JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Surveillance for Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Surface Waters of Haiti.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemic cholera was reported in Haiti in 2010, with no information available on the occurrence or geographic distribution of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Haitian waters. In a series of field visits conducted in Haiti between 2011 and 2013, water and plankton samples were collected at 19 sites. Vibrio cholerae was detected using culture, polymerase chain reaction, and direct viable count methods (DFA-DVC). Cholera toxin genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction in broth enrichments of samples collected in all visits except March 2012. Toxigenic V. cholerae was isolated from river water in 2011 and 2013. Whole genome sequencing revealed that these isolates were a match to the outbreak strain. The DFA-DVC tests were positive for V. cholerae O1 in plankton samples collected from multiple sites. Results of this survey show that toxigenic V. cholerae could be recovered from surface waters in Haiti more than 2 years after the onset of the epidemic.
Related JoVE Video
Non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae non-O1/O139 Isolated from a Gulf Coast Case of Human Gastroenteritis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An occurrence of Vibrio choleraenon-O1/O139 gastroenteritis in the Gulf Coast is reported here. Genomic analysis revealed the isolate lacked known virulence factors associated with the clinical outcome of a V. cholerae infection but did encode putative genomic islands and other accessory virulence factors, many of which are widespread among environmental strains of V. cholerae suggesting that there might be additional virulence factors yet to be determined in V. cholerae non-O1/O139. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the isolate belonged to a phyletic lineage of environmental V. cholerae isolates associated with sporadic cases of gastroenteritis in Western Hemisphere suggesting a need to monitor V. cholerae non-O1/O139 in the interest of public health.
Related JoVE Video
Occurrence in Mexico, 1998-2008, of Vibrio cholerae CTX+ El Tor carrying an additional truncated CTX prophage.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The seventh cholera pandemic caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor (ET) has been superseded in Asia and Africa by altered ET possessing the cholera toxin (CTX) gene of classical (CL) biotype. The CL biotype of V. cholerae was isolated, along with prototypic and altered ET, during the 1991 cholera epidemic in Mexico and subsequently remained endemic until 1997. Microbiological, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses of clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 1998 and 2008 revealed important genetic events favoring predominance of ET over CL and altered ET. V. cholerae altered ET was predominant after 1991 but not after 2000. V. cholerae strains isolated between 2001 and 2003 and a majority isolated in 2004 lacked CTX prophage (?) genes encoding CTX subunits A and B and repeat sequence transcriptional regulators of ET and CL biotypes: i.e., CTX?(-). Most CTX?(-) V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 2001 and 2003 also lacked toxin coregulated pili tcpA whereas some carried either tcpA(ET) or a variant tcpA with noticeable sequence dissimilarity from tcpA(CL). The tcpA variants were not detected in 2005 after CTX?(+) ET became dominant. All clinical and environmental V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 2005-2008 in Mexico were CTX?(+) ET, carrying an additional truncated CTX? instead of RS1 satellite phage. Despite V. cholerae CTX?(-) ET exhibiting heterogeneity in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, CTX?(+) ET isolated during 2004-2008 displayed homogeneity and clonal relationship with V. cholerae ET N16961 and V. cholerae ET isolated in Peru.
Related JoVE Video
Genomic and phenotypic characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolates from a US Gulf Coast cholera outbreak.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Between November 2010, and May 2011, eleven cases of cholera, unrelated to a concurrent outbreak on the island of Hispaniola, were recorded, and the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75, was traced to oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. From the 11 diagnosed cases, eight isolates of V. cholerae were isolated and their genomes were sequenced. Genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of a suite of mobile elements previously shown to be involved in the disease process of cholera (ctxAB, VPI-1 and -2, and a VSP-II like variant) and a phylogenomic analysis showed the isolates to be sister taxa to toxigenic V. cholerae V51 serogroup O141, a clinical strain isolated 23 years earlier. Toxigenic V. cholerae O75 has been repeatedly isolated from clinical cases in the southeastern United States and toxigenic V. cholerae O141 isolates have been isolated globally from clinical cases over several decades. Comparative genomics, phenotypic analyses, and a Caenorhabditis elegans model of infection for the isolates were conducted. This analysis coupled with isolation data of V. cholerae O75 and O141 suggests these strains may represent an underappreciated clade of cholera-causing strains responsible for significant disease burden globally.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular diversity and predictability of Vibrio parahaemolyticus along the Georgian coastal zone of the Black Sea.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-related gastroenteritis and is also an autochthonous member of marine and estuarine environments worldwide. One-hundred seventy strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from water and plankton samples collected along the Georgian coast of the Black Sea during 28 months of sample collection. All isolated strains were tested for presence of tlh, trh, and tdh. A subset of strains were serotyped and tested for additional factors and markers of pandemicity. Twenty-six serotypes, five of which are clinically relevant, were identified. Although all 170 isolates were negative for tdh, trh, and the Kanagawa Phenomenon, 7 possessed the GS-PCR sequence and 27 the 850 bp sequence of V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strains. The V. parahaemolyticus population in the Black Sea was estimated to be genomically heterogeneous by rep-PCR and the serodiversity observed did not correlate with rep-PCR genomic diversity. Statistical modeling was used to predict presence of V. parahaemolyticus as a function of water temperature, with strongest concordance observed for Green Cape site samples (Percent of total variance = 70, P < 0.001). Results demonstrate a diverse population of V. parahaemolyticus in the Black Sea, some of which carry pandemic markers, with increased water temperature correlated to an increase in abundance of V. parahaemolyticus.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic variation of Vibrio cholerae during outbreaks, Bangladesh, 2010-2011.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cholera remains a major public health problem. To compare the relative contribution of strains from the environment with strains isolated from patients during outbreaks, we performed multilocus variable tandem repeat analyses on samples collected during the 2010 and 2011 outbreak seasons in 2 geographically distinct areas of Bangladesh. A total of 222 environmental and clinical isolates of V. cholerae O1 were systematically collected from Chhatak and Mathbaria. In Chhatak, 75 of 79 isolates were from the same clonal complex, in which extensive differentiation was found in a temporally consistent pattern of successive mutations at single loci. A total of 59 isolates were collected from 6 persons; most isolates from 1 person differed by sequential single-locus mutations. In Mathbaria, 60 of 84 isolates represented 2 separate clonal complexes. The small number of genetic lineages in isolates from patients, compared with those from the environment, is consistent with accelerated transmission of some strains among humans during an outbreak.
Related JoVE Video
Genome Sequences of Clinical Vibrio cholerae Isolates from an Oyster-Borne Cholera Outbreak in Florida.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Between November 2010 and April 2011, 11 cases of cholera were identified and associated with the consumption of raw oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The etiological agent was the ctxAB-positive Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75. The genome sequences of the isolates provide useful information and are deposited in the public genome databases.
Related JoVE Video
Population vulnerability to biannual cholera outbreaks and associated macro-scale drivers in the Bengal Delta.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The highly populated floodplains of the Bengal Delta have a long history of endemic and epidemic cholera outbreaks, both coastal and inland. Previous studies have not addressed the spatio-temporal dynamics of population vulnerability related to the influence of underlying large-scale processes. We analyzed spatial and temporal variability of cholera incidence across six surveillance sites in the Bengal Delta and their association with regional hydroclimatic and environmental drivers. More specifically, we use salinity and flood inundation modeling across the vulnerable districts of Bangladesh to test earlier proposed hypotheses on the role of these environmental variables. Our results show strong influence of seasonal and interannual variability in estuarine salinity on spring outbreaks and inland flooding on fall outbreaks. A large segment of the population in the Bengal Delta floodplains remain vulnerable to these biannual cholera transmission mechanisms that provide ecologic and environmental conditions for outbreaks over large geographic regions.
Related JoVE Video
Environmental factors influencing epidemic cholera.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks.
Related JoVE Video
A water marker monitored by satellites to predict seasonal endemic cholera.
Remote Sens Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ability to predict an occurrence of cholera, a water-related disease, offers a significant public health advantage. Satellite based estimates of chlorophyll, a surrogate for plankton abundance, have been linked to cholera incidence. However, cholera bacteria can survive under a variety of coastal ecological conditions, thus constraining the predictive ability of the chlorophyll, since it provides only an estimate of greenness of seawater. Here, a new remote sensing based index is proposed: Satellite Water Marker (SWM), which estimates condition of coastal water, based on observed variability in the difference between blue (412 nm) and green (555 nm) wavelengths that can be related to seasonal cholera incidence. The index is bounded between physically separable wavelengths for relatively clear (blue) and turbid (green) water. Using SWM, prediction of cholera with reasonable accuracy, with at least two month in advance, can potentially be achieved in the endemic coastal regions.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution of virulence genes in clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae strains in Bangladesh.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio cholerae, an environmental organism, is a facultative human pathogen. Here, we report the virulence profiles, comprising 18 genetic markers, of 102 clinical and 692 environmental V. cholerae strains isolated in Bangladesh between March 2004 and January 2006, showing the variability of virulence determinants within the context of public health.
Related JoVE Video
A new integrative conjugative element detected in Haitian isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139.
Res. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The presence of SXT/R391-related integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) in Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-O1/non-O139 isolated from clinical and environmental samples in Haiti in 2010 was studied. The main finding of this work was the identification of the novel ICEVchHai2 among closely related V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 clinical strains. The mosaic structure of this element confirms the role of ICEs as efficient recombination systems whereby new genetic material can be acquired and exchanged, according V. cholerae strains new accessory functions.
Related JoVE Video
The mechanoelectrical response of the cytoplasmic membrane of Vibrio cholerae.
J. Gen. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Persistence of Vibrio cholerae in waters of fluctuating salinity relies on the capacity of this facultative enteric pathogen to adapt to varying osmotic conditions. In an event of osmotic downshift, osmolytes accumulated inside the bacterium can be quickly released through tension-activated channels. With the newly established procedure of giant spheroplast preparation from V. cholerae, we performed the first patch-clamp characterization of its cytoplasmic membrane and compared tension-activated currents with those in Esherichia coli. Saturating pressure ramps revealed two waves of activation belonging to the ?1-nS mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS)-like channels and ?3-nS mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL)-like channels, with a pressure midpoint ratio p0.5MscS/p0.5MscL of 0.48. We found that MscL-like channels in V. cholerae present at a density three times higher than in E. coli, and yet, these vibrios were less tolerant to large osmotic downshocks. The Vibrio MscS-like channels exhibit characteristic inward rectification and subconductive states at depolarizing voltages; they also adapt and inactivate at subsaturating tensions and recover within 2 s upon tension release, just like E. coli MscS. Trehalose, a compatible internal osmolyte accumulated under hypertonic conditions, significantly shifts activation curves of both MscL- and MscS-like channels toward higher tensions, yet does not freely partition into the channel pore. Direct electrophysiology of V. cholerae offers new avenues for the in situ analysis of membrane components critical for osmotic survival and electrogenic transport in this pathogen.
Related JoVE Video
Microbial water quality of recreational lakes near Tbilisi, Georgia.
J Water Health
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microbial safety of recreational water is one of the major human public health issues in developing countries. Three water bodies, the Tbilisi Sea, Kumisi and Lisi lakes, in the South Caucasus region near Tbilisi, Georgia, were monitored in 2006-2009 to determine microbiological quality using standard methods. Microbial pollution indicators were determined in parallel with phytoplankton abundance and measurement of a number of physical-chemical parameters. Kumisi Lake, a brackish water body in an active agricultural area, appeared to be the most polluted, whereas the Tbilisi Sea, a freshwater reservoir was the least polluted. High values for fecal indicators in all three lakes in summer and early autumn were revealed. In our study, total enterococci counts (TEC) appeared to be a better indicator than either fecal or total coliform counts for the evaluation of fresh and brackish microbial water quality. We found significant correlation between total Vibrio counts and TEC for all three water bodies. Prevalence of somatic coliphages and V. cholerae-specific phages as additional water pollution indicator significantly correlated with abundance of the host bacteria. Particular phytoplankton groups in the lakes responded to the changes of fecal indicators; however, no correlation was observed between dominant zooplankton taxonomic groups and microbial parameters.
Related JoVE Video
Drug response and genetic properties of Vibrio cholerae associated with endemic cholera in north-eastern Thailand, 2003-2011.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, including Thailand. Representative V. cholerae strains associated with endemic cholera (n = 32), including strains (n = 3) from surface water sources, in Khon Kaen, Thailand (2003-2011), were subjected to microbiological, molecular and phylogenetic analyses. According to phenotypic and related genetic data, all tested V. cholerae strains belonged to serogroup O1, biotype El Tor (ET), Inaba (IN) or Ogawa (OG). All of the strains were sensitive to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, while multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains showing resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin were predominant in 2007. V. cholerae strains isolated before and after 2007 were non-MDR. All except six diarrhoeal strains possessed ctxA and ctxB genes and were toxigenic altered ET, confirmed by MAMA-PCR and DNA sequencing. Year-wise data revealed that V. cholerae INET strains isolated between 2003 and 2004, plus one strain isolated in 2007, lacked the RS1 sequence (rstC) and toxin-linked cryptic plasmid (TLC)-specific genetic marker, but possessed CTX(CL) prophage genes ctxB(CL) and rstR(CL). A sharp genetic transition was noted, namely the majority of V. cholerae strains in 2007 and all in 2010 and 2011 were not repressor genotype rstR(CL) but instead were rstR(ET), and all ctx(+) strains possessed RS1 and TLC-specific genetic markers. DNA sequencing data revealed that strains isolated since 2007 had a mutation in the tcpA gene at amino acid position 64 (N?S). Four clonal types, mostly of environmental origin, including subtypes, reflected genetic diversity, while distinct signatures were observed for clonally related, altered ET from Thailand, Vietnam and Bangladesh, confirmed by distinct subclustering patterns observed in the PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram, suggesting that endemic cholera is caused by V. cholerae indigenous to Khon Kaen.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution and dynamics of epidemic and pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus virulence factors.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, autochthonous to estuarine, marine, and coastal environments throughout the world, is the causative agent of food-borne gastroenteritis. More than 80 serotypes have been described worldwide, based on antigenic properties of the somatic (O) and capsular (K) antigens. Serovar O3:K6 emerged in India in 1996 and subsequently was isolated worldwide, leading to the conclusion that the first V. parahaemolyticus pandemic had taken place. Most strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from the environment or seafood, in contrast to clinical strains, do not produce a thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and/or a TDH-related hemolysin (TRH). Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs), needle-like apparatuses able to deliver bacterial effectors into host cytoplasm, were identified as triggering cytotoxicity and enterotoxicity. Type 6 secretion systems (T6SS) predicted to be involved in intracellular trafficking and vesicular transport appear to play a role in V. parahaemolyticus virulence. Recent advances in V. parahaemolyticus genomics identified several pathogenicity islands (VpaIs) located on either chromosome in both epidemic and pandemic strains and comprising additional colonization factors, such as restriction-modification complexes, chemotaxis proteins, classical bacterial surface virulence factors, and putative colicins. Furthermore, studies indicate strains lacking toxins and genomic regions associated with pathogenicity may also be pathogenic, suggesting other important virulence factors remain to be identified. The unique repertoire of virulence factors identified to date, their occurrence and distribution in both epidemic and pandemic strains worldwide are described, with the aim of highlighting the complexity of V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity as well as its dynamic genome.
Related JoVE Video
Occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in municipal and natural waters and incidence of cholera in Azerbaijan.
Ecohealth
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cholera, a waterborne disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, is an autochthonous member of the aquatic environment and predominantly reported from developing countries. Technical reports and proceedings were reviewed to determine the relationship between occurrence of V. cholerae in natural waters, including sources of municipal water, and cases of cholera in Azerbaijan. Water samples collected from different environmental sources from 1970 to 1998 were tested for V. cholerae and 0.73% (864/117,893) were positive. The results showed that in April of each year, when the air temperature rose by approximately 5°C, V. cholerae could be isolated. With each increase in air temperature, 6-8 weeks after, impact on cases of cholera was recorded. The incidence of cholera peaked when the air temperature reached >25°C during the month of September. It is concluded that a distinct seasonality in cholera incidence exists in Azerbaijan, with increased occurrence during warmer months.
Related JoVE Video
Role of Shrimp Chitin in the Ecology of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and Cholera Transmission.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Seasonal plankton blooms correlate with occurrence of cholera in Bangladesh, although the mechanism of how dormant Vibrio cholerae, enduring interepidemic period in biofilms and plankton, initiates seasonal cholera is not fully understood. In this study, laboratory microcosms prepared with estuarine Mathbaria water (MW) samples supported active growth of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 up to 7?weeks as opposed to 6?months when microcosms were supplemented with dehydrated shrimp chitin chips (CC) as the single source of nutrient. Bacterial counting and detection of wbe and ctxA genes were done employing culture, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, and multiplex-polymerase chain reaction methods. In MW microcosm, the aqueous phase became clear as the non-culturable cells settled, whereas the aqueous phase of the MW-CC microcosm became turbid from bacterial growth stimulated by chitin. Bacterial chitin degradation and biofilm formation proceeded from an initial steady state to a gradually declining bacterial culturable count. V. cholerae within the microenvironments of chitin and chitin-associated biofilms remained metabolically active even in a high acidic environment without losing either viability or virulence. It is concluded that the abundance of chitin that occurs during blooms plays an important role in the aquatic life cycle of V. cholerae and, ultimately, in the seasonal transmission of cholera.
Related JoVE Video
Role of zooplankton diversity in Vibrio cholerae population dynamics and in the incidence of cholera in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio cholerae, a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, is the causative agent of cholera, a severe watery, life-threatening diarrheal disease occurring predominantly in developing countries. V. cholerae, including both serogroups O1 and O139, is found in association with crustacean zooplankton, mainly copepods, and notably in ponds, rivers, and estuarine systems globally. The incidence of cholera and occurrence of pathogenic V. cholerae strains with zooplankton were studied in two areas of Bangladesh: Bakerganj and Mathbaria. Chitinous zooplankton communities of several bodies of water were analyzed in order to understand the interaction of the zooplankton population composition with the population dynamics of pathogenic V. cholerae and incidence of cholera. Two dominant zooplankton groups were found to be consistently associated with detection of V. cholerae and/or occurrence of cholera cases, namely, rotifers and cladocerans, in addition to copepods. Local differences indicate there are subtle ecological factors that can influence interactions between V. cholerae, its plankton hosts, and the incidence of cholera.
Related JoVE Video
Temporal and spatial variability in the distribution of Vibrio vulnificus in the Chesapeake Bay: a hindcast study.
Ecohealth
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio vulnificus, an estuarine bacterium, is the causative agent of seafood-related gastroenteritis, primary septicemia, and wound infections worldwide. It occurs as part of the normal microflora of coastal marine environments and can be isolated from water, sediment, and oysters. Hindcast prediction was undertaken to determine spatial and temporal variability in the likelihood of occurrence of V. vulnificus in surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay. Hindcast predictions were achieved by forcing a multivariate habitat suitability model with simulated sea surface temperature and salinity in the Bay for the period between 1991 and 2005 and the potential hotspots of occurrence of V. vulnificus in the Chesapeake Bay were identified. The likelihood of occurrence of V. vulnificus during high and low rainfall years was analyzed. From results of the study, it is concluded that hindcast prediction yields an improved understanding of environmental conditions associated with occurrence of V. vulnificus in the Chesapeake Bay.
Related JoVE Video
Clonal transmission, dual peak, and off-season cholera in Bangladesh.
Infect Ecol Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium associated with a single peak of cholera (March-May) in coastal villages of Bangladesh. For an unknown reason, however, cholera occurs in a unique dual peak (March-May and September-November) pattern in the city of Dhaka that is bordered by a heavily polluted freshwater river system and flood embankment. In August 2007, extreme flooding was accompanied by an unusually severe diarrhea outbreak in Dhaka that resulted in a record high illness. This study was aimed to understand the unusual outbreak and if it was related to the circulation of a new V. cholerae clone. Nineteen V. cholerae isolated during the peak of the 2007 outbreak were subjected to extensive phenotypic and molecular analyses, including multi-locus genetic screening by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequence-typing of the ctxB gene, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Factors associated with the unusual incidence of cholera were determined and analysis of the disease severity was done. Overall, microbiological and molecular data confirmed that the hypervirulent V. cholerae was O1 biotype El Tor (ET) that possessed cholera toxin (CT) of the classical biotype. The PFGE (NotI) and dendrogram clustering confirmed that the strains were clonal and related to the pre-2007 variant ET from Dhaka and Matlab and resembled one of two distinct clones of the variant ET confirmed to be present in the estuarine ecosystem of Bangladesh. Results of the analyses of both diarrheal case data for three consecutive years (2006-2008) and regional hydroclimatology over three decades (1980-2009) clearly indicate that the pattern of cholera occurring in Dhaka, and not seen at other endemic sites, was associated with flood waters transmitting the infectious clone circulating via the fecal-oral route during and between the dual seasonal cholera peaks in Dhaka. Circular river systems and flood embankment likely facilitate transmission of infectious V. cholerae throughout the year that leads to both sudden and off-season outbreaks in the densely populated urban ecosystem of Dhaka. Clonal recycling of hybrid El Tor with increasing virulence in a changing climate and in a region with a growing urban population represents a serious public health concern for Bangladesh.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative genomics of clinical and environmental Vibrio mimicus.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whether Vibrio mimicus is a variant of Vibrio cholerae or a separate species has been the subject of taxonomic controversy. A genomic analysis was undertaken to resolve the issue. The genomes of V. mimicus MB451, a clinical isolate, and VM223, an environmental isolate, comprise ca. 4,347,971 and 4,313,453 bp and encode 3,802 and 3,290 ORFs, respectively. As in other vibrios, chromosome I (C-I) predominantly contains genes necessary for growth and viability, whereas chromosome II (C-II) bears genes for adaptation to environmental change. C-I harbors many virulence genes, including some not previously reported in V. mimicus, such as mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA), and enterotoxigenic hemolysin (HlyA); C-II encodes a variant of Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 (VPI-2), and Vibrio seventh pandemic island II (VSP-II) cluster of genes. Extensive genomic rearrangement in C-II indicates it is a hot spot for evolution and genesis of speciation for the genus Vibrio. The number of virulence regions discovered in this study (VSP-II, MSHA, HlyA, type IV pilin, PilE, and integron integrase, IntI4) with no notable difference in potential virulence genes between clinical and environmental strains suggests these genes also may play a role in the environment and that pathogenic strains may arise in the environment. Significant genome synteny with prototypic pre-seventh pandemic strains of V. cholerae was observed, and the results of phylogenetic analysis support the hypothesis that, in the course of evolution, V. mimicus and V. cholerae diverged from a common ancestor with a prototypic sixth pandemic genomic backbone.
Related JoVE Video
Interaction of Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 with copepods, cladocerans and competing bacteria in the large alkaline lake Neusiedler See, Austria.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogen and natural inhabitant of aquatic environments. Serogroups O1/O139 have been associated with epidemic cholera, while non-O1/non-O139 serogroups usually cause human disease other than classical cholera. V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 from the Neusiedler See, a large Central European lake, have caused ear and wound infections, including one case of fatal septicaemia. Recent investigations demonstrated rapid planktonic growth of V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 and correlation with zooplankton biomass. The aim of this study was to elucidate the interaction of autochthonous V. cholerae with two dominant crustacean zooplankton species in the lake and investigate the influence of the natural bacterial community on this interaction. An existing data set was evaluated for statistical relationships between zooplankton species and V. cholerae and co-culture experiments were performed in the laboratory. A new fluorescence in situ hybridisation protocol was applied for quantification of V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 cells, which significantly reduced analysis time. The experiments clearly demonstrated a significant relationship of autochthonous V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 with cladocerans by promoting growth of V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 in the water and on the surfaces of the cladocerans. In contrast, copepods had a negative effect on the growth of V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 via competing bacteria from their surfaces. Thus, beside other known factors, biofilm formation by V. cholerae on crustacean zooplankton appears to be zooplankton taxon specific and may be controlled by the natural bacterial community.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative genomic analysis reveals evidence of two novel Vibrio species closely related to V. cholerae.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In recent years genome sequencing has been used to characterize new bacterial species, a method of analysis available as a result of improved methodology and reduced cost. Included in a constantly expanding list of Vibrio species are several that have been reclassified as novel members of the Vibrionaceae. The description of two putative new Vibrio species, Vibrio sp. RC341 and Vibrio sp. RC586 for which we propose the names V. metecus and V. parilis, respectively, previously characterized as non-toxigenic environmental variants of V. cholerae is presented in this study.
Related JoVE Video
Effect on human cells of environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains carrying type III secretion system 2.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an inhabitant of estuarine and marine environments that causes seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, a type 3 secretion system (T3SS2) able to secrete and translocate virulence factors into the eukaryotic cell has been identified in a pathogenicity island (VP-PAI) located on the smaller chromosome. These virulence-related genes have previously been detected only in clinical strains. Classical virulence genes for this species (tdh, trh) are rarely detected in environmental strains, which are usually considered to lack virulence potential. However, during screening of a collection of environmental V. parahaemolyticus isolates obtained in the North Adriatic Sea in Italy, a number of marine strains carrying virulence-related genes, including genes involved in the T3SS2, were detected. In this study, we investigated the pathogenic potential of these marine V. parahaemolyticus strains by studying their adherence ability, their cytotoxicity, their effect on zonula occludin protein 1 (ZO-1) of the tight junctions, and their effect on transepithelial resistance (TER) in infected Caco-2 cells. By performing a reverse transcription-PCR, we also tested the expression of the T3SS2 genes vopT and vopB2, encoding an effector and a translocon protein, respectively. Our results indicate that, similarly to clinical strains, marine V. parahaemolyticus strains carrying vopT and vopB2 and that other genes included in the VP-PAI are capable of adhering to human cells and of causing cytoskeletal disruption and loss of membrane integrity in infected cells. On the basis of data presented here, environmental V. parahaemolyticus strains should be included in coastal water surveillance plans, as they may represent a risk for human health.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery of novel Vibrio cholerae VSP-II genomic islands using comparative genomic analysis.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This report describes Vibrio seventh pandemic island II (VSP-II) and three novel variants revealed by comparative genomics of 23 Vibrio cholerae strains and their presence among a large and diverse collection of V. cholerae isolates. Three VSP-II variants were reported previously and our results demonstrate the presence of three novel VSP-II in clinical and environmental V. cholerae marked by major deletions and genetic rearrangements. A new VSP-II cluster was found in the seventh pandemic V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain CIRS101, which is dominant (95%) among the recent (2004-2007) seven pandemic V. cholerae O1 El Tor isolates from two endemic sites, but was not found in older strains from the same region. Two other variants were found in V. cholerae TMA21 and RC385, two environmental strains from coastal Brazil and the Chesapeake Bay, respectively, the latter being prevalent among environmental V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 and Vibrio mimicus. The results of this study indicate that the VSP-II island has undergone significant rearrangement through a complex evolutionary pathway in V. cholerae. Interestingly, one of the new VSP-II revealed the presence of old and new V. cholerae O1 El Tor pandemic clones circulating in some of the areas where cholera is endemic.
Related JoVE Video
Genome sequence of hybrid Vibrio cholerae O1 MJ-1236, B-33, and CIRS101 and comparative genomics with V. cholerae.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The genomes of Vibrio cholerae O1 Matlab variant MJ-1236, Mozambique O1 El Tor variant B33, and altered O1 El Tor CIRS101 were sequenced. All three strains were found to belong to the phylocore group 1 clade of V. cholerae, which includes the 7th-pandemic O1 El Tor and serogroup O139 isolates, despite displaying certain characteristics of the classical biotype. All three strains were found to harbor a hybrid variant of CTXPhi and an integrative conjugative element (ICE), leading to their establishment as successful clinical clones and the displacement of prototypical O1 El Tor. The absence of strain- and group-specific genomic islands, some of which appear to be prophages and phage-like elements, seems to be the most likely factor in the recent establishment of dominance of V. cholerae CIRS101 over the other two hybrid strains.
Related JoVE Video
Simple sari cloth filtration of water is sustainable and continues to protect villagers from cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A simple method for filtering water to reduce the incidence of cholera was tested in a field trial in Matlab, Bangladesh, and proved effective. A follow-up study was conducted 5 years later to determine whether the filtration method continued to be employed by villagers and its impact on the incidence of cholera. A total of 7,233 village women collecting water daily for their households in Bangladesh were selected from the same study population of the original field trial for interviewing. Analysis of the data showed that 31% of the women used a filter of which 60% used sari filters for household water. Results showed that sari filtration not only was accepted and sustained by the villagers and benefited them, including their neighbors not filtering water, in reducing the incidence of cholera, the latter being an unexpected benefit.
Related JoVE Video
Occurrence of the Vibrio cholerae seventh pandemic VSP-I island and a new variant.
OMICS
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using comparative genomics, we identified a new variant of the Vibrio Seventh Pandemic Island-I (VSP-I). Results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for both known VSP-I variants indicate that the novel variant is present only in non-O1/non-O139 strains of V. cholerae and Vibrio mimicus. Comparative genomics revealed little sequence divergence in the seventh pandemic VSP-I; however, a second insertion site located on the smaller chromosome was identified. Although the seventh pandemic VSP-I genomic island was detected in all seventh pandemic V. cholerae serogroup O1 and O139 isolates examined in this study, unique genes of the island cannot be used alone as an identifying target, because the seventh pandemic VSP-I was also present in three non-seventh pandemic strains of V. cholerae isolated from Chesapeake Bay. As an alternative, a PCR assay targeting the VC2346 gene was found to be confirmatory for seventh pandemic isolates of V. cholerae.
Related JoVE Video
The pre-seventh pandemic Vibrio cholerae BX 330286 El Tor genome: evidence for the environment as a genome reservoir.
Environ Microbiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor BX 330286 was isolated from a water sample in Australia in 1986, 9 years after an indigenous outbreak of cholera occurred in that region. This environmental strain encodes virulence factors highly similar to those of clinical strains, suggesting an ability to cause disease in humans. We demonstrate its high similarity in gene content and genome-wide nucleotide sequence to clinical V. cholerae strains, notably to pre-seventh pandemic O1 El Tor strains isolated in 1910 (V. cholerae NCTC 8457) and 1937 (V. cholerae MAK 757), as well as seventh pandemic strains isolated after 1960 globally. Here we demonstrate that this strain represents a transitory clone with shared characteristics between pre-seventh and seventh pandemic strains of V. cholerae. Interestingly, this strain was isolated 25 years after the beginning of the seventh pandemic, suggesting the environment as a genome reservoir in areas where cholera does not occur in sporadic, endemic or epidemic form.
Related JoVE Video
Diversity and distribution of cholix toxin, a novel ADP-ribosylating factor from Vibrio cholerae.
Environ Microbiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-toxigenic non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from both environmental and clinical settings carry a suite of virulence factors aside from cholera toxin. Among V. cholerae strains isolated from coastal waters of southern California, this includes cholix toxin, an ADP-ribosylating factor that is capable of halting protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. The prevalence of the gene encoding cholix toxin, chxA, was assessed among a collection of 155 diverse V. cholerae strains originating from both clinical and environmental settings in Bangladesh and Mexico and other countries around the globe. The chxA gene was present in 47% of 83 non-O1, non-O139 strains and 16% of 72 O1/O139 strains screened as part of this study. A total of 86 chxA gene sequences were obtained, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that they fall into two distinct clades. These two clades were also observed in the phylogenies of several housekeeping genes, suggesting that the divergence observed in chxA extends to other regions of the V. cholerae genome, and most likely has arisen from vertical descent rather than horizontal transfer. Our results clearly indicate that ChxA is a major toxin of V. cholerae with a worldwide distribution that is preferentially associated with non-pandemic strains.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of pathogenic Vibrio species by multilocus PCR-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and its application to aquatic environments of the former soviet republic of Georgia.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Ibis T5000 is a novel diagnostic platform that couples PCR and mass spectrometry. In this study, we developed an assay that can identify all known pathogenic Vibrio species and field-tested it using natural water samples from both freshwater lakes and the Georgian coastal zone of the Black Sea. Of the 278 total water samples screened, 9 different Vibrio species were detected, 114 (41%) samples were positive for V. cholerae, and 5 (0.8%) samples were positive for the cholera toxin A gene (ctxA). All ctxA-positive samples were from two freshwater lakes, and no ctxA-positive samples from any of the Black Sea sites were detected.
Related JoVE Video
Environmental reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae and their role in cholera.
Environ Microbiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the aquatic environment, Vibrio cholerae has been reported to be associated with a variety of living organisms, including animals with an exoskeleton of chitin, aquatic plants, protozoa, bivalves, waterbirds, as well as abiotic substrates (e.g. sediments). Most of these are well-known or putative environmental reservoirs for the bacterium, defined as places where the pathogen lives over time, with the potential to be released and to cause human infection. Environmental reservoirs also serve as V. cholerae disseminators and vectors. They can be responsible for the start of an epidemic, may be critical to cholera endemicity, and affect the evolution of pathogen virulence. To date, in addition to the generally recognized role of zooplankton as the largest environmental reservoir for V. cholerae, other environmental reservoirs play some role in cholera epidemiology by favouring persistence of the pathogen during inter-epidemic periods. Little is known about the ecological factors affecting V. cholerae survival in association with aquatic substrates. Studies aimed at these aspects, i.e. understanding how environmental reservoirs interact, are affected by climate, and contribute to disease epidemiology, will be useful for understanding global implications of V. cholerae and the disease cholera.
Related JoVE Video
Serodiversity and ecological distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Venetian Lagoon, Northeast Italy.
Environ Microbiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a natural inhabitant of estuarine and marine environments constituting part of the autochthonous microflora. This species is associated with human gastroenteritis caused by ingestion of contaminated water and undercooked seafood. During the past several years, the number of V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis cases have increased worldwide, causing over half of all food-poisoning outbreaks of bacterial origin. Vibrio populations in water are known to be influenced by environmental factors. Notably, it has been shown that in different parts of the world the distribution of V. parahaemolyticus in the marine environment is related to the water temperature. In this study, we identified environmental determinants affecting distribution of V. parahaemolyticus in the Venetian Lagoon, in the Italian North Adriatic Sea. Data obtained revealed that sea surface temperature constitutes the key factor influencing occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus, but salinity and chlorophyll concentration are also important. Serotyping of a collection of V. parahaemolyticus environmental isolates revealed high serodiversity, with serotypes O3:KUT and O1:KUT, belonging to the pandemic group, occurring with higher frequency. From our results, we conclude that there is no correlation between serotype and specific geographic site or season of the year. However, certain serotypes were isolated in the Lagoon during the entire 18 months of the study, strongly suggesting persistence in this environment.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in freshwater lakes of the former Soviet Republic of Georgia.
Environ Microbiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three freshwater lakes, Lisi Lake, Kumisi Lake and Tbilisi Sea, near Tbilisi, Georgia, were studied from January 2006 to December 2007 to determine the presence of Vibrio cholerae employing both bacteriological culture method and direct detection methods, namely PCR and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA). For PCR, DNA extracted from water samples was tested for presence of V. cholerae and genes coding for selected virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 was routinely isolated by culture from all three lakes; whereas V. cholerae O1 and O139 were not. Water samples collected during the summer months from Lisi Lake and Kumisi Lake were positive for both V. cholerae and V. cholerae ctxA, tcpA, zot, ompU and toxR by PCR. Water samples collected during the same period from both Lisi and Kumisi Lake were also positive for V. cholerae serogroup O1 by DFA. All of the samples were negative for V. cholerae serotype O139. The results of this study provide evidence for an environmental presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1, which may represent a potential source of illness as these lakes serve as recreational water in Tbilisi, Georgia.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative genomics reveals mechanism for short-term and long-term clonal transitions in pandemic Vibrio cholerae.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the sixth and the current seventh pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and reemerging pathogenic clones carrying diverse combinations of phenotypic and genotypic properties, which significantly hampered control of the disease. To elucidate evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity of pandemic V. cholerae, we compared the genome sequences of 23 V. cholerae strains isolated from a variety of sources over the past 98 years. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae lineages, of which one comprises both O1 classical and El Tor biotypes. All seventh pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content. Using analogy to influenza virology, we define the transition from sixth to seventh pandemic strains as a "shift" between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages. In contrast, transition among clones during the present pandemic period is characterized as a "drift" between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V. cholerae O139 and V. cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones. Based on the comparative genomics it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V. cholerae clones.
Related JoVE Video
Serogroup, virulence, and genetic traits of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the estuarine ecosystem of Bangladesh.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Forty-two strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were isolated from Bay of Bengal estuaries and, with two clinical strains, analyzed for virulence, phenotypic, and molecular traits. Serological analysis indicated O8, O3, O1, and K21 to be the major O and K serogroups, respectively, and O8:K21, O1:KUT, and O3:KUT to be predominant. The K antigen(s) was untypeable, and pandemic serogroup O3:K6 was not detected. The presence of genes toxR and tlh were confirmed by PCR in all but two strains, which also lacked toxR. A total of 18 (41%) strains possessed the virulence gene encoding thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), and one had the TDH-related hemolysin (trh) gene, but not tdh. Ten (23%) strains exhibited Kanagawa phenomenon that surrogates virulence, of which six, including the two clinical strains, possessed tdh. Of the 18 tdh-positive strains, 17 (94%), including the two clinical strains, had the seromarker O8:K21, one was O9:KUT, and the single trh-positive strain was O1:KUT. None had the group-specific or ORF8 pandemic marker gene. DNA fingerprinting employing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SfiI-digested DNA and cluster analysis showed divergence among the strains. Dendrograms constructed using PFGE (SfiI) images from a soft database, including those of pandemic and nonpandemic strains of diverse geographic origin, however, showed that local strains formed a cluster, i.e., "clonal cluster," as did pandemic strains of diverse origin. The demonstrated prevalence of tdh-positive and diarrheagenic serogroup O8:K21 strains in coastal villages of Bangladesh indicates a significant human health risk for inhabitants.
Related JoVE Video
Genomic analysis of a novel integrative conjugative element in Vibrio cholerae.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are a class of self-transmissible mobile elements that mediate horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, and play an important role in bacterial evolution. Since 1992, ICEs of the SXT/R391 family have been found to be widely distributed among Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Asian countries. Here we describe ICEVchB33, an ICE found in the genomes of two V. cholerae O1 Eltor strains, one isolated in India, 1994, and the other from Mozambique, 2004. ICEVchB33 revealed a new genetic organization, different from other ICEs of the SXT/R391 family, demonstrating the genomic plasticity of these elements.
Related JoVE Video
Predicting the distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Chesapeake Bay: a Vibrio cholerae case study.
Ecohealth
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a naturally occurring inhabitant of the Chesapeake Bay and serves as a predictor for other clinically important vibrios, including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. A system was constructed to predict the likelihood of the presence of V. cholerae in surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay, with the goal to provide forecasts of the occurrence of this and related pathogenic Vibrio spp. Prediction was achieved by driving an available multivariate empirical habitat model estimating the probability of V. cholerae within a range of temperatures and salinities in the Bay, with hydrodynamically generated predictions of ambient temperature and salinity. The experimental predictions provided both an improved understanding of the in situ variability of V. cholerae, including identification of potential hotspots of occurrence, and usefulness as an early warning system. With further development of the system, prediction of the probability of the occurrence of related pathogenic vibrios in the Chesapeake Bay, notably V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, will be possible, as well as its transport to any geographical location where sufficient relevant data are available.
Related JoVE Video
RNA colony blot hybridization method for enumeration of culturable Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus bacteria.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A species-specific RNA colony blot hybridization protocol was developed for enumeration of culturable Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus bacteria in environmental water samples. Bacterial colonies on selective or nonselective plates were lysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate, and the lysates were immobilized on nylon membranes. A fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probe targeting a phylogenetic signature sequence of 16S rRNA of V. cholerae and V. mimicus was hybridized to rRNA molecules immobilized on the nylon colony lift blots. The protocol produced strong positive signals for all colonies of the 15 diverse V. cholerae-V. mimicus strains tested, indicating 100% sensitivity of the probe for the targeted species. For visible colonies of 10 nontarget species, the specificity of the probe was calculated to be 90% because of a weak positive signal produced by Grimontia (Vibrio) hollisae, a marine bacterium. When both the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated using lake water samples amended with a bioluminescent V. cholerae strain, no false-negative or false-positive results were found, indicating 100% sensitivity and specificity for culturable bacterial populations in freshwater samples when G. hollisae was not present. When the protocol was applied to laboratory microcosms containing V. cholerae attached to live copepods, copepods were found to carry approximately 10,000 to 50,000 CFU of V. cholerae per copepod. The protocol was also used to analyze pond water samples collected in an area of cholera endemicity in Bangladesh over a 9-month period. Water samples collected from six ponds demonstrated a peak in abundance of total culturable V. cholerae bacteria 1 to 2 months prior to observed increases in pathogenic V. cholerae and in clinical cases recorded by the area health clinic. The method provides a highly specific and sensitive tool for monitoring the dynamics of V. cholerae in the environment. The RNA blot hybridization protocol can also be applied to detection of other gram-negative bacteria for taxon-specific enumeration.
Related JoVE Video
Role of GbpA protein, an important virulence-related colonization factor, for Vibrio choleraes survival in the aquatic environment.
Environ Microbiol Rep
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio cholerae N-acetyl glucosamine-binding protein A (GbpA) is a chitin binding protein and a virulence factor involved in the colonization of human intestine. We investigated the distribution and genetic variations of gbpA in 488 V.?cholerae strains of environmental and clinical origin, belonging to different serogroups and biotypes. We found that the gene is consistently present and highly conserved including an environmental V.?cholerae-related strain of ancestral origin. The gene was also consistently expressed in a number of representative V.?cholerae strains cultured in laboratory aquatic microcosms under conditions simulating those found in temperate marine environments. Functional analysis carried out on V.?cholerae O1 El Tor N16961 showed that GbpA is not involved in adhesion to inorganic surfaces but promotes interaction with environmental biotic substrates (plankton and bivalve hepatopancreas cells) representing known marine reservoir or host for the bacterium. It is suggested that the ability of GbpA to colonize human intestinal cells most probably originated from its primary function in the aquatic environment.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of Vibrio cholerae in environmental waters including drinking water reservoirs of Azerbaijan.
Environ Microbiol Rep
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cholera, a globally prevalent gastrointestinal disease, remains a persistent problem in many countries including the former Soviet republics of the Caucasus region where sporadic outbreaks occurred recently. Historically, this region has experienced cholera during every pandemic since 1816; however, no known comprehensive evaluation of the presence of Vibrio cholerae in surface waters using molecular methods has been done. Here we present the first report of the presence of V.?cholerae in surface waters of Azerbaijan and its seasonality, using a combination of bacteriological and molecular methods. Findings from the present study indicate a peak in the presence of V.?cholerae in warmer summer months relative to colder winter months. In the Caspian Sea, water temperature when optimal for growth of V.?cholerae was significantly associated with detection of V.?cholerae. Vibrio cholerae was simultaneously detected at freshwater sites including two water reservoirs. Most importantly, detection of V.?cholerae in these water reservoirs, the source of municipal drinking water, poses a potential health risk to the population due to the limited and insufficient treatment of water in Azerbaijan. Routine monitoring of environmental waters used for recreational purposes, and especially drinking water reservoirs, is highly recommended as a measure for public health safety.
Related JoVE Video
Vibrio cholerae in an Historically Cholera-Free Country.
Environ Microbiol Rep
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the autochthonous existence of Vibrio cholerae in coastal waters of Iceland, a geothermally active country where cholera is absent and has never been reported. Seawater, mussel, and macroalgae samples were collected close to and distant from sites where geothermal activity causes a significant increase in water temperature during low tides. V. cholerae was detected only at geothermal-influenced sites during low-tides. None of the V. cholerae isolates encoded cholera toxin (ctxAB) and all were non-O1/non-O139 serogroups. However, all isolates encoded other virulence factors that are associated with cholera as well as extra-intestinal V. cholerae infections. The virulence factors were functional at temperatures of coastal waters of Iceland, suggesting an ecological role. It is noteworthy that V. cholerae was isolated from samples collected at sites distant from anthropogenic influence, supporting the conclusion that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment of Iceland.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic characteristics of drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 causing endemic cholera in Dhaka, 2006-2011.
J. Med. Microbiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor (ET), causing the seventh cholera pandemic, was recently replaced in Bangladesh by an altered ET possessing ctxB of the Classical (CL) biotype, which caused the first six cholera pandemics. In the present study, V. cholerae O1 strains associated with endemic cholera in Dhaka between 2006 and 2011 were analysed for major phenotypic and genetic characteristics. Of 54 representative V. cholerae isolates tested, all were phenotypically ET and showed uniform resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and furazolidone (FR). Resistance to tetracycline (TE) and erythromycin (E) showed temporal fluctuation, varying from year to year, while all isolates were susceptible to gentamicin (CN) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). Year-wise data revealed erythromycin resistance to be 33.3?% in 2006 and 11?% in 2011, while tetracycline resistance accounted for 33, 78, 0, 100 and 27?% in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively; interestingly, all isolates tested were sensitive to TE in 2011, as observed in 2008. All V. cholerae isolates tested possessed genetic elements such as SXT, ctxAB, tcpA(ET), rstR(ET) and rtxC; none had IntlI (Integron I). Double mismatch amplification mutation assay (DMAMA)-PCR followed by DNA sequencing and analysis of the ctxB gene revealed a point mutation at position 58 (C?A), which has resulted in an amino acid substitution from histidine (H) to asparagine (N) at position 20 (genotype 7) since 2008. Although the multi-resistant strains having tetracycline resistance showed minor genetic divergence, V. cholerae strains were clonal, as determined by a PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram. This study shows 2008-2010 to be the time of transition from ctxB genotype 1 to genotype 7 in V. cholerae ET causing endemic cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Related JoVE Video
Detection, isolation, and identification of Vibrio cholerae from the environment.
Curr Protoc Microbiol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent molecular advances in microbiology have greatly improved the detection of bacterial pathogens in the environment. These improvements and a downward trend in the cost of molecular detection methods have contributed to increased frequency of detection of pathogenic microorganisms where traditional culture-based detection methods have failed. Culture methods also have been greatly improved, and the confluence of the two suites of methods provides a powerful tool for detection, isolation, and characterization of pathogens. While molecular detection provides data on the presence and type of pathogens, culturing methods allow a researcher to preserve the organism of interest for "-omics" studies, such as genomic, metabolomic, secretomic, and transcriptomic analysis, which are rapidly becoming more affordable. This has yielded a clearer understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of microorganisms that cause disease. In this unit, we present commonly accepted methods for isolation, detection, and characterization of V. cholerae, providing more extensive knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of this organism. This unit has been fully revised and updated from the earlier version with the latest knowledge and additional information not previously included.
Related JoVE Video
Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in the coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, and Washington (United States).
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, which are native to estuaries globally, are agents of seafood-borne or wound infections, both potentially fatal. Like all vibrios autochthonous to coastal regions, their abundance varies with changes in environmental parameters. Sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and chlorophyll have been shown to be predictors of zooplankton and thus factors linked to vibrio populations. The contribution of salinity, conductivity, turbidity, and dissolved organic carbon to the incidence and distribution of Vibrio spp. has also been reported. Here, a multicoastal, 21-month study was conducted to determine relationships between environmental parameters and V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus populations in water, oysters, and sediment in three coastal areas of the United States. Because ecologically unique sites were included in the study, it was possible to analyze individual parameters over wide ranges. Molecular methods were used to detect genes for thermolabile hemolysin (tlh), thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh), and tdh-related hemolysin (trh) as indicators of V. parahaemolyticus and the hemolysin gene vvhA for V. vulnificus. SST and suspended particulate matter were found to be strong predictors of total and potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. Other predictors included chlorophyll a, salinity, and dissolved organic carbon. For the ecologically unique sites included in the study, SST was confirmed as an effective predictor of annual variation in vibrio abundance, with other parameters explaining a portion of the variation not attributable to SST.
Related JoVE Video
Genomic diversity of 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak strains.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The millions of deaths from cholera during the past 200 y, coupled with the morbidity and mortality of cholera in Haiti since October 2010, are grim reminders that Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, remains a scourge. We report the isolation of both V. cholerae O1 and non-O1/O139 early in the Haiti cholera epidemic from samples collected from victims in 18 towns across eight Arrondissements of Haiti. The results showed two distinct populations of V. cholerae coexisted in Haiti early in the epidemic. As non-O1/O139 V. cholerae was the sole pathogen isolated from 21% of the clinical specimens, its role in this epidemic, either alone or in concert with V. cholerae O1, cannot be dismissed. A genomic approach was used to examine similarities and differences among the Haitian V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae non-O1/O139 strains. A total of 47 V. cholerae O1 and 29 V. cholerae non-O1/O139 isolates from patients and the environment were sequenced. Comparative genome analyses of the 76 genomes and eight reference strains of V. cholerae isolated in concurrent epidemics outside Haiti and 27 V. cholerae genomes available in the public database demonstrated substantial diversity of V. cholerae and ongoing flux within its genome.
Related JoVE Video
Genomic analysis of ICEVchBan8: An atypical genetic element in Vibrio cholerae.
FEBS Lett.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genomic islands (GIs) and integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are major players in bacterial evolution since they encode genes involved in adaptive functions of medical or environmental importance. Here we performed the genomic analysis of ICEVchBan8, an unusual ICE found in the genome of a clinical non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O37 isolate. ICEVchBan8 shares most of its genetic structure with SXT/R391 ICEs. However, this ICE codes for a different integration/excision module is located at a different insertion site, and part of its genetic cargo shows homology to other pathogenicity islands of V. cholerae.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.