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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) for preterm neonates after extubation.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Previous randomised trials and meta-analyses have shown nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) to be a useful method of respiratory support after extubation. However, infants managed in this way sometimes 'fail' and require endotracheal reintubation with its attendant risks and expense. Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is a method of augmenting NCPAP by delivering ventilator breaths via nasal prongs. Older children and adults with chronic respiratory failure benefit from NIPPV and the technique has been applied to neonates. However, serious side effects including gastric perforation have been reported with older techniques to provide NIPPV.
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The OPTIMIST-A trial: evaluation of minimally-invasive surfactant therapy in preterm infants 25-28 weeks gestation.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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It is now recognized that preterm infants ?28 weeks gestation can be effectively supported from the outset with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. However, this form of respiratory therapy may fail to adequately support those infants with significant surfactant deficiency, with the result that intubation and delayed surfactant therapy are then required. Infants following this path are known to have a higher risk of adverse outcomes, including death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and other morbidities. In an effort to circumvent this problem, techniques of minimally-invasive surfactant therapy have been developed, in which exogenous surfactant is administered to a spontaneously breathing infant who can then remain on continuous positive airway pressure. A method of surfactant delivery using a semi-rigid surfactant instillation catheter briefly passed into the trachea (the "Hobart method") has been shown to be feasible and potentially effective, and now requires evaluation in a randomised controlled trial.
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Protein Supplementation Increases Postexercise Plasma Myostatin Concentration After 8 Weeks of Resistance Training in Young Physically Active Subjects.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Abstract Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth even if some studies have shown a counterintuitive positive correlation between MSTN and muscle mass (MM). Our aim was to investigate the influence of 2 months of resistance training (RT) and diets with different protein contents on plasma MSTN, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly divided in two groups: high protein (HP) and normal protein (NP) groups. Different protein diet contents were 1.8 and 0.85?g of protein·kg bw(-1)·day(-1) for HP and NP, respectively. Subjects underwent 8 weeks of standardized progressive RT. MSTN, IGF-1, IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? were analyzed before and after the first and the last training sessions. Lean body mass, MM, upper-limb muscle area, and strength were measured. Plasma MSTN showed a significant increase (P<.001) after the last training in the HP group compared with NP group and with starting value. IGF-1 plasma concentration showed a positive correlation with MSTN in HP after the last training (r(2)=0.6456; P=.0295). No significant differences were found between NP and HP for IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and strength and MM or area. These findings suggest a "paradoxical" postexercise increase of plasma MSTN after 8 weeks of RT and HP diets. This MSTN elevation correlates positively with IGF-1 plasma level. This double increase of opposite (catabolic/anabolic) mediators could explain the substantial overlapping of MM increases in the two groups.
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Postural stability in subjects with whiplash injury symptoms: results of a pilot study.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Posturographic tests can be used to assess and confirm the body's imbalance in subjects with whiplash injury. Further studies with larger cohorts are necessary to confirm this pilot study.
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New Chitosan salt in gastro-resistant oral formulation could interfere with enteric bile salts emulsification of diet fats: preliminary laboratory observations and physiologic rationale.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Chitosan (CH) is a polymer of glucosamine that is extracted from the shells of several sea fruits. It is well recognized as a nutritional supplement that is used to reduce body weight and blood lipid levels, but its clinical efficacy has not been clearly demonstrated. The true mechanism of action and physiological processes involved in these properties of CH are not yet understood or explained. The most accepted theories assume that CH reduces dietary fat absorption by trapping the fat in the gastric lumen. The very low pH of the gastric lumen induces CH jellification and, therefore, entrapment of the fats. This article describes the most plausible mechanism by which CH interferes with fat absorption in the first part of the enteric tract while interacting with cholic acids. We emphasize the weak points of the classic CH-containing formulations, which are unable to prove this theory. We also report preliminary experimental data of a new CH salt-containing formulation that is capable of effectively interfering with bile salt emulsification processes and, as a result, reducing dietary fat absorption.
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Ketogenic diet in neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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An increasing number of data demonstrate the utility of ketogenic diets in a variety of metabolic diseases as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. In regard to neurological disorders, ketogenic diet is recognized as an effective treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy but emerging data suggests that ketogenic diet could be also useful in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease, and some mitochondriopathies. Although these diseases have different pathogenesis and features, there are some common mechanisms that could explain the effects of ketogenic diets. These mechanisms are to provide an efficient source of energy for the treatment of certain types of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by focal brain hypometabolism; to decrease the oxidative damage associated with various kinds of metabolic stress; to increase the mitochondrial biogenesis pathways; and to take advantage of the capacity of ketones to bypass the defect in complex I activity implicated in some neurological diseases. These mechanisms will be discussed in this review.
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Effects of repetitive exposure to anesthetics and analgesics in the Tg2576 mouse Alzheimer's model.
Neurotox Res
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The use of anesthetics and sedatives has been suggested to be a contributor to Alzheimer's disease neuropathogenesis. We wanted to address the in vivo relevance of those substances in the Tg2576 Alzheimer's mouse model. Tg7526 mice were anesthesia-sedated for 90 min once a week for 4 weeks. Y maze, Congo Red, and amyloid beta (A?) immunochemistry were performed. We did not find any significant change in the navigation behavior of the exposed mice compared to the controls. Significantly less deposition of A? in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice exposed to isoflurane, propofol, diazepam, ketamine, and pentobarbital was observed. In the dentate gyrus, A? deposition was significantly greater in the group treated with pentobarbital. Congo Red staining evidenced significantly fewer fibrils in the cortex of mice exposed to diazepam, ketamine, or pentobarbital. The adopted repetitive exposure did not cause a significant detriment in Tg7526 mouse.
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Evaluation of fitness levels of children with a diagnosis of acute leukemia and lymphoma after completion of chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the fitness levels and possible deficits in physical performance in children with a diagnosis of childhood acute leukemia and lymphoma after 10 months of therapy ending through a specific test battery. A total of 58 subjects were enrolled in this study. The experimental group (EG) (7.55 ± 2.43 years; 41.8 ± 16.37 kg; 144.6 ± 10.21 cm) consisted of 18 children with diagnosed leukemia and lymphoma after completion of 10 months of therapy intervention and 40 healthy children who were enrolled in a control group (CG) (7.92 ± 1.78 years; 37.4 ± 12.37 kg; 140.6 ± 12.61 cm). A testing battery including the standing broad jump; the sit-up test; the 4 × 10 m shuttle run test, and the hand grip strength test were administered to both groups. An unpaired t-test was adopted to determine differences and the Pearson product moment was administered when appropriate. Results of the EG were generally lower when compared to the CG. Significant differences were identified for the standing broad jump (P < 0.05); 4 × 10 m shuttle run (P < 0.05); hand grip test DX (P < 0.05), and hand grip test SX (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the sit-up tests. Pearson product moment correlation revealed a good interaction for all EG participants. Findings suggest that the proposed testing battery could be an appropriate tool to evaluate residual fitness levels in children with previous hematological malignancies. However, our results have to be confirmed with a larger number of participants with the same diagnosis of our EG.
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Ketogenic diet for obesity: friend or foe?
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and is a strong risk factor for a number of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and also certain types of cancers. Despite the constant recommendations of health care organizations regarding the importance of weight control, this goal often fails. Genetic predisposition in combination with inactive lifestyles and high caloric intake leads to excessive weight gain. Even though there may be agreement about the concept that lifestyle changes affecting dietary habits and physical activity are essential to promote weight loss and weight control, the ideal amount and type of exercise and also the ideal diet are still under debate. For many years, nutritional intervention studies have been focused on reducing dietary fat with little positive results over the long-term. One of the most studied strategies in the recent years for weight loss is the ketogenic diet. Many studies have shown that this kind of nutritional approach has a solid physiological and biochemical basis and is able to induce effective weight loss along with improvement in several cardiovascular risk parameters. This review discusses the physiological basis of ketogenic diets and the rationale for their use in obesity, discussing the strengths and the weaknesses of these diets together with cautions that should be used in obese patients.
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Lift weights to fight overweight.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Although resistance training (RT) has long been accepted as a means for developing and maintaining muscular strength, endurance, power and muscle mass, its beneficial relationship with health factors and chronic disease has only recently been recognized in the scientific literature. Prior to 1990, resistance training was not a part of the recommended guidelines for exercise training and rehabilitation for either the American Heart Association or the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). In 1990, the ACSM recognized resistance training as a significant component of a comprehensive fitness programme for healthy adults of all ages, a position subsequently confirmed few years after. At present, even though interest in clinical applications of RT is increasing, there are still some concerns, among physicians, about the use of this exercise methodology in weight control programmes. This review aims to explore the metabolic effects of RT and its efficacy and feasibility in overweight subjects.
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Motor and cognitive development: the role of karate.
Muscles Ligaments Tendons J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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regular physical activity has an effect on biological responses in both muscles and organs that, in turn, alter the structure and functions of the brain. Therefore, this study aims at comparing motor (sprint, coordination ability and explosive legs strength skills) and cognitive abilities (working memory, attention, executive functioning) in children.
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Protein supplements consumption: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy.
BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Protein supplements are extensively used among commercial gym users and athletes. Although demographic information amongst such consumption has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study is to compare protein supplement consumption in commercial gym users, both from the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy.
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The surprising influence of family history to type 2 diabetes on anaerobic performance of young male élite athletes.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It is known that family history to type 2 diabetes induces anthropometric changes in various populations. Regular physical activity can induce adaptations in these subjects regularizing body composition and anthropometric parameters. The aim of this study is therefore to understand if family history to type 2 diabetes affects anaerobic performance in young male élite athletes.
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Protein supplementation and dietary behaviours of resistance trained men and women attending commercial gyms: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It is anecdotally recognized that commercial gym users assume supplements in order to improve performance or health. However, dietary behaviours of people and athletes attending commercial gyms have been poorly studied. The exact amount and frequency of dietary supplements consumption are still needed to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to understand the quantity and quality of food intake, as well as dietary supplementation in people attending commercial gyms. Secondly to compare the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy.
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Alcohol consumption and hormonal alterations related to muscle hypertrophy: a review.
Nutr Metab (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Detrimental effects of acute and chronic alcohol (ethanol) consumption on human physiology are well documented in the literature. These adversely influence neural, metabolic, cardiovascular, and thermoregulatory functions. However, the side effects of ethanol consumption on hormonal fluctuations and subsequent related skeletal muscle alterations have received less attention and as such are not entirely understood. The focus of this review is to identify the side effects of ethanol consumption on the major hormones related to muscle metabolism and clarify how the hormonal profiles are altered by such consumption.
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Changes in spinal range of motion after a flexibility training program in elderly women.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Aging-related reduced spinal mobility can interfere with the execution of important functional skills and activities in elderly women. Although several studies have shown positive outcomes in response to spinal flexibility training programs, little is known about the management of sets and repetitions in training protocols. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week specific and standardized flexibility training program on the range of spinal motion in elderly women.
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Long term successful weight loss with a combination biphasic ketogenic mediterranean diet and mediterranean diet maintenance protocol.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term-a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term "yo-yo" is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts (KEMEPHY) combined with the acknowledged health benefits of traditional Mediterranean nutrition may favor long term weight loss. We analysed 89 male and female obese subjects, aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from being overweight. The subjects followed a staged diet protocol over a period of 12 months: 20 day of KEMEPHY; 20 days low carb-non ketogenic; 4 months Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition; a second 20 day ketogenic phase followed by 6 months of Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition. For the majority of subjects (88.25%) there was significant loss of weight (from 100.7 ± 16.54 to 84.59 ± 9.71 kg; BMI from 35.42 ± 4.11 to 30.27 ± 3.58) and body fat (form 43.44% ± 6.34% to 33.63% ± 7.6%) during both ketogenic phases followed by successful maintenance, without weight regain, during the 6 month stabilization phase with only 8 subjects failing to comply. There were also significant and stable decreases in total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides and glucose levels over the 12 month study period. HDLc showed small increases after the ketogenic phases but over the full 12 months there was no significant change. No significant changes were observed in ALT, AST, Creatinine or BUN. The combination of a biphasic KEMEPHY diet separated by longer periods of maintenance nutrition, based on the traditional Mediterranean diet, led to successful long term weight loss and improvements in health risk factors in a majority of subjects; compliance was very high which was a key determinant of the results seen.
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The involvement of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in heart exercise-related angiogenesis.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Little is known about the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in cardiac vascular remodelling induced by exercise. Our aim was to evaluate and localize MMP-2 and MMP-9s activities in relation to capillary proliferation in mouse hearts trained for 15, 30 and 45 days.
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Effects of high-intensity circuit training, low-intensity circuit training and endurance training on blood pressure and lipoproteins in middle-aged overweight men.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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The aim of this study was to determine the physiological effects of an high-intensity circuit training (HICT) on several cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy, overweight middle-aged subjects, and to compare the effects of HICT to traditional endurance training (ET) and low-intensity circuit training (LICT).
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Group fitness activities for the elderly: an innovative approach to reduce falls and injuries.
Aging Clin Exp Res
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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The aim of this study was to examine the opportunity to adopt, for the elderly, already validated function ability tests to better understand how to prevent falls and injuries and to better plan group fitness activities like ballroom dance classes (e.g., Valzer, Polka, Mazurka).
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High-frequency oscillatory ventilation with low oscillatory frequency in pulmonary interstitial emphysema.
Neonatology
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is a common respiratory illness in preterm infants associated with significant morbidity and mortality for which the ventilatory management is imperfect.
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Myosin isoforms and contractile properties of single fibers of human Latissimus Dorsi muscle.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The aim of our study was to investigate fiber type distribution and contractile characteristics of Latissimus Dorsi muscle (LDM). Samples were collected from 18 young healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) through percutaneous fine needle muscle biopsy. The results showed a predominance of fast myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) with 42% of MyHC 2A and 25% of MyHC 2X, while MyHC 1 represented only 33%. The unbalance toward fast isoforms was even greater in males (71%) than in females (64%). Fiber type distribution partially reflected MyHC isoform distribution with 28% type 1/slow fibers and 5% hybrid 1/2A fibers, while fast fibers were divided into 30% type 2A, 31% type A/X, 4% type X, and 2% type 1/2X. Type 1/slow fibers were not only less abundant but also smaller in cross-sectional area than fast fibers. During maximal isometric contraction, type 1/slow fibers developed force and tension significantly lower than the two major groups of fast fibers. In conclusion, the predominance of fast fibers and their greater size and strength compared to slow fibers reveal that LDM is a muscle specialized mainly in phasic and powerful activity. Importantly, such specialization is more pronounced in males than in females.
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Sports massage with ozonised oil or non-ozonised oil: Comparative effects on recovery parameters after maximal effort in cyclists.
Phys Ther Sport
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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To study the effects of passive rest (PR) and sports massage with (SMOZO) and without (SM) ozonised oil on sports performance psycho-physiological indices in competitive amateur cyclists after 3 pre-fatiguing Wingate cycle and post-recovery ramp tests.
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The relationship between type 2 diabetes family history, body composition and blood basal glycemia in sedentary people.
Acta Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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The aim of this study was to verify whether there is a positive correlation between family history to type 2 diabetes mellitus and body mass and composition, and alterations in blood basal glycaemia levels in sedentary male and female. Anthropometric variables, blood parameters, body composition and body surface area were evaluated on 183 male and 237 female sedentary individuals. Participants were classified into two groups: FH(+) (family history positive) and FH(-) (familiar history negative) according to their medical history. The FH(+) group showed higher values of body mass and body surface area than FH(-) group. These differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for the female subgroup. When compared to the FH(-) group, FH(+) female individuals showed a significantly greater fat mass (p < 0.01) and a significantly lower free fat mass-to-fat mass ratio (FFM/FM ratio) (p < 0.05). FH(+) female individuals showed significant lower levels of basal glucose values for Kg of FFM (p < 0.05), FM (p < 0.01) and BSA (p < 0.01) than FH(-) group. The results of this study indicate that body mass and composition correlate positively to family history to type 2 diabetes. The relationship between family history and body composition is particularly evident in young FH(+) female. Thus, as family history might represent a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, this could be considered as an important parameter able to predict the onset of the disease itself. This knowledge could be used to improve preventive interventions (i.e. increasing levels of physical activity) promoting healthy lifestyle.
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Continuous positive airway pressure failure in preterm infants: incidence, predictors and consequences.
Neonatology
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Preterm infants ?32 weeks gestation are increasingly being managed on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), without prior intubation and surfactant therapy. Some infants treated in this way ultimately fail on CPAP and require intubation and ventilation.
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EMG amplitude of the biceps femoris during jumping compared to landing movements.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Hamstrings injury is a common occurrence in athletic performance. These injuries tend to occur during a deceleration or landing task suggesting the negative work may be a key component in hamstrings injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the muscular activity (EMG) of the biceps femoris (BF) in different phases (concentric vs. eccentric) of a Counter Movement Jump (CMJ), Squat Jump (SJ) and the Braking Phase (BP) of a landing task. Twelve female volleyball players performed 5 CMJs, SJs and BPs while surface EMG was recorded using a MuscleLab (BoscoSystem(TM), Norway). EMG values were normalized to an maximal voluntary contraction. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare mean normalized EMG values of the concentric and eccentric portions of the CMJ with the BP and SJ. The ANOVA revealed significantly lower BF activation in the concentric and eccentric portions of the CMJ compared to the BP (64%, p?
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Supraphysiological doses of performance enhancing anabolic-androgenic steroids exert direct toxic effects on neuron-like cells.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few have been specifically tested for direct neurotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-?-methyltestosterone on sympathetic-like neuron cells. Vitality and apoptotic effects were analyzed, and immunofluorescence staining and western blot performed. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-?-methyltestosterone are toxic to the neuron-like differentiated pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, as confirmed by toxicity on neurite networks responding to nerve growth factor and the modulation of the survival and apoptosis-related proteins ERK, caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and heat-shock protein 90. We observe, in contrast to some previous reports but in accordance with others, expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in neuron-like cells, which when inhibited mitigated the toxic effects of AAS tested, suggesting that the AR could be binding these steroid hormones to induce genomic effects. We also note elevated transcription of neuritin in treated cells, a neurotropic factor likely expressed in an attempt to resist neurotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological exposure to the AAS methandienone and 17-?-methyltestosterone exert neurotoxic effects by an increase in the activity of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and alterations in neurite networks.
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Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US.
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Effect of ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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There has been increased interest in recent years in very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) that, even though they are much discussed and often opposed, have undoubtedly been shown to be effective, at least in the short to medium term, as a tool to tackle obesity, hyperlipidemia and some cardiovascular risk factors. For this reason the ketogenic diet represents an interesting option but unfortunately suffers from a low compliance. The aim of this pilot study is to ascertain the safety and effects of a modified ketogenic diet that utilizes ingredients which are low in carbohydrates but are formulated to simulate its aspect and taste and also contain phytoextracts to add beneficial effects of important vegetable components.
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Body metabolic rate and electromyographic activities of antigravitational muscles in supine and standing postures.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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We measured metabolic (oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, respiratory ratio), cardio-circulatory (heart rate, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, rate-pressure product, an index of myocardial oxygen consumption calculated by multiplying heart rate by systolic pressure) and electromyographic (integrated electromyographic activities of two antigravitational muscles of the lower limb, soleus and gastrocnemius) variables on 12 young healthy subjects in supine and standing positions at rest. We found statistically significant increments of oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, heart rate and integrated electromyographic activities in standing versus supine position. Rate-pressure product increased but not significantly, and no other significant changes were detected. We conclude that postural changes influence metabolic rate, antigravitational muscle reflex activities, and heart rate. A significant positive correlation was found between oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production and integrated electromyographic activities of antigravitational muscles, while the same was not found for cardio-circulatory variables. These results suggest that the increased metabolic rate in standing position is, at least in part, due to antigravitational muscle tone.
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Effects of hypoxia on nocturnal erection quality: a case report from the Manaslu expedition.
J Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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High altitude environment represents a fine model to study physiological and pathophysiological effects of oxygen availability on sleep-related erections (SREs).
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High flow nasal cannula for respiratory support in preterm infants.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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High flow nasal cannulae (HFNC) are small, thin, tapered cannulae used to deliver oxygen or blended oxygen and air at flow rates of > 1 L/min. HFNC can be used to provide high concentrations of oxygen and may deliver positive end-expiratory pressure.
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Exercising fasting or fed to enhance fat loss? Influence of food intake on respiratory ratio and excess postexercise oxygen consumption after a bout of endurance training.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Exercise and nutrition are often used in combination to lose body fat and reduce weight. In this respect, exercise programs are as important as correct nutrition. Several issues are still controversial in this field, and among them there are contrasting reports on whether training in a fasting condition can enhance weight loss by stimulating lipolytic activity. The authors purpose was to verify differences in fat metabolism during training in fasting or feeding conditions. They compared the effect on oxygen consumption (VO2) and substrate utilization, estimated by the respiratory-exchange ratio (RER), in 8 healthy young men who performed the same moderate-intensity training session (36 min of cardiovascular training on treadmill at 65% maximum heart rate) in the morning in 2 tests in random sequence: FST test (fasting condition) without any food intake or FED test (feeding condition) after breakfast. In both cases, the same total amount and quality of food was assumed in the 24 hr after the training session. The breakfast, per se, increased both VO2 and RER significantly (4.21 vs. 3.74 and 0.96 vs. 0.84, respectively). Twelve hours after the training session, VO2 was still higher in the FED test, whereas RER was significantly lower in the FED test, indicating greater lipid utilization. The difference was still significant 24 hr after exercise. The authors conclude that when moderate endurance exercise is done to lose body fat, fasting before exercise does not enhance lipid utilization; rather, physical activity after a light meal is advisable.
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Prophylactic methylxanthine for prevention of apnoea in preterm infants.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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Recurrent apnoea is common in preterm infants. These episodes can lead to hypoxaemia and bradycardia, which may be severe enough to require the use of positive pressure ventilation. In infants with apnoea, methylxanthine treatment has been used successfully to prevent further episodes. It is possible that prophylactic therapy given to all very preterm infants soon after birth might prevent apnoea and the need for additional ventilator support.
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Methylxanthine treatment for apnoea in preterm infants.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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Recurrent apnoea is common in preterm infants, particularly at very early gestational ages. These episodes of ineffective breathing can lead to hypoxaemia and bradycardia that may be severe enough to require the use of positive pressure ventilation. Methylxanthines (such as caffeine, theophylline or aminophylline) have been used to stimulate breathing and reduce apnoea and its consequences.
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Improved postural control after dynamic balance training in older overweight women.
Aging Clin Exp Res
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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Many studies have reported a greater frequency of falls among older women than men in conditions which stress balance. Previously, we found an improvement in static balance in older women with an increased support surface area and equal load redistribution on both feet, in response to a dynamic balance training protocol. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the same training program and body composition would have effects on the postural control of older overweight women.
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Preliminary evaluation of a new technique of minimally invasive surfactant therapy.
Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2010
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To investigate a method of minimally invasive surfactant therapy (MIST) to be used in spontaneously breathing preterm infants on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), evaluating the feasibility of the technique and the therapeutic benefit after MIST.
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Influence of different ranges of motion on selective recruitment of shoulder muscles in the sitting military press: an electromyographic study.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
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Popular fitness literature suggests that varying the elbow range of motion (ROM) during the Military press can lead up to specific muscle isolation especially for deltoid and trapezius muscles. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of ROM at different loads on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 8 preselected muscles. Six experienced lifters performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions, each one with a different ROM: the first one with a final elbow angle of 90 degrees (R1); the second with 135 degrees (R2), and the last one with a final elbow angle of 180 degrees (R3). Three resistances were chosen (no load, 30% of one repetition maximum [1-RM], and 70% of 1-RM), and sets were separated by 5 minutes rest. Electromyographic surface electrodes were placed on the clavicular head of pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid (MD), posterior deltoid (PD), upper trapezius, middle trapezius (MT), long head of triceps, and teres minor (TM). Analysis of variance showed a significant increase of rmsEMG activation with the widest ROM for each muscle and for each load condition except in MT and TM and PD with no load. The results showed that the use of the widest ROM increased the EMG activity of all the muscles selected with respect to the closest one, whereas this effect is not totally confirmed with the employment of R2. In addition, the use of intermediate ROMs was able to isolate the activity of the MD with respect to the trapezius only in the condition of the heaviest load. This suggests to coaches that in strength development programs the employment of an incomplete ROM can reduce the involvement of the trapezius without decreasing medium deltoid activation only with heavy loads.
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Early myocardial dysfunction after chronic use of anabolic androgenic steroids: combined pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging and ultrasonic integrated backscatter cyclic variations analysis.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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The chronic consumption of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) has shown to cause subclinical impairment of myocardial function. Pulsed-wave Doppler tissue imaging (PWDTI) detects early regional alterations of ventricular function, whereas integrated backscatter cyclic variations (IBScv) are tightly related to the contractile efficiency of the left ventricular wall. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of chronic AAS misuse on myocardial function using both PWDTI and IBScv.
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Latissimus dorsi fine needle muscle biopsy: a novel and efficient approach to study proximal muscles of upper limbs.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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The muscle biopsy based on the Bergström needle has been widely used for more than 40 y for diagnosis and experimental studies on muscle. More recently, thinner needles and tru-cut needles have also been introduced. Such techniques have been largely tested on various muscles, including the quadriceps, with few studies on upper limb muscles like deltoid, and no studies on latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM). In this study, we implemented and validated a protocol to collect samples of LDM for experimental purposes, causing minimal discomfort to volunteers. Two main problems were considered: the anatomical localization of the biopsy site and the selection of an appropriate needle.
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Effects of a dynamic balance training protocol on podalic support in older women. Pilot Study.
Aging Clin Exp Res
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2009
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The foot provides the only direct contact with supporting surfaces and therefore plays an important role in all postural tasks. Changes in the musculoskeletal and neurological characteristics of the foot with advancing age can alter plantar loading patterns and postural balance. Several studies have reported that exercise training improves postural performance in elderly individuals. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of a dynamic balance training protocol performed for 5 weeks on the support surface, percentage distribution of load in both feet, and body balance performance in healthy elderly women.
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Effects of local vibrations on skeletal muscle trophism in elderly people: mechanical, cellular, and molecular events.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Several studies have examined the effects of vibrations on muscle mass and performance in young healthy people. We studied the effects of vibrations on muscles of elderly male and female volunteers (65-85 years of age) diagnosed with sarcopenia. We applied mechanical vibrations locally (local vibrational training) to the thigh muscles at 300 Hz for a period of 12 weeks, starting with a session of 15 min stimulation once a week and increasing to three sessions of 15 min per week. Treated muscles displayed enhanced maximal isometric strength and increased content of fast MyHC-2X myosin. Single muscle fiber analysis did not show any change in cross-sectional area or in specific tension. Analysis of transcriptional profiles by microarray revealed changes in gene expression after 12 weeks of local vibrational training. In particular, pathways related with energy metabolism, sarcomeric protein balance and oxidative stress response were affected. We conclude that vibration treatment is effective in counteracting the loss of muscular strength associated with sarcopenia and the mode of action of vibration is based on cellular and molecular changes which do not include increase in fiber or muscle size.
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High frequency oscillatory ventilation versus conventional ventilation for infants with severe pulmonary dysfunction born at or near term.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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Pulmonary disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in term and near term infants. Conventional ventilation (CV) has been used for many years but may lead to lung injury, require the subsequent use of more invasive treatment such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), or result in death. There are some observational studies indicating that high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) may be more effective in these infants as compared to CV.
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The effect of stance width on the electromyographical activity of eight superficial thigh muscles during back squat with different bar loads.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Many strength trainers believe that varying the stance width during the back squat can target specific muscles of the thigh. The aim of the present work was to test this theory measuring the activation of 8 thigh muscles while performing back squats at 3 stance widths and with 3 different bar loads. Six experienced lifters performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions of squats, each one with a different stance width, using 3 resistances: no load, 30% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM), and 70% 1RM. Sets were separated by 6 minutes of rest. Electromyographic (EMG) surface electrodes were placed on the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus medium, and adductor maior. Analysis of variance and Scheffè post hoc tests indicated a significant difference in EMG activity only for the gluteus maximus; in particular, there was a higher electrical activity of this muscle when back squats were performed at the maximum stance widths at 0 and 70% 1RM. There were no significant differences concerning the EMG activity of the other analyzed muscles. These findings suggest that a large width is necessary for a greater activation of the gluteus maximus during back squats.
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High-Intensity Interval Resistance Training (HIRT) influences resting energy expenditure and respiratory ratio in non-dieting individuals.
J Transl Med
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The benefits of exercise are well established but one major barrier for many is time. It has been proposed that short period resistance training (RT) could play a role in weight control by increasing resting energy expenditure (REE) but the effects of different kinds of RT has not been widely reported.
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Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr
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Despite the increasing use of very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in weight control and management of the metabolic syndrome there is a paucity of research about effects of VLCKD on sport performance. Ketogenic diets may be useful in sports that include weight class divisions and the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of VLCKD on explosive strength performance.
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Personal genetics: sports utility vehicle?
Recent Pat DNA Gene Seq
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Personal genetic testing which is not strictly related to medicine or health is becoming more and more popular covering areas from ancestry, genealogy, nutrition& lifestyle and more recently sports and exercise. The reasons are compelling - if it were possible to read in our genes our potential sporting attributes and how to achieve them it would be valuable information. But is it possible? This overview will look at the current situation and future prospects the authors believe that there is utility in sports genetic testing exactly what can be interpreted from our genetic results needs to be precisely defined and limited to what has been demonstrated by repeated scientific studies. Current areas of interest include optimizing exercise/training routines, VO2max improvement and predisposition to some common sports related injuries such as tendonitis. The interest and the scientific progress is reflected both in increasing rate of publication of geneexercise studies as well as in patent applications concerning genetic associations with commercial potential.
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Minimally-invasive surfactant therapy in preterm infants on continuous positive airway pressure.
Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.
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To evaluate the applicability and potential effectiveness of a technique of minimally-invasive surfactant therapy (MIST) in preterm infants on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.