRAS mutations in 16 (19%) of 83 tumors; ME-sequencing identified all the mutations detected by DS but also mutations in minor clones of 14 additional tumors, for a total of 30 (36%) of 83. KRAS mutations assessed by DS and ME-sequencing significantly correlated with resistance to TKIs (P = .04 and P = .004, respectively) and significantly affected progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). However, the predictive power of mutations assessed by ME-sequencing was higher than that obtained by DS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.82, P = .0001 vs HR = 1.98, P = .04, respectively, for OS; HR = 2.52, P = .0005 vs HR = 2.21, P = .007, respectively, for PFS). Survival outcome of patients harboring KRAS mutations in minor clones, detected only by ME-sequencing, did not differ from that of patients with KRAS mutations detected by DS. Only KRAS mutations assessed by ME-sequencing remained an independent predictive factor at multivariate analysis. KRAS mutations in minor clones have an important impact on response and survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma treated with EGFR-TKI. The use of sensitive detection methods could allow to more effectively identify treatment-resistant patients.
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Mutational profile of GNAQQ209 in human tumors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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Frequent somatic mutations have recently been identified in the ras-like domain of the heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunit (GNAQ) in blue naevi 83%, malignant blue naevi (50%) and ocular melanoma of the uvea (46%). The mutations exclusively affect codon 209 and result in GNAQ constitutive activation which, in turn, acts as a dominant oncogene.
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MDM4 (MDMX) localizes at the mitochondria and facilitates the p53-mediated intrinsic-apoptotic pathway.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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MDM4 is a key regulator of p53, whose biological activities depend on both transcriptional activity and transcription-independent mitochondrial functions. MDM4 binds to p53 and blocks its transcriptional activity; however, the main cytoplasmic localization of MDM4 might also imply a regulation of p53-mitochondrial function. Here, we show that MDM4 stably localizes at the mitochondria, in which it (i) binds BCL2, (ii) facilitates mitochondrial localization of p53 phosphorylated at Ser46 (p53Ser46(P)) and (iii) promotes binding between p53Ser46(P) and BCL2, release of cytochrome C and apoptosis. In agreement with these observations, MDM4 reduction by RNA interference increases resistance to DNA-damage-induced apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner and independently of transcription. Consistent with these findings, a significant downregulation of MDM4 expression associates with cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancers, and MDM4 modulation affects cisplatin sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells. These data define a new localization and function of MDM4 that, by acting as a docking site for p53Ser46(P) to BCL2, facilitates the p53-mediated intrinsic-apoptotic pathway. Overall, our results point to MDM4 as a double-faced regulator of p53.
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Identification of potential therapeutic targets in malignant mesothelioma using cell-cycle gene expression analysis.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Cell-cycle defects are responsible for cancer onset and growth. We studied the expression profile of 60 genes involved in cell cycle in a series of malignant mesotheliomas (MMs), normal pleural tissues, and MM cell cultures using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based, low-density array. Nine genes were significantly deregulated in MMs compared with normal controls. Seven genes were overexpressed in MMs, including the following: CDKN2C, cdc6, cyclin H, cyclin B1, CDC2, FoxM1, and Chk1, whereas Ube1L and cyclin D2 were underexpressed. Chk1 is a principal mediator of cell-cycle checkpoints in response to genotoxic stress. We confirmed the overexpression of Chk1 in an independent set of 87 MMs by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. To determine whether Chk1 down-regulation would affect cell-cycle control and cell survival, we transfected either control or Chk1 siRNA into two mesothelioma cell lines and a nontumorigenic (Met5a) cell line. Results showed that Chk1 knockdown increased the apoptotic fraction of MM cells and induced an S phase block in Met5a cells. Furthermore, Chk1 silencing sensitized p53-null MM cells to both an S phase block and apoptosis in the presence of doxorubicin. Our results indicate that cell-cycle gene expression analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction can identify potential targets for novel therapies. Chk1 knockdown could provide a novel therapeutic approach to arrest cell-cycle progression in MM cells, thus increasing the rate of cell death.
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IDH1 mutations at residue p.R132 (IDH1(R132)) occur frequently in high-grade gliomas but not in other solid tumors.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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Systematic sequence profiling of the Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) genome has recently led to the identification of somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene. Interestingly, only the evolutionarily conserved residue R132 located in the substrate binding site of IDH1 was found mutated in GBM. At present, the occurrence and the relevance of p.R132 (IDH1(R132)) variants in tumors other than GBMs is largely unknown. We searched for mutations at position R132 of the IDH1 gene in a panel of 672 tumor samples. These included high-grade glioma, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), melanoma, bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, pancreas, prostate, and thyroid carcinoma specimens. In addition, we assessed a panel of 84 cell lines from different tumor lineages. Somatic mutations affecting the IDH1(R132) residue were detected in 20% (23 of 113) high-grade glioma samples. In addition to the previously reported p.R132H and p.R132S alleles, we identified three novel somatic mutations (p.R132C, p.R132G, and p.R132L) affecting residue IDH1(R132) in GBM. Strikingly, no IDH1 mutations were detected in the other tumor types. These data indicate that cancer mutations affecting IDH1(R132) are tissue-specific, and suggest that it plays a unique role in the development of high-grade gliomas.
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Guideline on the requirements of external quality assessment programs in molecular pathology.
Virchows Arch.
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Molecular pathology is an integral part of daily diagnostic pathology and used for classification of tumors, for prediction of prognosis and response to therapy, and to support treatment decisions. For these reasons, analyses in molecular pathology must be highly reliable and hence external quality assessment (EQA) programs are called for. Several EQA programs exist to which laboratories can subscribe, but they vary in scope, number of subscribers, and execution. The guideline presented in this paper has been developed with the purpose to harmonize EQA in molecular pathology. It presents recommendations on how an EQA program should be organized, provides criteria for a reference laboratory, proposes requirements for EQA test samples, and defines the number of samples needed for an EQA program. Furthermore, a system for scoring of the results is proposed as well as measures to be taken for poorly performing laboratories. Proposals are made regarding the content requirements of an EQA report and how its results should be communicated. Finally, the need for an EQA database and a participant manual are elaborated. It is the intention of this guideline to improve EQA for molecular pathology in order to provide more reliable molecular analyses as well as optimal information regarding patient selection for treatment.
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Effective assessment of egfr mutation status in bronchoalveolar lavage and pleural fluids by next-generation sequencing.
Clin. Cancer Res.
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The therapeutic choice for patients with lung adenocarcinoma depends on the presence of EGF receptor (EGFR) mutations. In many cases, only cytologic samples are available for molecular diagnosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and pleural fluid, which represent a considerable proportion of cytologic specimens, cannot always be used for molecular testing because of low rate of tumor cells.
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Complex mutations & subpopulations of deletions at exon 19 of EGFR in NSCLC revealed by next generation sequencing: potential clinical implications.
PLoS ONE
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Microdeletions at exon 19 are the most frequent genetic alterations affecting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and they are strongly associated with response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A series of 116 NSCLC DNA samples investigated by Sanger Sequencing (SS), including 106 samples carrying exon 19 EGFR deletions and 10 without deletions (control samples), were subjected to deep next generation sequencing (NGS). All samples with deletions at SS showed deletions with NGS. No deletions were seen in control cases. In 93 (88%) cases, deletions detected by NGS were exactly corresponding to those identified by SS. In 13 cases (12%) NGS resolved deletions not accurately characterized by SS. In 21 (20%) cases the NGS showed presence of complex (double/multiple) frameshift deletions producing a net in-frame change. In 5 of these cases the SS could not define the exact sequence of mutant alleles, in the other 16 cases the results obtained by SS were conventionally considered as deletions plus insertions. Different interpretative hypotheses for complex mutations are discussed. In 46 (43%) tumors deep NGS showed, for the first time to our knowledge, subpopulations of DNA molecules carrying EGFR deletions different from the main one. Each of these subpopulations accounted for 0.1% to 17% of the genomic DNA in the different tumors investigated. Our findings suggest that a region in exon 19 is highly unstable in a large proportion of patients carrying EGFR deletions. As a corollary to this study, NGS data were compared with those obtained by immunohistochemistry using the 6B6 anti-mutant EGFR antibody. The immunoreaction was E746-A750del specific. In conclusion, NGS analysis of EGFR exon 19 in NSCLCs allowed us to formulate a new interpretative hypothesis for complex mutations and revealed the presence of subpopulations of deletions with potential pathogenetic and clinical impact.
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EGFR molecular profiling in advanced NSCLC: a prospective phase II study in molecularly/clinically selected patients pretreated with chemotherapy.
J Thorac Oncol
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The optimal use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-related molecular markers to prospectively identify tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-sensitive patients, particularly after a previous chemotherapy treatment, is currently under debate.
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Therapeutic potential of MEK inhibition in acute myelogenous leukemia: rationale for "vertical" and "lateral" combination strategies.
J. Mol. Med.
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In hematological malignancies, constitutive activation of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway is frequently observed, conveys a poor prognosis, and constitutes a promising target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we investigated the molecular and functional effects of pharmacological MEK inhibition in cell line models of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and freshly isolated primary AML samples. The small-molecule, ATP-non-competitive, MEK inhibitor PD0325901 markedly inhibited ERK phosphorylation and growth of several AML cell lines and approximately 70 % of primary AML samples. Growth inhibition was due to G(1)-phase arrest and induction of apoptosis. Transformation by constitutively active upstream pathway elements (HRAS, RAF-1, and MEK) rendered FDC-P1 cells exquisitely prone to PD0325901-induced apoptosis. Gene and protein expression profiling revealed a selective effect of PD0325901 on ERK phosphorylation and compensatory upregulation of the RAF/MEK and AKT/p70( S6K ) kinase modules, potentially mediating resistance to drug-induced growth inhibition. Consequently, in appropriate cellular contexts, both "vertical" (i.e., inhibition of RAF and MEK along the MAPK pathway) and "lateral" (i.e., simultaneous inhibition of the MEK/ERK and mTOR pathways) combination strategies may result in synergistic anti-leukemic effects. Overall, MEK inhibition exerts potent growth inhibitory and proapoptotic activity in preclinical models of AML, particularly in combination with other pathway inhibitors. Deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of MEK inhibitors will likely translate into more effective targeted strategies for the treatment of AML.
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p95HER2 truncated form in resected non-small cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol
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Recent studies suggested that p95HER2, the NH2-terminally truncated form of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), could confer resistance to monoclonal antibodies against HER2 (HER2-mab). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of p95HER2 according to HER2 gene copy number (GCN) and HER2 mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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PI3KCA mutation status is of limited prognostic relevance in ER-positive breast cancer patients treated with hormone therapy.
Virchows Arch.
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PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway alterations are frequent in patients with infiltrating breast cancer (IBC). Their clinical and pathological relevance has been insufficiently documented. We evaluated PI3KCA for mutations and the expression of PTEN, AKT, mTOR and p70S6K by immunohistochemistry in 246 IBC patients treated with hormone therapy (median follow-up, 97 months). A PI3KCA mutation was observed in 50 out of 229 informative cases (21.8 %), PTEN loss in 107 out of 210 (51 %), moderate/high level of expression of AKT in 133 out of 188 (71 %), moderate/high level of expression of mTOR in 173 out of 218 (79 %) and moderate/high level of expression of p70S6K in 111 out of 192 cases (58 %). PI3KCA mutation was associated with the absence of Her2/neu amplification/overexpression and a low level of MIB1/Ki-67 labelling. The expression of p70S6K was associated with a high level of mTOR immunoreactivity, and high PTEN expression was associated with high AKT expression level. Univariate analysis showed that PI3KCA mutation status was not associated with clinical outcome in the series as a whole or in the node-negative subgroup. However, in the node-positive subgroup, exon 9 PI3KCA mutation was associated with unfavourable overall survival (OS), although its impact on the final model in multivariate analysis seemed to be limited. Of the other markers, only high p70S6K expression was associated with a significantly prolonged OS. PI3KCA mutation status is of limited prognostic relevance in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with hormone therapy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.