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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Herpes simplex encephalitis in glioma patients: a challenging diagnosis.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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In recent years, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) has been reported with increasing frequency in settings of immunosuppression, such as acquired immunodeficiency, transplantation and cancer. As observed, in immunocompromised individuals HSE presents peculiar clinical and paraclinical features, and poorer prognosis.
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Quality of life and brain tumors: what beyond the clinical burden?
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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This study analyzed the subjective facets of quality of life (QoL) and their relation to the type of brain tumor (BT) and phase of disease. Two hundred and ninety-one patients with pinealoblastoma, medulloblastoma, low-grade glioma, anaplastic astrocytoma, or glioblastoma were evaluated. With respect to 110 healthy controls, patients in the phases of radiotherapy/chemotherapy, stable disease, or tumor recurrence were significantly more anxious and depressed compared with patients in the early postoperative period. All patients were impaired in mental flexibility and memory, with preservation of abstract reasoning. The Functional Living Index-Cancer (FLIC), previously validated in cancer and BT patients, yielded six subjective factors (disease perception, affective well-being, role and leisure, personal base, nausea, sharing). None of the FLIC factors were predicted by tumor type, which only related to the physical and cognitive performances and mood scores. Affective well-being, role and leisure, and sharing were predicted by the phase of disease. Personal base, including self-perception and confidence, was independent on tumor progression and treatment. To conclude, QoL encompasses different subjective aspects, which vary in relation to the phase of disease and clinical burden. However, some person-related facets appear independent on tumor progression and treatment, indicating individual resources. Knowing this may guide tailored interventions supporting QoL.
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Survival effect of first- and second-line treatments for patients with primary glioblastoma: a cohort study from a prospective registry, 1997-2010.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Prospective follow-up studies of large cohorts of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) are needed to assess the effectiveness of conventional treatments in clinical practice. We report GBM survival data from the Brain Cancer Register of the Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta (INCB) in Milan, Italy, which collected longitudinal data for all consecutive patients with GBM from 1997 to 2010.
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Acute late-onset encephalopathy after radiotherapy: an unusual life-threatening complication.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Unusual late-onset complications of brain irradiation, characterized by reversible neurologic focal signs, seizures, and MRI alterations, have recently been reported and classified as stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART)(1) and peri-ictal pseudoprogression (PIPG).(2.)
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Circulating T regulatory cells migration and phenotype in glioblastoma patients: an in vitro study.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary human brain tumor. The relatively high amount of T regulatory lymphocytes present in the tumor, contributes to the establishment of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Samples of peripheral blood were collected from GBM patients and healthy controls and a purified population of Treg (CD4(+)/CD25(bright)) was isolated using flow cytometric cell sorting. Treg migrating capacities toward human glioma cell line conditioned medium were evaluated through an in vitro migration test. Our data show that supernatants collected from GBM cell lines were more attractant to Treg when compared to complete standard medium. The addition of an anti-CCL2 antibody to conditioned medium decreased conditioned medium-depending Treg migration, suggesting that CCL2 (also known as Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein, MCP-1) is implicated in the process. The number of circulating CD4(+)/?L or Treg/?L was similar in GBM patients and controls. Specific Treg markers (FOXP3; CD127; Helios; GITR; CTLA4; CD95; CCR2, CCR4; CCR7) were screened in peripheral blood and no differences could be detected between the two populations. These data confirm that the tumor microenvironment is attractive to Treg, which tend to migrate toward the tumor region changing the immunological response. Though we provide evidence that CCL2 is implicated in Treg migration, other factors are needed as well to provide such effect.
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Prospective study of carmustine wafers in combination with 6-month metronomic temozolomide and radiation therapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma: preliminary results.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Locoregional chemotherapy with carmustine wafers, positioned at surgery and followed by radiation therapy, has been shown to prolong survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, as has concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. A combination of carmustine wafers with the Stupp treatment regimen has only been investigated in retrospective studies.
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Polycystic Lipomembranous Osteodysplasia with Sclerosing Leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL): a new report of an Italian woman and review of the literature.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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We report the clinical case of a 43year old Italian woman and her family with Polycystic Lipomembranous Osteodysplasia with Sclerosing Leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL), also known as Nasu-Hakola disease. PLOSL is a unique disease clinically characterized by a progressive presenile frontal-lobe dementia and multiple cystic bone lesions, typically leading to fractures of the limbs in the third decade of life. This rare recessively inherited disease is caused by mutations in one of two genes encoding different subunits of a receptor signalling complex, TYROBP and TREM2. In the present case fractures after microtrauma were not diagnosed, despite a radiological demonstration of the characteristic bone lesions in PLOSL. Further investigation led to the same diagnosis in her brother, with similar clinical presentation and the same mutation. Therefore a diagnosis of PLOSL should be considered in cases of presenile frontal-lobe dementia, even if the hallmark of pathological fractures is absent.
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Bevacizumab at recurrence in high-grade glioma.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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Bevacizumab has been introduced in the management of high-grade gliomas after preliminary studies that showed an acceptable safety and a marked increase in clinico-radiological responses in comparison with second-line chemotherapy. The objective is to synthetically review the present use of bevacizumab--alone or in combination--in the context of recurrent high-grade glioma and highlight the future developments. The methodology of this study is to analyse and discuss relevant literature studies using bevacizumab in recurrent high-grade glioma. Bevacizumab may be used as single-agent therapy in recurrent high-grade glioma, with good clinico-radiological responses having little effect on survival. The open questions and developments include new MRI criteria for evaluation of response to anti-angiogenic agents, the identification of putative factors predicting response/failure of bevacizumab and the introduction of bevacizumab in first-line management of high-grade glioma.
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Loco-regional treatments in first-diagnosis glioblastoma: literature review on association between Stupp protocol and Gliadel.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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Loco-regional chemotherapy with carmustine wafers (Gliadel) positioned at surgery and followed by radiotherapy has been shown to prolong survival in first-diagnosis glioblastoma, as well as concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. The combination of Gliadel with the Stupp protocol has mostly been investigated in retrospective studies. objective of this study was to review the literature of efficacy and toxicities in patients with first-diagnosis glioblastoma treated with surgery, Gliadel, radiotherapy and temozolomide chemotherapy. The data in the literature regarding the combined use of Gliadel with chemotherapy, concomitant with radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma was analyzed and compared. The results on survival and toxicity are summarized. The combination of Gliadel and radiotherapy with temozolomide is well tolerated and may increase survival without a substantial increase in major toxicity. However, only prospective comparative studies will be able to address the issue of true advantage in survival with this combination.
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The burden of brain tumor: a single-institution study on psychological patterns in caregivers.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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Quality of life and well-being in caregivers are usually partly neglected since all attention is focused on patients and the way they react to the illness. Carers also usually neglect their own needs, especially when the illness of the patient is as complex as a brain tumor. The aim of this study is to investigate how caregivers deal with a diagnosis of brain tumor in their relatives and how they manage their quality of life and psychosocial well-being. One hundred primary caregivers of patients with brain tumors were interviewed and were asked to fill in self-administered questionnaires detecting multidimensional levels of quality of life, anxiety, depression, and psychosocial reaction to the patients illness. Data were related with some functional and psychosocial information collected about the patients disease. Caregivers try to react to the illness of their relatives by mobilizing their physical reaction and growing their self-esteem, but they live with a clinically significant impairment of their quality of life, and experience a deep level of anxiety and depression. The caregivers burden appears mainly in their ability to provide care and in financial strain. The length of disease and the functional status of patients significantly influence caregivers psychosocial well-being. Despite the appearance they want to show their affected relatives, caregivers suffer from deep limitation in their quality of life. The relevance of caregivers burden suggests the importance of psychological support to improve reaction to the illness.
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Recurrent brain tumour: the impact of illness on patients life.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Despite advances in therapies that offer improved survival rates, clinical course of brain tumours leads to a progressive functional deterioration in patients with modifications in their psychological reaction to the disease. Patients with brain tumours are rarely assessed for quality of life and psychological variables, and even fewer studies have assessed patients who have experienced a recurrence of brain tumours. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the patients with recurrent brain tumours and their reaction to the illness.
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CXCL12, CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression in brain metastases.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2009
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Brain metastases occur in about 25% of patients who die of cancer. The most common sources of brain metastases in adults are lung, breast, kidney, colorectal cancer and melanoma. The chemokine/receptor system CXCL12/CXCR4 plays a key role in multiple biological functions; among these, homing of neoplastic cells from the primary site to the target and metastasis progression. Recently, an alternative CXCL12 receptor CXCR7 has been discovered. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 by immunohistochemistry in 56 patients with metastatic brain disease from different non-CNS primary tumors and evaluate their prognostic relevance as well as that of other patient/treatment-related features on patient survival. CXCL12 showed an expression in tumor cells and in tumor vessels; CXCR7 was expressed by tumor and endothelial cells (both within the tumor and in the adjacent brain tissue), while CXCR4 showed a positivity in all samples with a nuclear pattern. Among the investigated immunohistochemical parameters, only CXCL12 expression in tumor endothelial cells showed a statistically significant correlation with shorter survival (p = 0.04 log-rank), perhaps identifying more aggressive tumors. Thus, this is the first study evaluating at the same time the expression of CXCL12 and its two receptors in a cohort of brain metastases.
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Intrathecal synthesis of tumor markers is a highly sensitive test in the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis from solid cancers.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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Identification of neoplastic cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by cytological analysis is the key diagnostic feature of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). Because of the lack of sensitivity of this test, considerable efforts have been made to identify alternative diagnostic markers. Data from the literature suggest that measurement of tumor markers (TM) in CSF may be helpful for improving the diagnosis.
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Cisplatinum and BCNU chemotherapy in primary glioblastoma patients.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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The prognosis of patients with glioblastoma is very poor with a mean survival of 10-12 months. Currently available treatment options are multimodal, which include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. However, these have been shown to improve survival only marginally in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. Methylated methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is correlated with improved progression-free and overall survival in patients treated with alkylating agents. Strategies to overcome MGMT-mediated chemoresistance are being actively investigated.
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Systemic sagopilone (ZK-EPO) treatment of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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It has been demonstrated that sagopilone (ZK-EPO) has antitumor activity in human orthotopic glioma models in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ZK-EPO in patients with pretreated, recurrent malignant gliomas. Fifteen patients with recurrent malignant gliomas who had received prior surgery, radiotherapy, and >or=2 lines of alkylating chemotherapy were recruited. ZK-EPO (16 mg/m(2)) was administered iv for 3 h every 21 days. The primary end point was six months progression-free survival (PFS-6); secondary end points were safety, toxicity, response rate, and median time to progression (TTP). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluations were performed every two cycles and toxicity was evaluated at each cycle using common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE 3.0). A median of four cycles was administered. The median TTP was 13 weeks. PFS-6 was achieved in five patients (33%), three with glioblastoma multiforme and two with anaplastic astrocytoma. The most common treatment-related adverse event was neuropathy, which occurred in 6/15 patients. ZK-EPO had an acceptable safety profile and clinically relevant activity in patients with pretreated, recurrent malignant gliomas.
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Decrease in circulating endothelial progenitor cells in treated glioma patients.
J. Neurooncol.
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High-grade gliomas are highly vascularized tumors, in which the amount of new blood vessels is closely related with the degree of malignancy. The role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the neoangiogenesis of gliomas and the effects of post-surgical therapies (i.e., radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy) have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of surgery and post-surgical treatment on the levels of circulating EPCs in glioma patients and their correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, we assessed by flow cytometry the number of EPCs in the peripheral blood of 78 high-grade glioma patients (both untreated and treated with RT and chemotherapy) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. EPCs were markedly decreased in all treated glioma patients as compared to untreated ones. VEGF levels were significantly higher in patients as compared to controls, and surgery, but not chemotherapy, significantly decreased VEGF concentrations. We found no relationship between VEGF plasma levels and EPCs. In conclusion, the reliability of EPCs as a biomarker for monitoring angiogenesis in glioma patients needs further studies of correlations of this parameter with other markers of tumor-related vasculature.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.