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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Astragaloside IV alleviates early brain injury following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Astragaloside IV, one of the main effective components isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, has multiple neuroprotective properties, while the effects of astragaloside IV on the attenuation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI) and its possible mechanisms are unknown. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether astragaloside IV could inhibit oxidative stress, reduce neuronal apoptosis, and improve neurological deficits after experimental SAH in rats. Rats (n=68) were randomly divided into the following groups: Sham group, SAH group, SAH+vehicle group, and SAH+astragaloside IV group. Astragaloside IV or an equal volume of vehicle was administered at 1 h and 6 h after SAH, all the rats were subsequently sacrificed at 24 h after SAH. Mortality, neurological scores, and brain edema were assessed, biochemical tests and histological studies were also performed at that point. SAH induced an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level, neuronal apoptosis, cleaved caspase 3, brain edema and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Astragaloside IV treatment reversed these changes and improved neurobehavioral outcomes of SAH rats. Our findings suggested that astragaloside IV may alleviate EBI after SAH through antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects.
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Enhancement of Autophagy by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A Ameliorates Neuronal Apoptosis After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Trichostatin A (TSA), a pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, exerts multiple neuroprotective properties. This study aims to examine whether TSA could enhance autophagy, thereby reduce neuronal apoptosis and ultimately attenuate early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH was performed through endovascular perforation method, and mortality, neurological score, and brain water content were evaluated at 24 h after surgery. Western blot were used for quantification of acetylated histone H3, LC3-II, LC3-I, Beclin-1, cytochrome c, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Immunofluorescence was performed for colocalization of Beclin-1 and neuronal nuclei (NeuN). Apoptotic cell death of neurons was quantified with double staining of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and NeuN. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used to manipulate the proposed pathway. Our results demonstrated that TSA reduced brain edema and alleviated neurological deficits at 24 h after SAH. TSA significantly increased acetylated histone H3, the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and Beclin-1 while decreased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in the cortex. Beclin-1 and NeuN, TUNEL, and NeuN, respectively, were colocalized in cortical cells. Neuronal apoptosis in the ipsilateral basal cortex was significantly inhibited after TSA treatment. Conversely, 3-MA reversed the beneficial effects of TSA. These results proposed that TSA administration enhanced autophagy, which contributes to alleviation of neuronal apoptosis, improvement of neurological function, and attenuation of EBI following SAH.
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Comparison of carotid artery endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting in patients with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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The choice of carotid artery endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS), as surgical and interventional treatment of atherosclerotic carotid stenosis, respectively, has been controversial in decades, especially for asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis. Age and the diameter of impaired carotid artery might be 2 important factors to decide whether CEA or CAS should be performed. Besides, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been confirmed as an effective method to predict the risk of stroke by classifying the carotid plaque into 4 grades. The role of CEUS in the choice of CEA or CAS still remains unclear.
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Angiogenesis effect of Astragalus polysaccharide combined with endothelial progenitor cells therapy in diabetic male rat following experimental hind limb ischemia.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease accompanied with a high incidence of hind limb ischemia (HLI). In recent years, numerous studies demonstrated that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in angiogenesis and maintenance of vascular integrity following HLI. On the other side, it has been proved that Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) could promote angiogenesis. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of APS and EPCs on enhancing angiogenesis after experimental HLI caused by femoral artery ligation in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes.
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Caspases: a molecular switch node in the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Autophagy and apoptosis are two important catabolic processes contributing to the maintenance of cellular and tissue homeostasis. Autophagy controls the turnover of protein aggregates and damaged organelles within cells, while apoptosis is the principal mechanism by which unwanted cells are dismantled and eliminated from organisms. Despite marked differences between these two pathways, they are highly interconnected in determining the fate of cells. Intriguingly, caspases, the primary drivers of apoptotic cell death, play a critical role in mediating the complex crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Pro-apoptotic signals can converge to activate caspases to execute apoptotic cell death. In addition, activated caspases can degrade autophagy proteins (i.e., Beclin-1, Atg5, and Atg7) to shut down the autophagic response. Moreover, caspases can convert pro-autophagic proteins into pro-apoptotic proteints to trigger apoptotic cell death instead. It is clear that caspases are important in both apoptosis and autophagy, thus a detailed deciphering of the role of caspases in these two processes is still required to clarify the functional relationship between them. In this article, we provide a current overview of caspases in its interplay between autophagy and apoptosis. We emphasized that defining the role of caspases in autophagy-apoptosis crosstalk will provide a framework for more precise manipulation of these two processes during cell death.
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Neuroprotective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against neurologic damage and apoptosis in early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage: possible role of the Akt/GSK3? signaling pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Early brain injury (EBI) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Neuronal apoptosis is involved in the pathological process of EBI. Hydrogen can inhibit neuronal apoptosis and attenuate EBI following SAH. However, the molecular mechanism underlying hydrogen-mediated anti-apoptotic effects in SAH has not been elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether hydrogen alleviates EBI after SAH, specifically neuronal apoptosis, partially via the Akt/GSK3? signaling pathway.
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Comparison between routine and improved decompressive craniectomy on patients with malignant cerebral artery infarction without traumatic brain injury.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Malignant cerebral artery infarction is one kind of ischemic stroke with high mortality. The aim of this study was to analyze comparatively the preoperative and postoperative clinical data as well as the prognostic factors in these patients who underwent improved decompressive craniectomy or routine decompressive craniectomy.
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Contribution of the C-terminal regions of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) isoforms II and V to PML nuclear body formation.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies are dynamic and heterogeneous nuclear protein complexes implicated in various important functions, most notably tumor suppression. PML is the structural component of PML nuclear bodies and has several nuclear splice isoforms that share a common N-terminal region but differ in their C termini. Previous studies have suggested that the coiled-coil motif within the N-terminal region is sufficient for PML nuclear body formation by mediating homo/multi-dimerization of PML molecules. However, it has not been investigated whether any of the C-terminal variants of PML may contribute to PML body assembly. Here we report that the unique C-terminal domains of PML-II and PML-V can target to PML-NBs independent of their N-terminal region. Strikingly, both domains can form nuclear bodies in the absence of endogenous PML. The C-terminal domain of PML-II interacts transiently with unknown binding sites at PML nuclear bodies, whereas the C-terminal domain of PML-V exhibits hyperstable binding to PML bodies via homo-dimerization. This strong interaction is mediated by a putative ?-helix in the C terminus of PML-V. Moreover, nuclear bodies assembled from the C-terminal domain of PML-V also recruit additional PML body components, including Daxx and Sp100. These observations establish the C-terminal domain of PML-V as an additional important contributor to the assembly mechanism(s) of PML bodies.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.