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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Molecular evolution of plant P5CS gene involved in proline biosynthesis.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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The P5CS ({Delta} 1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthetase) gene encodes for a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the rate limiting reaction in proline biosynthesis in living organisms. A wide range of multifunctional roles of proline have now been shown in stress defense. The proline biosynthetic genes, especially, P5CS is commonly used in metabolic engineering for proline overproduction conferring stress tolerance in plants. The gene is functionally well characterized at the molecular level, but there is more to learn about its evolutionary path in the plant kingdom, particularly the drive behind functional (osmoprotective and developmental) divergence of duplication of P5CS genes. In this review, we present the current understanding of the evolutionary trail of plant P5CS gene which plays a key role in stress tolerance.
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The normal variant (18)F FDG uptake in the lower thoracic spinal cord segments in cancer patients without CNS malignancy.
Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Focal increased lower thoracic spinal cord (18)F FDG uptake is not infrequently observed as a normal physiological finding and may be confused for spinal cord metastases. This study was conducted to evaluate a possible correlation between the lower thoracic (T11-T12) spinal uptake and lower limb movements/ambulatory status of the patients as a surrogate. The primary endpoint was to identify the possible cause(s) of the normal variant focal increased thoracic spinal cord (T11-T12) (18)F FDG activity and correlate it with the lower limb movements/ambulatory status of the patients. This was a retrospective analysis of PET-CT scans of 200 patients with solid and hematological malignancies. The focal relatively increased (18)F FDG activity in the lower thoracic spinal cord correlated strongly with the (18)F FDG intensity of the liver, bowel, C3-C5 cervical cord activity, weight of the patient and injected dose of (18)F FDG. With regard to the primary endpoint, no significant correlation was found between the ambulatory status of patients in any of the groups and thoracic spine SUVmax. This could be further assessed by performing dual studies in the same patient with and without moderate to excessive leg motion. Identifying this variant focal increased (18)F FDG activity can minimize errors of misdiagnosis and unnecessary further investigation.
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Calcium supplementation modulates arsenic-induced alterations and augments arsenic accumulation in callus cultures of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.).
Protoplasma
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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In the present study, the effect of arsenate (AsV) exposure either alone or in combination with calcium (Ca) was investigated in callus cultures of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. cv. Pusa Bold grown for a period up to 24 h. The AsV?(250 ?M) + Ca (10 mM) treatment resulted in a significantly higher level of As (464 ?g g(-1) dry weight (DW)) than AsV without Ca (167 ?g g(-1) DW) treatment at 24 h. Furthermore, AsV + Ca-treated calli had a higher percent of AsIII (24-47%) than calli subjected to AsV treatment (12-14%). Despite this, AsV + Ca-treated calli did not show any signs of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation or cell death upon in vivo staining, while AsV-exposed calli had increased H(2)O(2), shrinkage of cytoplasmic contents, and cell death. Thus, AsV treatment induced oxidative stress, which in turn elicited a response of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites as compared with control and AsV + Ca treatment. The positive effects of Ca supplementation were also correlated to an increase in thiolic constituents, viz., cysteine, reduced glutathione, and glutathione reductase in AsV + Ca than in AsV treatment. An analysis of selected signaling related genes, e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK3 and MAPK6) and jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ3) suggested that AsV and AsV + Ca followed variable pathways to sense and signal the As stress. In AsV-alone treatment, jasmonate signaling was seemingly activated, while MAPK3 was not involved. In contrast, AsV + Ca treatment appeared to specifically inhibit jasmonate signaling and activate MAPK3. In conclusion, Ca supplementation may hold promise for achieving increased As accumulation in plants without compromising their tolerance.
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Expression analysis of sugarcane shaggy-like kinase (SuSK) gene identified through cDNA subtractive hybridization in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).
Protoplasma
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Identification of genes whose expression enables plants to adapt to any kind of stresses is integral to developing stress tolerance in crop plants. In this study, PCR-based cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization technique was used to construct sugarcane salt (NaCl) stress specific forward and reverse subtracted cDNA library. For this, mRNAs were pooled from the shoot and root tissues stressed with NaCl (200 mM) for various time intervals (0.5 to 18 h). Sequencing the clones from the forward subtracted cDNA library, we identified shaggy-like protein kinase (hereafter referred as sugarcane shaggy-like protein kinase, SuSK; NCBI GenBank EST database Acc: FG804674). The sequence analysis of the SuSK revealed homology to Arabidopsis thaliana shaggy-related protein kinase delta (E value, 1e(-108)), dzeta and iota. Alignment of the catalytic domain sequence of GSK-3/shaggy-like kinase with partial sequence of SuSK performed using ClustalW tool indicated kinase active-site signature sequence. Spatial and temporal transcript expression profiling of the SuSK gene based on Real-Time PCR revealed significant induction of transcript expression in response to short-term salt (NaCl 200 mM) or polyethylene glycol-8,000 (PEG; 20% w/v) induced osmotic stress in leaves and shoots of sugarcane plants. The transcript expression increased progressively under salt stress and reached to 1.5-fold of the control up to 8 h treatment. In response to PEG stress, the transcript expression increased by 1.5-fold over the control in 2-h treatment in leaf, whereas in shoots, the expression remained unchanged in response to the various treatments. Differences in growth parameters, relative water content, and membrane damage rate were statistically insignificant in the short-term salt or PEG-stressed plants as compared to the control, non-stressed plants. Expression analysis revealed the differential and temporal regulation of this gene under salt and PEG stress and that its early induction may indicate involvement in stress signaling.
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Membrane topology and predicted RNA-binding function of the early responsive to dehydration (ERD4) plant protein.
PLoS ONE
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Functional annotation of uncharacterized genes is the main focus of computational methods in the post genomic era. These tools search for similarity between proteins on the premise that those sharing sequence or structural motifs usually perform related functions, and are thus particularly useful for membrane proteins. Early responsive to dehydration (ERD) genes are rapidly induced in response to dehydration stress in a variety of plant species. In the present work we characterized function of Brassica juncea ERD4 gene using computational approaches. The ERD4 protein of unknown function possesses ubiquitous DUF221 domain (residues 312-634) and is conserved in all plant species. We suggest that the protein is localized in chloroplast membrane with at least nine transmembrane helices. We detected a globular domain of 165 amino acid residues (183-347) in plant ERD4 proteins and expect this to be posited inside the chloroplast. The structural-functional annotation of the globular domain was arrived at using fold recognition methods, which suggested in its sequence presence of two tandem RNA-recognition motif (RRM) domains each folded into ?????? topology. The structure based sequence alignment with the known RNA-binding proteins revealed conservation of two non-canonical ribonucleoprotein sub-motifs in both the putative RNA-recognition domains of the ERD4 protein. The function of highly conserved ERD4 protein may thus be associated with its RNA-binding ability during the stress response. This is the first functional annotation of ERD4 family of proteins that can be useful in designing experiments to unravel crucial aspects of stress tolerance mechanism.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.