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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance by stemofoline derivatives.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Resistance to chemotherapy in cancer patients has been correlated to the overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters including P-glycoprotein (P-gp) that actively efflux chemotherapeutic drugs from cancer cells. We examined the multidrug resistance reversing property of stemofoline derivatives in drug-resistance human cervical carcinoma (KB-V1) and human leukemic (K562/Adr) cell lines that overexpress P-gp. Didehydrostemofoline and eleven of its derivatives were synthesized and the cytotoxicity and their effect on doxorubicin, vinblastine and paclitaxel sensitivity in drug resistant (KB-V1 and K562/Adr) and drug sensitive (KB-3-1 and K562) cell lines by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay were determined. We found that three out of the twelve stemofoline derivatives including OH-A1, NH-B6 and NH-D6 showed commitment efficiency to increase sensitivity to doxorubicin, vinblastine and paclitaxel in KB-V1 cells and increase sensitivity to doxorubicin, and paclitaxel in K562/Adr cells whereas the effects have not been seen in their parental sensitive cancer cell lines (KB-3-1 and K562). These results indicate that stemofoline derivatives reversed P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance in vitro, and thus could be developed as effective chemosensitizers to treat multidrug-resistant cancers. The molecular mechanism of modulation of P-gp would be further determined.
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Isolation and characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi from rodents captured following a scrub typhus outbreak at a military training base, Bothong district, Chonburi province, central Thailand.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a vector-borne disease transmitted by infected chiggers (trombiculid mite larvae). In 2002, an outbreak of scrub typhus occurred among Royal Thai Army troops during the annual field training at a military base in Bothong district, Chonburi province, central Thailand. This report describes the outbreak investigation including its transmission cycle. Results showed that 33.9% of 174 trained troops had scrub typhus-like signs and symptoms and 9.8% of those were positive for O. tsutsugamushi-specific antibodies by indirect fluorescence antibody assay. One hundred thirty-five rodents were captured from this training area, 43% of them had antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi. Six new O. tsutsugamushi isolates were obtained from captured rodent tissues and successfully established in cell culture. Phylogenetic studies showed that these six isolates were either unique or related to a native genotype of previously described isolates from Thailand.
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Phytochemical studies on Stemona aphylla: isolation of a new stemofoline alkaloid and six new stemofurans.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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A new stemofoline alkaloid, (2S)-hydroxy-(11S,12R)-dihydrostemofoline (3), new stemofurans M-R (8-13), and known compounds stemofoline (1), (2S)-hydroxystemofoline (2), stemofuran E (4), stemofuran F (5), stemofuran J (6), and stilbostemin F (7) have been isolated from the root extracts of Stemona aphylla. The structures and relative configurations of these new compounds have been determined by spectroscopic data interpretation and from semisynthetic studies. These natural and semisynthetic alkaloids were tested for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities and were found to be 10-20 times less active than 1,2-didehydrostemofoline itself. Stemofurans 4, 6, 8, 11, and 13 were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Three of these showed antibacterial activities against MRSA with MIC values of 15.6 ?g/mL.
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Phytochemical investigations of Stemona curtisii and synthetic studies on stemocurtisine alkaloids.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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The isolation of two new Stemona alkaloids, 1-hydroxyprotostemonine and stemocurtisine N-oxide, and a new benzofuran, stemofuran L, from the root extracts of Stemona curtisii is reported. The major known alkaloids from this plant extract, stemocurtisine, stemocurtisinol, and oxyprotostemonine, were also isolated along with oxystemokerrine N-oxide. The nonalkaloid components of this extract included a new benzofuran derivative, stemofuran L, the known stemofurans F, J, and K, dihydro-?-tocopherol, and stigmasterol. Stemocurtisine and stemocurtisinol were converted to their respective N-oxides by oxidation. Stemocurtisine was converted to a tetracyclic derivative by oxidative cleavage of the ?-butyrolactone ring, while stemocurtisinol gave a novel lactam derivative by oxidative cleavage of the C-4 side chain under basic conditions. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of some known and new alkaloids and their derivatives are also reported. All were 10-20 times less active as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors than the pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepine Stemona alkaloids stemofoline and 1,2-didehydrostemofoline. None of the stemofuran compounds showed significant antibacterial or antifungal activities.
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Semisynthesis and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of stemofoline alkaloids and analogues.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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Semisynthesis of the known Stemona alkaloids oxystemofoline (7) and methoxystemofoline (8) has been achieved starting from (11Z)-1,2-didehydrostemofoline (6), which confirmed their structures and absolute configurations. The synthesis of (1R)-hydroxystemofoline (9) helped establish this compound as a natural product from Stemona aphylla. (1S)-Hydroxystemofoline (10) and a number of related analogues were also prepared. In a TLC bioautographic assay, 9 was found to be the most active acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, but it was not as active as galanthamine.
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Stemofoline ethyl acetate solvate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Crystals of the title compound, C(22)H(29)NO(5)┬ĚC(4)H(8)O(2), {[systematic name: (2R,3R,5R,5aS,6R,8aR,9S)-(5Z)-5-[3-butyl-tetra-hydro-6-methyl-2,5-methano-4,3,8a-[1]propan-yl[3]yl-idene-furo[3,2-f][1,4]oxazepin-7(5H)-yl-idene]-4-meth-oxy-3-methyl-furan-2(5H)-one ethyl acetate solvate} were isolated from the root extracts of Stemona aphylla (Stemonaceae). The structure closely resembles those of stemofoline derivatives which have previously been reported. Inter-molecular contacts are observed between some C-bonded H atoms and nearby O atoms, perhaps indicating weak inter-actions which could influence the packing of species within the unit cell.
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Alkaloids from the roots of Stemona aphylla.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Three known compounds, stemofoline (1), (2S)-hydroxystemofoline (2), and (11Z)-1,2-didehydrostemofoline (3), along with two new alkaloids, stemaphylline (4) and stemaphylline-N-oxide (5), have been isolated from a root extract of Stemona aphylla. The structures of these alkaloids were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic data. The analysis of the crude dichloromethane extract by GC-MS in the EIMS mode showed the presence of alkaloids 1-4, the alkaloid 11, and stilbostemin R (12). The crude dichloromethane extract and 4 were tested for their comparative biological activities. The results of their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities showed that the crude extract had higher activity than that of 4. The insecticidal properties of the crude extract and 4, using a topical application, showed that 4 had an activity similar to the positive control, methomyl, whereas the crude extract had much lower activity. Their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas auruginosa ATCC 27853, and Candida albicans ATCC 90028 was weak (MIC 62.5-125 microg/mL, MBC 125-250 microg/mL, MFC 125 microg/mL) but much higher than that of the crude extract.
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Semisynthesis and biological activity of stemofoline alkaloids.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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The semisynthesis of the Stemona alkaloids (3R)-stemofolenol (1), (3S)-stemofolenol (2), methylstemofoline (3), and (3S)-hydroxystemofoline (5) and the unnatural analogues (11E)-methylstemofoline (15) and 3R-hydroxystemofoline (11) has been achieved starting from (11Z)-1,2-didehydrostemofoline (4). This synthesis allowed, for the first time, access to diastereomerically enriched samples of 1 and 2 and the assignment of their absolute configurations at C-3. These compounds were obtained in sufficient quantities to allow for their biological testing. In a quantitative assay as AChE inhibitors, (11Z)-1,2-didehydrostemofoline (4) and (3S)-hydroxystemofoline (5) were found to be the most active.
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Structural revision of stemoburkilline from an E-alkene to a Z-alkene.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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Semisynthesis studies starting from (11Z)-1,2-didehydrostemofoline (4) indicated that the known Stemona alkaloid stemoburkilline is the Z-isomer and not the E-isomer as initially reported. The semisynthesis involved conversion of (11Z)-1,2-didehydrostemofoline (4) to 11(S),12(S)-dihydrostemofoline (3) followed by a stereoselective base-catalyzed ring-opening reaction to give (Z)-stemoburkilline (8). The same product was obtained using a similar synthetic protocol starting from isostemofoline (6) via a based-catalyzed ring-opening reaction of 11(S),12(R)-dihydrostemofoline (1). A re-examination of the crude root extracts of Stemona burkillii Prain and further NOE studies established stemoburkilline as the Z-isomer (8).
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Efficacy of plant essential oils for the repellents against chiggers (Leptotrombidium imphalum) vector of scrub typhus.
J Med Assoc Thai
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Scrub typhus caused by the Orientia tsutsugamushi. Rodents, particularly rats, serve as principal reservoir hosts. Infection in man is transmitted by the, chigger bite. Repellents provide an effective agent of protecting individuals from chigger. In the present study 6 plant essential oils were tested for evaluation of their repellent activity against the chigger, Leptotrombidium imphalum. The results showed that Clove oil was significantly more effective than others with ED50 and EC50 of 0.420 mg and 2.3%, followed by Zingiber oil (8.458 mg and 42.3%), Vetiver oil (19.582 mg and 97.9%), Turmeric oil (24.343 mg and 121.7%), Orange oil (27.310 mg and 136.6%) and Boesenbergia oil (30.486 mg and 152.4%). These results suggested that Clove oil was the most efficient repellent against chigger which is the vector for scrub typhus.
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