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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Circulating angiogenic biomolecules at rest and in response to upper-limb exercise in individuals with spinal cord injury.
J Spinal Cord Med
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) show structural and functional vascular maladaptations and muscle loss in their lower limbs. Angiogenic biomolecules play important roles in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, and are implicated in the maintenance of muscle mass. This study examined the responses of angiogenic molecules during upper-limb aerobic exercise in SCI patients and in able-bodied (AB) individuals.
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Stair descending exercise increases muscle strength in elderly males with chronic heart failure.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Previous studies from our group have shown that "pure" eccentric exercise performed on an isokinetic dynamometer can induce health-promoting effects that may improve quality of life. In order to investigate whether the benefits of "pure" eccentric exercise can be transferred to daily activities, a new and friendlier way to perform eccentric exercise had to be invented. To this end, we have proceeded to the design and construction of an automatic escalator, offering both stair descending (eccentric-biased) and stair ascending (concentric-biased) exercise.
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Stair descending exercise using a novel automatic escalator: effects on muscle performance and health-related parameters.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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A novel automatic escalator was designed, constructed and used in the present investigation. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the effect of two repeated sessions of stair descending versus stair ascending exercise on muscle performance and health-related parameters in young healthy men. Twenty males participated and were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: a stair descending group (muscle-damaging group) and a stair ascending group (non-muscle-damaging group). Each group performed two sessions of stair descending or stair ascending exercise on the automatic escalator while a three week period was elapsed between the two exercise sessions. Indices of muscle function, insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile and redox status were assessed before and immediately after, as well as at day 2 and day 4 after both exercise sessions. It was found that the first bout of stair descending exercise caused muscle damage, induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress as well as affected positively blood lipid profile. However, after the second bout of stair descending exercise the alterations in all parameters were diminished or abolished. On the other hand, the stair ascending exercise induced only minor effects on muscle function and health-related parameters after both exercise bouts. The results of the present investigation indicate that stair descending exercise seems to be a promising way of exercise that can provoke positive effects on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status.
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Aging is not a barrier to muscle and redox adaptations: applying the repeated eccentric exercise model.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Despite the progress of analytic techniques and the refinement of study designs, striking disagreement exists among studies regarding the influence of exercise on muscle function and redox homeostasis in the elderly. The repeated eccentric exercise model was applied to produce long-lasting and extensive changes in redox biomarkers and to reveal more effectively the potential effects of aging on redox homeostasis. Ten young (20.6±0.5 years) and ten elderly men (64.6±1.1 years) underwent an isokinetic eccentric exercise session, which was repeated after three weeks. Muscle function/damage indices (torque, range of movement, muscle soreness and creatine kinase) and redox biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes, protein carbonyls, glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, uric acid, bilirubin and albumin) were assessed in plasma, erythrocytes or urine pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and at 2 and 4 days post-exercise. As expected, the elderly group exhibited oxidative stress in baseline compared to the young group. Extensive muscle damage and extensive alterations in redox homeostasis appeared after the first bout of eccentric exercise. Noteworthy, the redox responses were similar between the age groups despite their differences in baseline values. Likewise, both age groups demonstrated blunted alterations in muscle damage and redox homeostasis after the second bout of eccentric exercise indicating adaptations from the first bout of exercise. Elderly individuals seem to be well fitted to participate in demanding physical activities without suffering detrimental effects on skeletal muscle and/or disturbances on redox homeostasis. The repeated eccentric exercise model may be a useful and practical physiological tool to study redox biology in humans.
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Effect of 5-day vitamin E supplementation on muscle injury after downhill running in rats.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Antioxidant supplementation has been suggested to prevent exercise-induced muscle injury, but the findings are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential protective role of vitamin E treatment against eccentric exercise-induced muscle injury by examining morphological and functional alterations in rat soleus muscle after downhill running as well as muscle injury markers in the blood. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to vitamin E-treated or placebo-treated groups studied at rest, immediately post-exercise or 48 h post-exercise (n = 10 per group). Vitamin E was administered by daily intraperitoneal injections of 100 mg/kg body mass of DL: -?-tocopheryl acetate for five consecutive days prior to exercise, resulting in the doubling of its plasma concentration. Downhill running resulted in significant (P < 0.05) changes in all injury markers for the placebo-treated rats at 0 and 48 h post-exercise. However, significantly smaller soleus muscle single-twitch tension (P (t)) and unfused (40 Hz) tetanic force, and greater plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) activities compared with the control were found only immediately post-exercise for the vitamin E-treated rats (P < 0.05). Maximal tetanic force (P (o)) did not decline significantly compared to sedentary controls at neither time points measured. The vitamin E-treated rats had significantly (P < 0.05) higher soleus muscle P (t) immediately post-exercise than the placebo-treated rats as well as lower plasma CK and LD activity 48 h post-exercise. However, there was no difference in P (o) decline between groups at either time points measured. Vitamin E-treated rats had less pronounced morphological alterations in muscle in the immediate and 48-h post-exercise period. In conclusion, the effect of short-term vitamin E supplementation against eccentric exercise-induced muscle injury did not appear to be physiologically significant, because vitamin E failed to prevent the decline in the functional measure of P (o) compared to the placebo conditions.
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The effect of exercise-induced hypoxemia on blood redox status in well-trained rowers.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH), characterized by decline in arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO(2)), is a common phenomenon in endurance athletes. Acute intensive exercise is associated with the generation of reactive species that may result in redox status disturbances and oxidation of cell macromolecules. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether EIAH augments oxidative stress as determined in blood plasma and erythrocytes in well-trained male rowers after a 2,000-m rowing ergometer race. Initially, athletes were assigned into either the normoxemic (n = 9, SaO(2) >92%, [Formula: see text]: 62.0 ± 1.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) or hypoxemic (n = 12, SaO(2) <92%, [Formula: see text]: 60.5 ± 2.2 ml kg(-1 )min(-1), mean ± SEM) group, following an incremental [Formula: see text] test on a wind resistance braked rowing ergometer. On a separate day the rowers performed a 2,000-m all-out effort on the same rowing ergometer. Following an overnight fast, blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein before and immediately after the termination of the 2,000-m all-out effort and analyzed for selective oxidative stress markers. In both the normoxemic (SaO(2): 94.1 ± 0.9%) and hypoxemic (SaO(2): 88.6 ± 2.4%) rowers similar and significant exercise increase in serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyls, catalase and total antioxidant capacity concentration were observed post-2,000 m all-out effort. Exercise significantly increased the oxidized glutathione concentration and decreased the ratio of reduced (GSH)-to-oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in the normoxemic group only, whereas the reduced form of glutathione remained unaffected in either groups. The increased oxidation of GSH to GSSG in erythrocytes of normoxemic individuals suggest that erythrocyte redox status may be affected by the oxygen saturation degree of hemoglobin. Our findings indicate that exercise-induced hypoxemia did not further affect the increased blood oxidative damage of lipids and proteins observed after a 2,000-m rowing ergometer race in highly-trained male rowers. The present data do not support any potential link between exercise-induced hypoxemia, oxidative stress increase and exercise performance.
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Cardiorespiratory and metabolic alterations during exercise and passive recovery after three modes of exercise.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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The objective of this study was to investigate the potential variations in cardiorespiratory and metabolic parameters and running performance among 3 modes of exercise of the same duration, namely, intermittent running with active recovery (AR) or passive recovery (PR) and continuous running (CR) and whether these variations could affect passive recovery time (PRT). Fifteen male physical education students with a subspecialty in soccer were studied (mean age 22.3 ± 2.5 years, training experience 12.3 ± 2.5 years) in the middle of the playing season. The results showed that during exercise, the highest heart rate (HR) and VO2 values were observed in CR, whereas the lowest values in PR followed by AR. Blood lactate (BLa) concentration was higher in PR by 38% compared to that in AR (p < 0.05). The exercise duration was similar between PR and AR tests and longer than in CR. With regard to PRT, the highest HR (186 ± 9 b · min(-1)), VO2 (55.5 ± 5.2 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), and BLa (5.1 ± 1.7 mmol · L(-1)) values were found in CR. No differences in HR and VO2 between PR and AR were detected. However, despite the differences in BLa concentration between AR and PR during exercise, the PRT BLa values between these 2 exercise modes were not different. Among the 3 running protocols, only CR appeared to have fully challenged the cardiorespiratory system inducing maximal HR and VO2 responses during exercise and high BLa values in PRT, yet these responses were not associated with better exercise performance compared to intermittent running. Therefore, intermittent exercise, regardless of implementing passive or active interval, might be the preferable exercise mode particularly in activities extended over 30 minutes.
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F?-isoprostane formation, measurement and interpretation: the role of exercise.
Prog. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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The level of F?-isoprostanes (F?-IsoP) in blood or urine is widely regarded as the reference marker for the assessment of oxidative stress. As a result, nowadays, F?-IsoP is the most frequently measured oxidative stress marker. Nevertheless, determining F?-IsoP is a challenging task and the measurement is neither free of mishaps nor straightforward. This review presents for the first time the effect of acute and chronic exercise on F?-IsoP levels in plasma, urine and skeletal muscle, placing emphasis on the origin, the methodological caveats and the interpretation of F?-IsoP alterations. From data analysis, the following effects of exercise have emerged: (i) acute exercise clearly increases F?-IsoP levels in plasma and this effect is generally short-lived, (ii) acute exercise and increased contractile activity markedly increase F?-IsoP levels in skeletal muscle, (iii) chronic exercise exhibits trend for decreased F?-IsoP levels in urine but further research is needed. Theoretically, it seems that significant amounts of F?-IsoP can be produced not only from phospholipids but from neutral lipids as well. The origin of F?-IsoP detected in plasma and urine (as done by almost all studies in humans) remains controversial, as a multitude of tissues (including skeletal muscle and plasma) can independently produce F?-IsoP.
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Differential effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition and exercise on albumin concentration in rat tissues.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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Albumin is a protein present in almost all kinds of mammalian cells. It has binding sites for several molecules, and possesses antioxidant and other important properties. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 2 different oxidative stress stimuli - exercise and allopurinol administration - and their combination on albumin concentration in several rat tissues. Samples of soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and gastrocnemius muscles, and the liver and heart were collected before, immediately after, and 5 h after exercise, and collected at the respective time points after allopurinol administration. Albumin dimmers, markers of oxidative stress, were also assessed in EDL muscle. Albumin concentration increased in the skeletal muscles examined, whereas it decreased in the heart and remained unaffected in the liver after exercise. Allopurinol alone did not affect albumin concentration in any of the tissues. Albumin concentration increased in soleus and EDL muscles, decreased in gastrocnemius muscle and the liver, and remained unaffected in the heart after exercise and allopurinol combination. Albumin dimmers also increased postexercise in EDL muscle. Our findings suggest that the increase in albumin concentration in skeletal muscles may be an antioxidant mechanism response, but may depend on the type of oxidative stress and be stimulation- and tissue-specific.
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Increased oxidative stress blood markers in well-trained rowers following two thousand-meter rowing ergometer race.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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High-intensity exercise is associated with increased oxidative stress. Rowing is very demanding requiring maintenance of high power mostly produced from aerobic metabolism. The present study aimed at investigating selective blood oxidative stress markers in response to a rowing race simulation test, consisting of 2,000 m maximal effort on a rowing ergometer, in well-trained male rowers during the preseason preparatory training period. Mean time for the 2,000-m trial was 409.4 +/- 4.0 seconds, and heart rate at 2,000 m was 198 +/- 1 b x min (mean +/- SEM). Blood lactate concentration was 11.2 +/- 0.6 mmol x L. Postexercise whole blood lysate oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration significantly increased (19%), whereas reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration remained unchanged, resulting in an overall decreased postexercise GSH:GSSG ratio (20%). Postexercise serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentration and protein carbonyls increased by 45 and 70%, respectively, as compared with the pre-exercise levels. Likewise, postexercise catalase activity (105%) and total antioxidant capacity (9%) significantly increased. In agreement with other studies, our data illustrate that a 2,000-m rowing ergometer race induces significant blood oxidative stress despite the rowers high training status. In scheduling an evaluation rowing test or a competition, coaches should allow sufficient recovery time elapsed between the test and the last intensive training session. The 2,000-m rowing performance appears to be a suitable test to assess oxidative stress in rowers and could potentially serve as a model to study oxidative damage in sports science.
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Blood reflects tissue oxidative stress depending on biomarker and tissue studied.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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This study investigated whether selected oxidative stress markers measured in blood adequately reflect redox status in skeletal muscle, heart, and liver. Several markers were determined after implementing two treatments known to affect redox status, namely exercise and allopurinol administration. Xanthine oxidase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), catalase, and total antioxidant capacity were determined in blood, skeletal muscle, heart, and liver. Correlation between blood and tissues in each marker was performed through the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. GSSG in erythrocytes was correlated with all tissues, ranging in the five experimental groups as follows: skeletal muscle r(s)=0.656-0.874, heart r(s)=0.742-0.981, liver r(s)=0.646-0.855. Xanthine oxidase and TBARS measured in blood satisfactorily described the redox status of the heart (0.753-0.964 and 0.705-1.000, respectively) and liver (0.755-0.902 and 0.656-1.000, respectively). Skeletal muscle and heart redox status can be adequately described by PC (0.652-1.000 and 0.656-0.964, respectively), GSH (0.693-1.000 and 0.656-1.000, respectively), and catalase (0.745-1.000 and 0.656-1.000, respectively) measured in blood. In conclusion, this study suggests that a combination of markers measured in blood provides a reliable indication about the redox status in skeletal muscle, heart, and liver.
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Oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis markers in elite female water polo athletes throughout a season.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
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Elite athletes undergo heavy training programs throughout the year. The aim of the present study was to evaluate blood biomarkers of redox status, oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis over the course of a competitive season in elite female water polo players. The biomarkers were evaluated in four distinct phases of an athletic season. It was found that the reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly increased, whereas catalase activity was decreased in erythrocytes in phases 3 and 4 compared to phase 2. Plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was increased in phases 3 and 4 compared to phases 1 and 2, the concentration of protein carbonyls was increased in phase 4, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was decreased in phases 2 and 3. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was decreased in phases 3 and 4; interleukin-10 (IL-10) was increased in phase 4, whereas no change was observed for adiponectin and endoglin. The findings of this study indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation varies over the season in elite female water polo athletes and this information might be used to apply remedies for optimizing athletic performance and accelerating training recovery.
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Determinants of muscle metaboreflex and involvement of baroreflex in boys and young men.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
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This study aimed to assess the arterial pressure (AP) determinants during the muscle metaboreflex in boys and men and to investigate the contribution of baroreflex and sympathovagal function to the metaboreflex-induced responses. Fourteen pre-adolescent boys and 13 men performed a protocol involving: baseline, isometric handgrip exercise, circulatory occlusion, and recovery. The same protocol was repeated without occlusion. During baseline, boys had lower beat-to-beat AP, higher heart rate (HR), and lower low/high frequency HR variability. During exercise, a parasympathetic withdrawal was evident in both groups. In adults, HR was the key contributor to the pressure response, with no changes in stroke volume, whereas in boys, the lower HR increase was counterbalanced by an increase in stroke volume, resulting in similar relative increases in AP in both groups. In recovery, boys exhibited a faster rate of HR-decay, rapid vagal reactivation, and greater decrease in TPR than men. An overshoot in baroreceptor sensitivity was observed in men. The isolated metaboreflex resulted in a similar AP elevation in both age groups (by ~15 mmHg), and attenuated spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity. However, during the metaboreflex, pre-adolescent males exhibited a lower increase in peripheral resistance and a greater bradycardic response than adults, and a fast restoration of vagal activity to non-occlusion levels. During metaboreflex, boys were capable of eliciting a pressure response similar to the one elicited by men; however, the interplay of the mechanisms underlying the rise in AP differed between the two groups with the vagal contribution being greater in the younger participants.
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Low-frequency fatigue as an indicator of eccentric exercise-induced muscle injury: the role of vitamin E.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
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This study investigates whether vitamin E can attenuate eccentric exercise-induced soleus muscle injury as indicated by the amelioration of in situ isometric force decline following a low-frequency fatigue protocol (stimulation at 4?Hz for 5?min) and the ability of the muscle to recover 3?min after the termination of the fatigue protocol. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into vitamin E-supplemented or placebo-supplemented groups studied at rest, immediately post-exercise or 48?h post-exercise. Daily dl-?-tocopheryl acetate intraperitoneal injections of 100?mg/kg body mass for 5 consecutive days prior to exercise doubled its plasma levels. Fatigue index and recovery index expressed as a percentage of the initial tension. FI at 0?h post- and 48?h post-exercise respectively was 88%?±?4.2% and 89%?±?6.8% in the vitamin E groups versus 76%?±?3% and 80%?±?11% in the placebo groups. RI was 99%?±?3.4% and 100%?±?6% in the vitamin E groups versus 82%?±?3.1% and 84%?±?5.9% in the placebo groups. Complementally to the traditionally recorded maximal force, low-frequency fatigue measures may be beneficial for assessing injury-induced decrease in muscle functionality.
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The antioxidant effects of a polyphenol-rich grape pomace extract in vitro do not correspond in vivo using exercise as an oxidant stimulus.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
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Fruits, such as grapes, are essential food of the Mediterranean diet. Grape extracts have potent antioxidant and chemopreventive properties in vitro. Numerous studies have examined the effects of plant extract administration on redox status at rest in animals and humans but their results are controversial. However, there are no studies comparing the in vitro and in vivo effects of plant extracts on oxidative stress using exercise as an oxidant stimulus. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether a polyphenol-rich grape pomace extract of the Vitis vinifera species possesses in vitro antioxidant properties and to examine whether these properties apply in an in vivo model at rest and during exercise. Our findings indicate that the tested extract exhibits potent in vitro antioxidant properties because it scavenges the DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) radicals and inhibits DNA damage induced by peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Administration of the extract in rats generally induced oxidative stress at rest and after exercise whereas exercise performance was not affected. Our findings suggest that the grape pomace extract does not behave with the same way in vitro and in vivo.
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Redox biology of exercise: an integrative and comparative consideration of some overlooked issues.
J. Exp. Biol.
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The central aim of this review is to address the highly multidisciplinary topic of redox biology as related to exercise using an integrative and comparative approach rather than focusing on blood, skeletal muscle or humans. An attempt is also made to re-define oxidative stress as well as to introduce the term alterations in redox homeostasis to describe changes in redox homeostasis indicating oxidative stress, reductive stress or both. The literature analysis shows that the effects of non-muscle-damaging exercise and muscle-damaging exercise on redox homeostasis are completely different. Non-muscle-damaging exercise induces alterations in redox homeostasis that last a few hours post exercise, whereas muscle-damaging exercise causes alterations in redox homeostasis that may persist for and/or appear several days post exercise. Both exhaustive maximal exercise lasting only 30 s and isometric exercise lasting 1-3 min (the latter activating in addition a small muscle mass) induce systemic oxidative stress. With the necessary modifications, exercise is capable of inducing redox homeostasis alterations in all fluids, cells, tissues and organs studied so far, irrespective of strains and species. More importantly, exercise-induced oxidative stress is not an oddity associated with a particular type of exercise, tissue or species. Rather, oxidative stress constitutes a ubiquitous fundamental biological response to the alteration of redox homeostasis imposed by exercise. The hormesis concept could provide an interpretative framework to reconcile differences that emerge among studies in the field of exercise redox biology. Integrative and comparative approaches can help determine the interactions of key redox responses at multiple levels of biological organization.
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Exercise as a model to study redox homeostasis in blood: the effect of protocol and sampling point.
Biomarkers
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Twenty males ran either on a level treadmill (nonmuscle-damaging condition) or on a downhill treadmill (muscle-damaging condition). Blood and urine samples were collected before and after exercise (immediately after, 1h, 4h, 24h, 48h, and 96h). The following assays were performed: F(2)-isoprostanes in urine, protein carbonyls in plasma, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in erythrocytes. The main finding was that monophasic redox responses were detected after nonmuscle-damaging exercise compared to the biphasic responses detected after muscle-damaging exercise. Based on these findings, muscle-damaging exercise may be a more appropriate experimental model to induce physiological oxidative stress.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.