BackgroundMany studies on M. tuberculosis have emerged from using M. smegmatis MC 2 155 (Msm), since they share significant similarities and yet Msm is non-pathogenic and faster growing. Although several individual molecules have been studied from Msm, many questions remain open about its metabolism as a whole and its capability to be versatile. Adaptability and versatility are emergent properties of a system, warranting a molecular systems perspective to understand them.ResultsWe identify feasible metabolic pathways in Msm in reference condition with transcriptome, phenotypic microarray, along with functional annotation of the genome. Together with transcriptome data, specific genes from a set of alternatives have been mapped onto different pathways. About 257 metabolic pathways can be considered to be feasible in Msm. Next, we probe cellular metabolism with an array of alternative carbon and nitrogen sources and identify those that are utilized and favour growth as well as those that do not support growth. In all, about 135 points in the entire metabolic map are probed. Analyzing growth patterns under these conditions, lead us to hypothesize different pathways that can become active in various conditions and possible alternate routes that may be induced, thus explaining the observed physiological adaptations.ConclusionsThe study provides the first detailed analysis of feasible pathways towards adaptability. We obtain mechanistic insights that explain observed phenotypic behaviour by studying gene-expression profiles and pathways inferred from the genome sequence. Comparison of transcriptome and phenome analysis of Msm and Mtb provides a rationale for understanding commonalities in metabolic adaptability.
The diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) have changed dramatically since the introduction of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) followed by deep enteroscopy and other imaging technologies in the last decade. Significant advances have been made, yet there remains room for improvement in our diagnostic yield and treatment capabilities for recurrent OGIB. In this review, we will summarize the latest technologies for the diagnosis of OGIB, limitations of VCE, technological enhancement in VCE, and different management options for OGIB.
A tetrameric protein of therapeutic importance, Escherichia coli L-asparaginase-II was expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies (IBs). Asparaginase IBs were solubilized using low concentration of urea and refolded into active tetrameric protein using pulsatile dilution method. Refolded asparaginase was purified in two steps by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatographic techniques. The recovery of bioactive asparaginase from IBs was around 50%. The melting temperature (Tm) of the purified asparaginase was found to be 64°C. The specific activity of refolded, purified asparaginase was found to be comparable to the commercial asparaginase (190 IU/mg). Enzymatic activity of the refolded asparaginase was high even at four molar urea solutions, where the IB aggregates are completely solubilized. From the comparison of chemical denaturation data and activity at different concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride, it was observed that dissociation of monomeric units precedes the complete loss of helical secondary structures. Protection of the existing native-like protein structure during solubilization of IB aggregates with 4 M urea improved the propensity of monomer units to form oligomeric structure. Our mild solubilization technique retaining native-like structures, improved recovery of asparaginase in bioactive tetrameric form.
Inclusion bodies of recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) were isolated from Escherichia coli, enriched and solubilized in 100mM Tris buffer containing 6M n-propanol and 2M urea. Around 4 mg/ml of r-hGH from inclusion bodies were solubilized in 6M n-propanol-based buffer containing 2M urea. Existence of native-like secondary structure of r-hGH in 6M n-propanol solution was confirmed by CD and fluorescence spectra. Solubilized r-hGH was subsequently refolded by pulsatile dilution, purified to homogeneity and found to be functionally active. Tris buffer containing 6M n-propanol and 2M urea also effectively solubilized a number of proteins expressed as inclusion bodies in E. coli. Mild solubilization of inclusion body proteins, chaotropic effect of n-propanol at high concentration and kosmotropic effect at lower concentration helped in improved refolding of the solubilized protein. Around 40% of the r-hGH in the form of inclusion body aggregates was refolded into bioactive form while using n-propanol as solubilization agent. Solubilization with 6M n-propanol solution thus can be a viable alternative for achieving high throughput recovery of bioactive protein from inclusion bodies of E. coli.
The leaf rust resistance gene Lr25, transferred from Secale cereale L. into wheat and located on chromosome 4B, imparts resistance to all pathotypes of leaf rust in South-East Asia. In an F(2)-derived F(3) population, created by crossing TcLr25 that carries the gene Lr25 for leaf rust resistance with leaf rust-susceptible parent Agra Local, three microsatellite markers located on the long arm of chromosome 4B were found to be linked to the Lr25 locus. The donor parent TcLr25 is a near-isogenic line derived from the variety Thatcher. The most virulent pathotype of leaf rust in the South-East Asian region, designated 77-5 (121R63-1), was used for challenging the population under artificially controlled conditions. The marker Xgwm251 behaved as a co-dominant marker placed 3.8 cM away from the Lr25 locus on 4BL. Two null allele markers, Xgwm538 and Xgwm6, in the same linkage group were located at a distance of 3.8 cM and 16.2 cM from the Lr25 locus, respectively. The genetic sequence of Xgwm251, Lr25, Xgwm538, and Xgwm6 covered a total length of 20 cM on 4BL. The markers were validated for their specificity to Lr25 resistance in a set of 43 wheat genetic stocks representing 43 other Lr genes.
The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors linagliptin, sitagliptin, saxagliptin, vildagliptin and alogliptin are being developed and have been approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. These agents may be used either as monotherapy for the treatment of type-2 diabetes or in combination with other anti-diabetic drugs. The present review highlights the use of linagliptin and other new (DPP-4) inhibitors in the management of type-2 diabetes. The review also highlights advantages, comparative pharmacokinetic, safety profile and other potential uses including potential newer indications of DPP-4 inhibitors and relevant patents. The other potential uses that are not restricted to diabetes include obesity, cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, hepatobiliary disease, wound healing, and other inflammatory illnesses.
Biofunctionalization of noble metal nanoparticles like Ag, Au is essential to obtain biocompatibility for specific biomedical applications. Silver nanoparticles are being increasingly used in bio-sensing applications owing to excellent optoelectronic properties. Among the serum albumins, the most abundant proteins in plasma, a wide range of physiological functions of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) has made it a model system for biofunctionalization. In absence of adequate prior reports, this study aims to investigate the interaction between silver nanoparticles and BSA. The interaction of BSA [0.05-0.85% concentrations] with Ag nanoparticles [50ppm concentration] in aqueous dispersion was studied through UV-vis spectral changes, morphological and surface structural changes. At pH 7, which is more than the isoelectric point of BSA, a decrease in absorbance at plasmon peak of uninteracted nanoparticles (425nm) was noted till 0.45% BSA, beyond that a blue shift towards 410nm was observed. The blue shift may be attributed to enhanced electron density on the particle surfaces. Increasing pH to 12 enhanced the blue shift further to 400nm. The conformational changes in BSA at alkaline pH ranges and consequent hydrophobic interactions also played an important role. The equilibrium adsorption data fitted better to Freundlich isotherm compared to Langmuir curve. The X-ray diffraction study revealed complete coverage of Ag nanoparticles by BSA. The scanning electron microscopic study of the interacted nanoparticles was also carried out to decipher morphological changes. This study established that tailoring the concentration of BSA and pH of the interaction it was possible to reduce aggregation of nanoparticles. Biofunctionalized Ag nanoparticles with reduced aggregation will be more amenable towards bio-sensing applications.
Contrary to expectations, molecular bromine addition to trans-Pt(Br)(9-anthracenyl)(PEt(3))(2) does not result in Pt oxidation or Pt-C bond cleavage but rather in selective multiple bromination of the anthracenyl ligand. The resulting complexes are highly photoluminescent in the blue region due to triplet-triplet annihilation induced delayed fluorescence from the anthracene.
Ocular tilt reaction, a type of skew deviation, and unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia with torsional nystagmus resulting from an ischemic event may result from unilateral disruption of otolithic pathways in the medial longitudinal fasciculus. A subset of skew deviations is known to simulate superior oblique palsy; however, none have been reported with a coexisting internuclear ophthalmoplegia. The present report documents the rare occurrence of an ocular tilt reaction simulating a left superior oblique palsy from involvement of left medial longitudinal fasciculus at the level of interstitial nucleus of Cajal.
Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and exposure to long days (photoperiod). Dominant Vrn-1 (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1) alleles are associated with vernalization independent spring growth habit. The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also phenotyped for flowering time by seeding in two different seasons. The wheat lines of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a, Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Ppd-D1a and Vrn-A1a Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a) genotypes flowered several weeks earlier than that of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b, Vrn-A1b Ppd-D1b and Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1b) genotypes. The flowering time phenotypes of the isogenic vernalization-insensitive lines confirmed that Ppd-D1a hastened flowering by several weeks. It was concluded that complementary interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a active alleles imparted super/very-early flowering habit to spring wheats. The early and late flowering wheat varieties showed differences in flowering time between short day and long day conditions. The flowering time in Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a genotypes was hastened by higher temperatures under long day conditions. The ambient air temperature and photoperiod parameters for flowering in spring wheat were estimated at 25°C and 12 h, respectively.
The objective of the research was to understand the structural determinants governing protein aggregation into inclusion bodies during expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) and asparaginase were expressed as inclusion bodies in E.coli and the kinetics of aggregate formation was analyzed in details. Asparaginase inclusion bodies were of smaller size (200 nm) and the size of the aggregates did not increase with induction time. In contrast, the seeding and growth behavior of hGH inclusion bodies were found to be sequential, kinetically stable and the aggregate size increased from 200 to 800 nm with induction time. Human growth hormone inclusion bodies showed higher resistance to denaturants and proteinase K degradation in comparison to those of asparaginase inclusion bodies. Asparaginase inclusion bodies were completely solubilized at 2-3 M urea concentration and could be refolded into active protein, whereas 7 M urea was required for complete solubilization of hGH inclusion bodies. Both hGH and asparaginase inclusion bodies showed binding with amyloid specific dyes. In spite of its low ?-sheet content, binding with dyes was more prominent in case of hGH inclusion bodies than that of asparaginase. Arrangements of protein molecules present in the surface as well as in the core of inclusion bodies were similar. Hydrophobic interactions between partially folded amphiphillic and hydrophobic alpha-helices were found to be one of the main determinants of hGH inclusion body formation. Aggregation behavior of the protein molecules decides the nature and properties of inclusion bodies.
Production of exemplary crowns and fixed partial dentures depends upon the usage of impression material and its technique of usage that accurately reproduces prepared teeth and their relationship to the adjacent oral structure.
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