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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Recurrent mutations of NOTCH genes in follicular lymphoma identify a distinctive subset of tumours.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) is one of the most common malignant lymphomas. The t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation is found in about 80% of cases and plays an important role in lymphomagenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development and transformation of this lymphoma are not fully understood. Gain-of-function mutations of NOTCH1 or NOTCH2 have recently been reported in several B cell lymphoid neoplasms but the role of these mutations in FL is not known. In this study we investigated the mutational status of these genes in 112 FLs. NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 mutations were identified in five and two cases, respectively (total 7/112, 6.3%). All mutations predicted for truncated protein in the PEST domain and were identical to those identified in other B cell lymphoid neoplasms. NOTCH-mutated FL cases were characterized by lower frequency of t(14;18) (14% versus 69%, p = 0.01), higher incidence of splenic involvement (71% versus 25%, p = 0.02) and female predominance (100% versus 55%, p = 0.04). A diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) component was more frequently identified in NOTCH-mutated FL than in wild-type cases (57% versus 18%, p = 0.03). These results indicate that NOTCH mutations are uncommon in FL but may occur in a subset of cases with distinctive, characteristic, clinicopathological features. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Survival analysis in hematologic malignancies: recommendations for clinicians.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The widespread availability of statistical packages has undoubtedly helped hematologists worldwide in the analysis of their data, but has also led to the inappropriate use of statistical methods. In this article, we review some basic concepts of survival analysis and also make recommendations about how and when to perform each particular test using SPSS, Stata and R. In particular, we describe a simple way of defining cut-off points for continuous variables and the appropriate and inappropriate uses of the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression models. We also provide practical advice on how to check the proportional hazards assumption and briefly review the role of relative survival and multiple imputation.
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Generation of oxyradicals (O2. and H2O2), mitochondrial activity and induction of apoptosis of PBMC of Cyprinus carpio carpio treated in vivo with halomethanes and with recombinant HSP60 kDa and with LPS of Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Halomethanes (HM) can be immunotoxic in mammals; however, in the fish immune system HM effects are unknown. In the current study, we evaluated the mitochondrial activity (MA) by MTT, induction of apoptosis by SubG0 technique and quantified serum ROS concentration (O2. and H2O2) and ROS production in PBMC of Cyprinus carpio carpio treated i.p. with CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and BrCHCl2 (0.004-40.0?mg/kg) for 96?h. Positive controls were recombinant heat shock protein of 60?kDa (rHSP60?kDa) of Klebsiella pneumoniae and its LPS. In addition, for in vitro PBMC cultures, two culture media and two sources of sera were tested. Both positive controls increased the MA more than 4-fold as well as the production of O2. (26-fold) and H2O2 (5-fold) compared to their controls. HM induced different effects on MA, ROS production and an induction of apoptosis, depending on the chlorination patterns and the dose; however, a systemic damage prevails. To fish treated with CH2Cl2, the apoptosis was related with serum ROS concentration and with MA. In contrast, in fish dosed with CHCl3 relationships were not found, deducing a systemic damage. However, in fish treated with BrCHCl2, serum O2. concentration and in vitro ROS generation performed by PBMC were involved in the induction of apoptosis of these cells but not with MA suggesting also immunotoxic effects. The current study demonstrated that HMs are immunomodulators increasing an acute inflammatory response and that rHSP60kDA of K. pneumoniae and its LPS are appropriate antigens to assess the immune response of C. c. carpio.
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Immune Response to Intra-pharyngeal Lipopolysaccharide in Neonatal and Juvenile Mice.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Neonates and infants have a higher morbidity and mortality associated with lower respiratory tract illnesses compared to older children. To identify age-related and longitudinal differences in the cellular immune response to acute lung injury (ALI) neonatal and juvenile mice were given E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using a novel minimally invasive aspiration technique. Methods: Neonatal and juvenile mice received between 3.75 to 7.5mg/kg LPS by intra-pharyngeal aspiration. Airway and lung cells were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. Cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression from lung homogenates was quantified. Lung morphometry and injury scores were performed. LPS treated neonatal mice underwent adoptive transfer (AT) with adult T regulatory cells (Tregs). Results: Following LPS aspiration lung monocytes isolated from neonatal mice had a predominant M2 phenotype whereas lung monocytes from juvenile mice displayed a mixed M1/M2 phenotype. At 72 hours post LPS, neonatal lungs were slower to resolve inflammation and expressed lower mRNA levels of CCL2, CCL5, CXCL10, and IL10. Juvenile but not neonatal mice demonstrated a significant increase in airway Tregs post LPS. Adoptive transfer of adult Tregs into LPS-challenged neonatal mice resulted in reduced lung inflammation and improved weight gain. Conclusion: These findings underscore several vulnerabilities in the neonatal immune response to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Most striking was the deficiency in airway Treg cells post LPS aspiration. Adoptive transfer of adult Tregs mitigated LPS-induced ALI in neonatal mice highlighting the importance of age-related differences in Tregs and their response to acute lung injury during early postnatal development.
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New considerations on hormetic response against oxidative stress.
J Cell Commun Signal
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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In order to survive living organisms have developed multiple mechanisms to deal with tough environmental conditions. Hormesis is defined as a process in which exposure to a low dose of a chemical agent or environmental factor that is damaging at higher doses induces an adaptive beneficial effect on the cell or organism. In this paper, we examine several ideas that might be taken into consideration before using hormesis as a therapeutic tool to improve health and life span, and hopefully will open the discussion for new and interesting debates regard hormesis. The first one is to understand that the same stressor or inductor can activate different pathways in a parallel or dual response, which might lead to diverse outcomes. Another idea is related to the mechanisms involved in activating Nrf2, which might be different and have diverse hormetic effects.Last, we discuss mild oxidative stress in association to low-grade chronic inflammation as a stimulating avenue to be explored and the unexpected effects proposed by the obesity paradox theory. All the previous might help to clarify the reasons why centenarians are able to reach the extreme limits of human life span, which could probably be related to the way they deal with homeostasis maintenance, providing an opportunity for hormesis to intervene significantly.
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Disruption of follicular dendritic cells-follicular lymphoma cross-talk by the pan-PI3K inhibitor BKM120 (Buparlisib).
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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To uncover the signaling pathways underlying follicular lymphoma-follicular dendritic cells (FL-FDC) cross-talk and its validation as new targets for therapy.
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Mutations in TLR/MYD88 pathway identify a subset of young chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with favorable outcome.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Mutations in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) genes have been found in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) at low frequency. We analyzed the incidence, clinicobiological characteristics, and outcome of patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations in 587 CLL patients. Twenty-three patients (3.9%) had mutations, 19 in MYD88 (one with concurrent IRAK1 mutation), 2 TLR2 (one with concomitant TLR6 mutation), 1 IRAK1, and 1 TLR5. No mutations were found in IRAK2 and IRAK4. TLR/MYD88-mutated CLL overexpressed genes of the nuclear factor ?B pathway. Patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations were significantly younger (83% age ?50 years) than those with no mutations. TLR/MYD88 mutations were the most frequent in young patients. Patients with mutated TLR/MYD88 CLL had a higher frequency of mutated IGHV and low expression of CD38 and ZAP-70. Overall survival (OS) was better in TLR/MYD88-mutated than unmutated patients in the whole series (10-year OS, 100% vs 62%; P = .002), and in the subset of patients age ?50 years (100% vs 70%; P = .02). In addition, relative OS of TLR/MYD88-mutated patients was similar to that in the age- and gender-matched population. In summary, TLR/MYD88 mutations identify a population of young CLL patients with favorable outcome.
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Membrane-initiated estradiol signaling of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated mechanisms through regulation of tight junctions in human breast cancer cells.
Horm Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Tumor cells utilize inappropriate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mechanisms during the invasive process. It is becoming increasingly clear that estradiol (E2) induces breast cancer cell progression and enhances EMT; however, the mechanisms associated with this are unclear. We investigated the role of E2 on the expression and intracellular localization of the tight junction (TJ)-associated proteins, zonula occluden 1 (ZO-1), ZO-1-associated nucleic acid binding (ZONAB), and occludin, on the activation of c-Src and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression and cellular migration in the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and T47D. We demonstrated that 1 nM E2 elicits c-Src activation after 15 min. The p-Src/ZO-1 complex led to ZO-1 and ZONAB disruption at the TJ and increased expression of HER2 mRNAs. These changes correlate with decreased expression of the epithelial markers occludin and CRB3 and increased synthesis of N-cadherin. This led to increased MCF-7 cell migration induced by E2, even in the presence of a cell proliferation inhibitor. Incubation with ICI 182,780 (Fulvestrant), an ER antagonist, precluded the effects of E2 on c-Src phosphorylation, p-Src/ZO-1 complex formation, ZO-1/ZONAB nuclear translocation, and migration of MCF-7 cells. Our findings suggest that E2 promotes TJ disruption during tumor progression and increases cell motility. We propose a novel pathway where estrogens promote EMT-associated mechanisms that possibly lead to metastasis.
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The prognostic impact of minimal residual disease in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia requiring first-line therapy.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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A proportion of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia achieve a minimal residual disease negative status after therapy. We retrospectively evaluated the impact of minimal residual disease on the outcome of 255 consecutive patients receiving any front-line therapy in the context of a detailed prognostic evaluation, including assessment of IGHV, TP53, NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations. The median follow-up was 73 months (range, 2-202) from disease evaluation. The median treatment-free survival durations for patients achieving a complete response without or with minimal residual disease, a partial response and no response were 76, 40, 11 and 11 months, respectively (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that three variables had a significant impact on treatment-free survival: minimal residual disease (P<0.001), IGHV status (P<0.001) and ?2-microglobulin levels (P=0.012). With regards to overall survival, factors predictive of an unfavorable outcome were minimal residual disease positivity (P=0.014), together with advanced age (P<0.001), unmutated IGHV status (P=0.001), TP53 mutations (P<0.001) and elevated levels of ?2-microglobulin (P=0.003). In conclusion, for patients requiring front-line therapy, achievement of minimal residual disease negativity is associated with significantly prolonged treatment-free and overall survival irrespective of other prognostic markers or treatment administered.
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Superoxide dismutase 3 dysregulation in a murine model of neonatal lung injury.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a common chronic respiratory disease that occurs after premature birth, is believed to be secondary to oxidative damage from hyperoxia and inflammation, which leads to impaired alveolar formation and chronic lung dysfunction. We hypothesized that extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD)3, an antioxidant uniquely targeted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and alveolar fluid, might have a different response (down-regulation) to hyperoxic injury and recovery in room air (RA), thereby contributing to the persistent airspace injury and inflammation. We used a murine BPD model using postnatal hyperoxia (O2) (4 or 5 d) followed by short-term recovery (14 d) in RA, which mimics the durable effects after injury during alveolar development. This was associated with significantly increased mRNA expression for antioxidant genes mediated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in the O2 (n = 4) versus RA group (n = 5). SOD3, an Nrf2-independent antioxidant, was significantly reduced in the O2-exposed mice compared with RA. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased and disrupted SOD3 deposition in the alveolar ECM of O2-exposed mice. Furthermore, this distinct hyperoxic antioxidant and injury profile was reproducible in murine lung epithelial 12 cells exposed to O2. Overexpression of SOD3 rescued the injury measures in the O2-exposed cells. We establish that reduced SOD3 expression correlates with alveolar injury measures in the recovered neonatal hyperoxic lung, and SOD3 overexpression attenuates hyperoxic injury in an alveolar epithelial cell line. Such findings suggest a candidate mechanism for the pathogenesis of BPD that may lead to targeted interventions.
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In vivo intratumoral Epstein-Barr virus replication is associated with XBP1 activation and early-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders with prognostic implications.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are life-threatening complications following hematopoietic or solid organ transplantation. They represent a spectrum of mostly EBV-driven lymphoplasmacytic proliferations. While the oncogenic effect of EBV is related to latent infection, lytic infection also has a role in lymphomagenesis. In vitro, EBV replication is linked to plasma cell differentiation and XBP1 activation, although this phenomenon has never been addressed in vivo. We analyzed for the first time latent and lytic intratumoral EBV infection in a series of 35 adult patients with a diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (26M/9F, median age 54 years). A complete EBV study was performed including the analysis of the latent EBER, latent membrane protein-11, and EBV nuclear antigens as well as the immediate-early BZLF1/ZEBRA and early BMRF1/EADE31 lytic genes. XBP1 activation was assessed by nuclear protein expression. EBV infection was observed in 28 (80%) cases being latency II and III the most frequently observed 22 (79%). Intratumoral EBV replication was detected in 17 (60%) cases. Among these, XBP1 activation was observed in 11/12 evaluable cases associated with strong cytoplasmic immunoglobulin expression consistent with plasma cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the combination of latency III infection and EBV replication identified a high-risk subgroup of patients with significantly shorter survival (overall survival at 1 year 18% vs 48%) and early-onset (median of 7 vs 26 months) post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Moreover, these patients appear to be more heavily immunosuppressed, so they exhibit lower rates of rejection and graft vs host disease but higher rates of cytomegalovirus reactivation. In conclusion, EBV replication is associated with plasma cell differentiation and XBP1 activation with prognostic implications. Both latency III and lytic EBV infection are related to aggressive and early-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. These results suggest that immunohistochemical study of latent and lytic EBV genes in the clinical practice may help to select higher-risk patients to new therapies including antiviral treatments.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 25 April 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.68.
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Biomarkers involved in energy metabolism and oxidative stress response in the liver of Goodea gracilis Hubbs and Turner, 1939 exposed to the microcystin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa LB85 strain.
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Goodea gracilis is an endemic fish that only habitats in some water bodies of Central Mexico that are contaminated with cyanobacteria-producing microcystins (MC); however, a lack of information on this topic prevails. With the aim to generate the first approximation about the physiological changes elicited by cyanobacterium that produce MC congeners in this fish species, specimens born in the laboratory was exposed for 96 h to cell densities of 572.5, 1145, 2290, 4580, and 9160 × 10(6) cells of Microcystis aeruginosa strain LB85/L, and a set of novel endpoint related to hepatic gluconeogenesis (ADH/LDH) and pro-oxidant forces O2., H2 O2 ) in addition to biomarkers of oxidative damage and antioxidant response was evaluated in the liver. Results suggest that high inhibition of protein serine/threonine phosphatase (PP) may trigger many metabolic processes, such as those related to hepatic gluconeogenesis (ADH/LDH) and pro-oxidant O2?, H2 O2 , TBARS, ROOH, RC?O) as well as antioxidant (SOD, CAT, GPx) response to oxidative stress. Particularly, we observed that inhibition of LDH and PP, and H2 O2 increase and TBARS production were the key damages induced by high densities of M. aeruginosa. However, changes between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism related with ROS metabolism and ADH/LDH balance are apparently an acclimation of this fish species to exposure to cyanobacteria or their MCs. Fish species living in environments potentially contaminated with cyanobacteria or their MCs possess mechanisms of acclimation that allow them to offset the damage induced, even in the case of fish that have never been exposed to MCs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.
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The relationship between the bioactivation and detoxification of diazinon and chlorpyrifos, and the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in Chirostoma jordani from three lakes with low to high organophosphate pesticides contamination.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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In fish, a number of studies have linked acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition with exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs); however, evidence suggests the need to study aspects related to the bioactivation and detoxification of OPs, since their neurotoxicity is dependent on these processes. Thus, the study aim was to examine the relations between chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) bioactivation by hepatic CYP450 izoenzymes (CYP 2B6, CYP 2C19, CYP 3A4) and detoxification by aryl esterases and oxonases with brain and muscle AChE activity in Chirostoma jordani from three lakes with low to high OPs contamination in water and sediments. We found two patterns of bioactivation in vitro: (i) in fish from a lake with high CPF pollution, the main isoenzymes involved in this process were CYP 2C19>CYP 2B6>CYP 3A4, and (ii) in fish captured in a lake with a high concentration of DZN, the isoenzymes were CYP 3A4>CYP 2C19>CYP 2B6. Bioactivation is shown in this study to be fundamental in brain and muscle AChE inhibition in vivo. The rate of bioactivation of CPF was lower than for DZN. CPF bioactivation was accompanied by reduced detoxification and higher neurotoxicity, which was inversely dependent on the environmental contamination of CPF. Detoxification was also inversely correlated with environmental contamination by CPF, and was higher with diazoxon than chlorpyrifos-oxon. Oxonases were the most relevant enzymes involved in detoxification. The current findings suggest a series of strategies between the bioactivation and detoxification of OPs that allowed the survival of C. jordani despite of OPs pollution levels.
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Primary cultured astrocytes from old rats are capable to activate the Nrf2 response against MPP+ toxicity after tBHQ pretreatment.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Astrocytes are key players for brain physiology, protecting neurons by releasing antioxidant enzymes; however, they are also susceptible to damage by neurotoxins. Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) is a central regulator of the antioxidant response, and therefore, pharmacologic inducers are often used to activate this transcription factor to induce cellular protection. To date, it still remains unknown if cells from aged animals are capable of developing this response. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to determine if cortical astrocytes derived from old rats are able to respond to tertbuthyl-hydroquinene (tBHQ) pretreatment and stimulate the Nrf2-antioxidant response pathway to induce an antioxidant strategy against MPP+ toxicity, one of the most used molecules to model Parkinson's disease. Our results show that, although astrocytes from adult and old rats were more susceptible to MPP+ toxicity than astrocytes from newborn rats, when pretreated with tertbuthyl-hydroquinene, they were able to transactivate Nrf2, increasing antioxidant enzymes and developing cellular protection. These results are discussed in terms of the doses used to create protective responses.
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Primary brain lymphomas after kidney transplantation: an under-recognized problem?
J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (CNS PTLD) is a serious complication after solid organ transplantation that has not received much attention so far. However, it could become a more frequent problem with the introduction of new biological agents.
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An old disease in an atypical place.
Surv Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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A 72-year-old man presented with signs on uveítis. Biopsy of an iris lesion established the diagnosis of uveal MALT lymphoma with presumed choroidal involvement.
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The role of HuR in the post-transcriptional regulation of interleukin-3 in T cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is a lymphokine member of a class of transiently expressed mRNAs harboring Adenosine/Uridine-Rich Elements (ARE) in their 3' untranslated regions (3'-UTRs). The regulatory effects of AREs are often mediated by specific ARE-binding proteins (ARE-BPs). In this report, we show that the human IL-3 3'-UTR plays a post-transcriptional regulation role in two human transformed cell lines. More specifically, we demonstrate that the hIL-3 3'-UTR represses the translation of a luciferase reporter both in HeLa and Jurkat T-cells. These results also revealed that the hIL-3 3'-UTR-mediated translational repression is exerted by an 83 nt region comprised mainly by AREs and some non-ARE sequences. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and UV-crosslinking analysis show that this hIL-3 ARE-rich region recruits five specific protein complexes, including the ARE-BPs HuR and TIA-1. HuR binding to this ARE-rich region appears to be spatially modulated during T-cell activation. Together, these results suggest that HuR recognizes the ARE-rich region and plays a role in the IL-3 3'-UTR-mediated post-transcriptional control in T-cells.
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Adult haemophagocytic syndrome.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Haemophagocytic syndromes (haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis) have a wide range of causes, symptoms, and outcomes, but all lead to a hyperinflammatory response and organ damage-mainly reported in paediatric patients, but reports of adult presentation are increasing. Analysis of the genetic and molecular pathophysiology of these syndromes have improved the understanding of the crosstalk between lymphocytes and histiocytes and their regulatoty mechanisms. Clinical presentations with a broad differential diagnosis, and often life-threatening outcome, complicate the management, which might include supportive intensive care, immunosuppressive and biological treatments, or haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. Insufficient knowledge of these syndromes could contribute to poor prognosis. Early diagnosis is essential to initiate appropriate treatment and improve the quality of life and survival of patients with this challenging disorder.
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Transcriptome characterization by RNA sequencing identifies a major molecular and clinical subdivision in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has heterogeneous clinical and biological behavior. Whole-genome and -exome sequencing has contributed to the characterization of the mutational spectrum of the disease, but the underlying transcriptional profile is still poorly understood. We have performed deep RNA sequencing in different subpopulations of normal B-lymphocytes and CLL cells from a cohort of 98 patients, and characterized the CLL transcriptional landscape with unprecedented resolution. We detected thousands of transcriptional elements differentially expressed between the CLL and normal B cells, including protein-coding genes, noncoding RNAs, and pseudogenes. Transposable elements are globally derepressed in CLL cells. In addition, two thousand genes-most of which are not differentially expressed-exhibit CLL-specific splicing patterns. Genes involved in metabolic pathways showed higher expression in CLL, while genes related to spliceosome, proteasome, and ribosome were among the most down-regulated in CLL. Clustering of the CLL samples according to RNA-seq derived gene expression levels unveiled two robust molecular subgroups, C1 and C2. C1/C2 subgroups and the mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) region were the only independent variables in predicting time to treatment in a multivariate analysis with main clinico-biological features. This subdivision was validated in an independent cohort of patients monitored through DNA microarrays. Further analysis shows that B-cell receptor (BCR) activation in the microenvironment of the lymph node may be at the origin of the C1/C2 differences.
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Next-generation sequencing in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Semin. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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The use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has expanded our knowledge of the genomic alterations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and provides new tools for analyzing leukemic clonal architecture. Recent studies have demonstrated substantial differences in genomic alterations between mutated and unmutated IGHV subgroups, which reflect distinct molecular pathways and mutagenic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of the disease. The mutational profile of CLL can be characterized by a relatively low number of somatic mutations per case, few recurrent mutations at moderate frequency (5%-15%) and a long tail of recurrent lower frequency somatic mutations. Functional and clinical studies of novel mutations have uncovered new mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, revealing new insights into CLL molecular evolution that could ultimately translate into improvements in the management of patients. The clonal architecture of CLL shows striking heterogeneity between patients, which could have important clinical implications. In summary, NGS studies of CLL are expanding our fundamental knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and offering new perspectives for the clinical management of the patients.
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Landscape of somatic mutations and clonal evolution in mantle cell lymphoma.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive tumor, but a subset of patients may follow an indolent clinical course. To understand the mechanisms underlying this biological heterogeneity, we performed whole-genome and/or whole-exome sequencing on 29 MCL cases and their respective matched normal DNA, as well as 6 MCL cell lines. Recurrently mutated genes were investigated by targeted sequencing in an independent cohort of 172 MCL patients. We identified 25 significantly mutated genes, including known drivers such as ataxia-telangectasia mutated (ATM), cyclin D1 (CCND1), and the tumor suppressor TP53; mutated genes encoding the anti-apoptotic protein BIRC3 and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2); and the chromatin modifiers WHSC1, MLL2, and MEF2B. We also found NOTCH2 mutations as an alternative phenomenon to NOTCH1 mutations in aggressive tumors with a dismal prognosis. Analysis of two simultaneous or subsequent MCL samples by whole-genome/whole-exome (n = 8) or targeted (n = 19) sequencing revealed subclonal heterogeneity at diagnosis in samples from different topographic sites and modulation of the initial mutational profile at the progression of the disease. Some mutations were predominantly clonal or subclonal, indicating an early or late event in tumor evolution, respectively. Our study identifies molecular mechanisms contributing to MCL pathogenesis and offers potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
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A randomized study of interferon ?-2b versus no treatment as consolidation after high dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with relapsed lymphoma.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Patients with lymphoma who have experienced a first relapse or progression and have disease deemed sensitive to salvage chemotherapy nevertheless have a high likelihood of having a second relapse. To decrease the likelihood of a second relapse after high-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), interferon (IFN) ?-2b was given in a prospective randomized international trial. Methods. In this trial, 221 patients with varying histologic diagnoses (8 small lymphocytic, 37 follicular, 9 mantle, 90 diffuse large B-cell, 20 peripheral T-cell, 3 high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and 54 Hodgkin lymphoma) were randomly assigned to receive no further treatment (arm A: 117 patients) or IFN?-2b, 3 MU three times weekly, for 18 months (arm B: 104 patients). Results. In arm B, 21 patients (20%) did not receive IFN?-2b because of early progression or absence of hematologic recovery, 29 patients (28%) completed the 18 months of treatment, and 54 patients (52%) interrupted treatment because of progression (23%) or toxicity (29%). Event-free survival and overall survival were not different between the two arms on an intent-to-treat analysis and also if analysis was restricted to patients who were alive and had not experienced disease progression three months after transplantation. The study was not sufficiently powered to evaluate effects in histologic subtypes. Conclusion. In this trial, post-autograft IFN?-2b did not improve outcomes in a heterogeneous group of patients with lymphoma.
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[Anthropological view of the decentralization of the Mexican health system].
Rev Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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To analyze organizational, political and economic changes resulting from the decentralization of the health system for those in Mexico without health insurance.
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Transcriptional responses of neonatal mouse lung to hyperoxia by Nrf2 status.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Hyperoxia exposure can inhibit alveolar growth in the neonatal lung through induction of p21/p53 pathways and is a risk factor for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. We previously found that activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf2) improved survival in neonatal mice exposed to hyperoxia likely due to increased expression of anti-oxidant response genes. It is not known however, whether hyperoxic induced Nrf2 activation attenuates the growth impairment caused by hyperoxia in neonatal lung. To determine if Nrf2 activation modulates cell cycle regulatory pathway genes associated with growth arrest we examined the gene expression in the lungs of Nrf2(-/-) and Nrf2(+/+) neonatal mice at one and 3days of hyperoxia exposure.
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[Hormesis: What doesnt kill you makes you stronger].
Gac Med Mex
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Living organisms have always had to cope with harsh environmental conditions and in order to survive, they have developed complex mechanisms to deal with them. These responses have been assembled in a concept called hormesis, which has been identified as an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to higher stress level. The main hormetic agents identified so far are irradiation, heat, heavy metals, antibiotics, ethanol, pro-oxidants, exercise and food restriction. The hormetic response involves the expression of genes that encode cytoprotective proteins such as chaperones like heat-shock proteins, antioxidant enzymes and growth factors. In this review we will discuss the hormetic response mainly during an oxidative challenge, and its relationship with senescence and aging, and some related diseases such as diabetes and neurodegeneration.
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Peripheral blood involvement in patients with follicular lymphoma: a rare disease manifestation associated with poor prognosis.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtype and its course is heterogeneous. At diagnosis, some patients with FL manifest a detectable leukaemic phase (FL-LP), but this feature has been seldom described and is poorly characterized. Among 499 patients diagnosed with FL in Lyon-Sud hospital, 37 (7·4%) had characteristic FL-LP (by cytological blood smears and flow cytometric analysis). In addition, 91/1135 FL patients from the PRIMA study presented FL-LP at study entry. In order to evaluate the outcome of this Lyon-Sud cohort, FL-LP patients were matched with 111 newly diagnosed FL without LP according to the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) score, age and treatment. Presence of FL-LP was associated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0·004 and P = 0·031, respectively). Presence of FL-LP and high FLIPI score remained independent prognostic factors in a Cox model for time to progression (TTP). A number of circulating lymphoma cells (CLC) >4 × 10(9) /l was the most significant predictor for a shorter TTP in this Cox model. The prognostic impact of FL-LP on TTP was validated in the PRIMA cohort (P = 0·0004). In conclusion, FL-LP is a rare event associated with shorter PFS and patients with CLC >4 × 10(9) /l have a poorer outcome. These patients should be monitored carefully to consider alternative therapeutic options.
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Measurement of suppressor activity of T CD4?CD25? T reg cells using bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay.
Immunol. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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The suppressor effect of T regulatory lymphocytes in co-cultures with T effector cells obtained by magnetic columns from healthy donors and activated by CD3/CD28 was measured by a proliferation assay using BrdU incorporation and an ELISA test. Tritiated thymidine incorporation was used as a reference since it is the gold standard for proliferation assays. Both methods were used simultaneously in the same samples in order to compare them. Correlation between them was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The purification using magnetic columns was very efficient since CD4?CD25? cells were also FOXP3? therefore; they were identified as suppressor T cells. The use of BrdU incorporation in suppression assays is an excellent method that avoids the use of radioactive contaminating materials.
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Indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with follicular lymphoma: a consensus project of the EBMT-Lymphoma Working Party.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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The aim of this project was to define indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in follicular lymphoma in Europe. In the absence of evidence-based data, a RAND-modified Delphi procedure was used by an expert panel. After pre-defining statements, these were individually/anonymously scored by each participant using a 9-point scale. Consensus was reached that: 1) high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue is not an appropriate option to consolidate first remission in patients responding to immuno-chemotherapy outside clinical trials; 2) in patients with first chemo-sensitive relapse, high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue is an appropriate option to consolidate remission, especially in patients with a short response after immuno-chemotherapy or with high-risk FLIPI; 3) high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue is also appropriate in second/subsequent chemo-sensitive relapses; 4) allotransplant (preferably a reduced intensity conditioning-allotransplant) should be considered at relapse after high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue. No consensus was reached on the role of high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue in low-risk first relapse, or on when an allotransplant should be preferred over high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue. In the absence of evidence-based data, the consensus method used was a valuable tool to define indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplant in follicular lymphoma.
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MYC protein expression and genetic alterations have prognostic impact in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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MYC alterations influence the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Most studies have focused on MYC translocations but there is little information regarding the impact of numerical alterations and protein expression. We analyzed the genetic alterations and protein expression of MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and MALT1 in 219 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. MYC rearrangement occurred as the sole abnormality (MYC single-hit) in 3% of cases, MYC and concurrent BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (MYC double/triple-hit) in 4%, MYC amplifications in 2% and MYC gains in 19%. MYC single-hit, MYC double/triple-hit and MYC amplifications, but not MYC gains or other gene rearrangements, were associated with unfavorable progression-free survival and overall survival. MYC protein expression, evaluated using computerized image analysis, captured the unfavorable prognosis of MYC translocations/amplifications and identified an additional subset of patients without gene alterations but with similar poor prognosis. Patients with tumors expressing both MYC/BCL2 had the worst prognosis, whereas those with double-negative tumors had the best outcome. High MYC expression was associated with shorter overall survival irrespectively of the International Prognostic Index and BCL2 expression. In conclusion, MYC protein expression identifies a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with very poor prognosis independently of gene alterations and other prognostic parameters.
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Pro-oxidant and antioxidant responses in the liver and kidney of wild Goodea gracilis and their relation with halomethanes bioactivation.
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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In mammals, it has been shown that halomethanes (HM) are bioactivated by enzymes such as CYP 2E1 and the theta isoform of GST to produce reactive metabolites. However, in fish, little information is available, although HM can form autochthonously in aquatic environments. This study assessed the effect of HM in dusky splitfin (Goodea gracilis) from three lakes of the Valley of Mexico by analysing specific HM biomarkers as well as a broad range of biomarkers. The concentration of HM was a function of its half-life (higher in deep waters), while its precursors and solar radiation are secondary factors that determine its concentration. The kidney showed higher basal metabolism than the liver, probably because of its function as a haematopoietic and filtration organ. Using integrated biological response version 2 (IBRv2), it was found that the hepatic and renal O?· content is a pro-oxidant force capable of inducing oxidative stress (ROOH, TBARS and RC=O). Early damage was found to be dependent on low concentrations of HM in Major Lake, whereas late damage was observed in fish exposed to higher concentrations of HM in Zumpango Lake and Ancient Lake. The activities of enzymes involved in antioxidant defence seemed to be inefficient. The quantitative assessment of biomarkers (ANOVA) and the estimate of parameter A obtained from IBRv2 provided different information. However, the data support the greater predictive power of IBRv2, but it requires a series of interrelated biomarkers to infer these possibilities. G. gracilis presents marked patterns of adaptation, which are dependant on the HM concentrations in environmental mixtures, although the response is complex and many toxicants could induce similar responses.
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Clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with mantle cell lymphoma. Recommendations from the GEL/TAMO Spanish Cooperative Group.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered a distinct type of B-cell lymphoma genetically characterized by the t(11;14) translocation and cyclin D1 overexpression. There is also a small subset of tumors negative for cyclin D1 expression that are morphologically and immunophenotypically indistinguishable from conventional MCL. Although in the last decades, the median overall survival of patients with MCL has improved significantly, it is still considered as one of the poorest prognoses diseases among B-cell lymphomas. Election of treatment for patients with MCL is complex due to the scarcity of solid evidence. Current available data shows that conventional chemotherapy does not yield satisfactory results as in other types of B-cell lymphomas. However, the role of other approaches such as autologous or allogenic stem cell transplantation, immunotherapy, the administration of consolidation or maintenance schedules, or the use of targeted therapies still lack clear indications. In view of this situation, the Spanish Group of Lymphomas/Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation has conducted a series of reviews on different aspects of MCL, namely its diagnosis, prognosis, first-line and salvage treatment (both in young and elderly patients), new targeted therapies, and detection of minimal residual disease. On the basis of the available evidence, a series of recommendations have been issued with the intention of providing guidance to clinicians on the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of patients with MCL.
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Genome-wide methylation analyses identify a subset of mantle cell lymphoma with a high number of methylated CpGs and aggressive clinicopathological features.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B-cell neoplasm with an aggressive clinical behavior characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) and cyclin D1 overexpression. To clarify the potential contribution of altered DNA methylation in the development and/or progression of MCL, we performed genome-wide methylation profiling of a large cohort of primary MCL tumors (n = 132), MCL cell lines (n = 6) and normal lymphoid tissue samples (n = 31), using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. DNA methylation was compared to gene expression, chromosomal alterations and clinicopathological parameters. Primary MCL displayed a heterogeneous methylation pattern dominated by DNA hypomethylation when compared to normal lymphoid samples. A total of 454 hypermethylated and 875 hypomethylated genes were identified as differentially methylated in at least 10% of primary MCL. Annotation analysis of hypermethylated genes recognized WNT pathway inhibitors and several tumor suppressor genes as frequently methylated, and a substantial fraction of these genes (22%) showed a significant downregulation of their transcriptional levels. Furthermore, we identified a subset of tumors with extensive CpG methylation that had an increased proliferation signature, higher number of chromosomal alterations and poor prognosis. Our results suggest that a subset of MCL displays a dysregulation of DNA methylation characterized by the accumulation of CpG hypermethylation highly associated with increased proliferation that may influence the clinical behavior of the tumors.
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A noncanonical NF-?B pathway through the p50 subunit regulates Bcl-2 overexpression during an oxidative-conditioning hormesis response.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Cells can respond to damage and stress by activating various repair and survival pathways. One of these responses can be induced by preconditioning the cells with sublethal stress to provoke a prosurvival response that will prevent damage and death, and which is known as hormesis. Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein recognized by its antioxidant and prosurvival functions, has been documented to play an important role during oxidative-conditioning hormesis. Using an oxidative-hormetic model, which was previously established in the L929 cell line by subjecting the cells to a mild oxidative stress of 50 ?M H?O? for 9 h, we identified two different transductional mechanisms that participate in the regulation of Bcl-2 expression during the hormetic response. These mechanisms converge in activating the nuclear transcription factor NF-?B. Interestingly, the noncanonical p50 subunit of the NF-?B family is apparently the subunit that participates during the oxidative-hormetic response.
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HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS Analysis of Phenolic Compounds During Ripening in Exocarp and Mesocarp of Tomato Fruit.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Identification of phenolic compounds was done by means of liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) using the electrospray ionization interface (ESI). Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out by using HPLC with diode array detector (DAD) in exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit at 6 different ripeness stages (mature-green, breakers, turning, pink, light-red, and red). Several phenolic compounds were identified including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and rutin and some combined phenolic acids were tentatively identified, mainly glycosides, such as caffeoyl hexose I, caffeoyl hexose II, caffeoylquinic acid isomer, dicaffeoylquinic acid, p-coumaroyl hexose I, p-coumaroyl hexose II, feruloyl hexose I, feruloyl hexose II, siringyl hexose, and caffeoyl deoxyhexose hexose. Fruit exocarp had higher quantities of total soluble phenolics (TSP) compared to mesocarp. During ripening, TSP increased in both exocarp and mesocarp, mainly in exocarp. While rutin increased, chlorogenic acid decreased in both tissues: exocarp and mesocarp.
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Pro-oxidant and antioxidant response elicited by CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and BrCHCl2 in Goodea gracilis using non-invasive methods.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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The development of non-invasive methods aimed to evaluate the effects of many toxicants is required. Although there are some studies conducted in successful ways, a lack of information prevails especially for those substances that could be formed autochthonously in the water bodies, such as halomethanes (HMs). In this study, induction of pro-oxidant forces (CH2O, O2, H2O2), oxidative stress (TBARS, RCO) and antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the skin mucus layer regarding to the liver of Goodea gracilis exposed to CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and BrCHCl2 were evaluated, in addition to the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP 2E1) and glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT) activities. Regardless of the implicit toxicity involved in the bioactivation of the HMs, carried out by the CYP 2E1 and GST, it was noticeable that this process induces oxidative stress. The usefulness of the mucus layer for the evaluation of the oxidative stress response was demonstrated, despite some peculiar characteristics concerning induction of oxidative stress in liver and skin mucous layer. However, for the understanding of the induction of reactive oxygen species in both targets it is essential to evaluate the activity of antioxidant defenses; otherwise the interpretation of toxic effects elicited by HMs would be erroneous. In the skin mucus layer, lower activities of the enzymes involved in antioxidant defense than in liver were observed. The evaluation of the biomarkers in the skin mucus layer involved in the oxidative stress is useful due the consistent response regarding to concentration of the HMs.
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POT1 mutations cause telomere dysfunction in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most frequent leukemia in adults. We have analyzed exome sequencing data from 127 individuals with CLL and Sanger sequencing data from 214 additional affected individuals, identifying recurrent somatic mutations in POT1 (encoding protection of telomeres 1) in 3.5% of the cases, with the frequency reaching 9% when only individuals without IGHV@ mutations were considered. POT1 encodes a component of the shelterin complex and is the first member of this telomeric structure found to be mutated in human cancer. Somatic mutation of POT1 primarily occurs in gene regions encoding the two oligonucleotide-/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) folds and affects key residues required to bind telomeric DNA. POT1-mutated CLL cells have numerous telomeric and chromosomal abnormalities that suggest that POT1 mutations favor the acquisition of the malignant features of CLL cells. The identification of POT1 as a new frequently mutated gene in CLL may facilitate novel approaches for the clinical management of this disease.
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Clonal evolution in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: analysis of correlations with IGHV mutational status, NOTCH1 mutations and clinical significance.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized with highly variable clinical course. The most common chromosomal abnormalities in CLL, using conventional and molecular cytogenetics, are trisomy 12, del(13)(q14), del(11)(q22-23), del(17)(p13), and del(6)(q21). Whereas the prognostic marker such as IGHV mutational status remains stable during course of the diseases, chromosomal aberrations may be acquired over time. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, and biological significance of clonal evolution (CE) using conventional and molecular cytogenetics and its relationship with prognostic markers such as CD38, ZAP70, and the mutational status of IGHV and NOTCH1. One hundred and forty-three untreated CLL patients were included in the study. The median time interval between analyses was 32 months (range 6-156 months). Forty-seven patients (33%) had CE as evidenced by detection of new cytogenetic abnormalities during follow-up. CE was not correlated with high expression of ZAP70, unmutated IGHV genes or NOTCH1 mutations. Multivariate analysis revealed that CE and IGHV mutation status had a significant impact on TFS. The combination of conventional and molecular cytogenetics increased the detection of CE, this phenomenon probably being a reflection of genomic instability and conferring a more aggressive clinical course.
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Hepatocyte growth factor, a determinant of airspace homeostasis in the murine lung.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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The alveolar compartment, the fundamental gas exchange unit in the lung, is critical for tissue oxygenation and viability. We explored hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a pleiotrophic cytokine that promotes epithelial proliferation, morphogenesis, migration, and resistance to apoptosis, as a candidate mediator of alveolar formation and regeneration. Mice deficient in the expression of the HGF receptor Met in lung epithelial cells demonstrated impaired airspace formation marked by a reduction in alveolar epithelial cell abundance and survival, truncation of the pulmonary vascular bed, and enhanced oxidative stress. Administration of recombinant HGF to tight-skin mice, an established genetic emphysema model, attenuated airspace enlargement and reduced oxidative stress. Repair in the TSK/+ mouse was punctuated by enhanced akt and stat3 activation. HGF treatment of an alveolar epithelial cell line not only induced proliferation and scattering of the cells but also conferred protection against staurosporine-induced apoptosis, properties critical for alveolar septation. HGF promoted cell survival was attenuated by akt inhibition. Primary alveolar epithelial cells treated with HGF showed improved survival and enhanced antioxidant production. In conclusion, using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function maneuvers, we show that HGF signaling is necessary for alveolar homeostasis in the developing lung and that augmentation of HGF signaling can improve airspace morphology in murine emphysema. Our studies converge on prosurvival signaling and antioxidant protection as critical pathways in HGF-mediated airspace maintenance or repair. These findings support the exploration of HGF signaling enhancement for diseases of the airspace.
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Relations of oxidative stress in freshwater phytoplankton with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The phytoplankton is the basis of food webs and also, may bioconcentrate different toxic substances. This phenomenon is well documented, but there are few studies on the toxic effects on the phytoplankton community. In the current study the relation of oxidative stress (TBARS, ROOH, RC=O) and antioxidant defenses (activities of SOD, CAT, GPx and GST) of two phytoplankton communities with BCF of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn) and of PAHs (naphthalene, pyrene, indenol, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene) was tested. Three sampling surveys were conducted bimonthly on the surface and bottom at different sampling points in the lakes Menor and Mayor of the 2nd section of Chapultepec Park. Also negative and positive controls obtained in the laboratory were included. Toxicity relationships were analyzed using the integrated biomarker response (IBR). Both green algae and cyanobacteria dominated. The contents of ROOH and protein oxidation assessed as RC=O were higher in the Lago Menor, a water body that contains ancient sediments. Through the IBR it was demonstrated that these damages were influenced by Pb, indenol and benzo[b]fluoranthene. In contrast, TBARS content was higher in Lago Mayor, which has sediment in formation. Through IBR it was estimated that Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, indenol and benzo[b]fluoranthene were related to this damage. However, oxidative stress was accompanied by an induction of CAT and SOD, in contrast, GPx and GST had low or null activity. The field data were similar to the positive controls. We demonstrated for the first time that, although the phytoplankton suffers oxidative stress elicited by metals and PAHs, this community is able to counter this damage through antioxidant defenses. The effects of organic or inorganic toxics in phytoplankton depend on their bioavailability that is modulated by the sediment and also by its physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the abiotic medium.
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An algorithm for on-line detection of high frequency oscillations related to epilepsy.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Recent studies suggest that the appearance of signals with high frequency oscillations components in specific regions of the brain is related to the incidence of epilepsy. These oscillations are in general small in amplitude and short in duration, making them difficult to identify. The analysis of these oscillations are particularly important in epilepsy and their study could lead to the development of better medical treatments. Therefore, the development of algorithms for detection of these high frequency oscillations is of great importance. In this work, a new algorithm for automatic detection of high frequency oscillations is presented. This algorithm uses approximate entropy and artificial neural networks to extract features in order to detect and classify high frequency components in electrophysiological signals. In contrast to the existing algorithms, the one proposed here is fast and accurate, and can be implemented on-line, thus reducing the time employed to analyze the experimental electrophysiological signals.
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Interim FDG PET/CT as a prognostic factor in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Interim (18)F-FDG PET performed early during the course of therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a good predictor of outcome. However, interpretation criteria for interim PET for the evaluation of tumour response are still not clearly defined. The study aim was to assess whether interim PET can predict overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in DLBCL patients following three different sets of parameters, two qualitative (visual) methods and one semiquantitative.
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Addition of rituximab to chlorambucil produces superior event-free survival in the treatment of patients with extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma: 5-year analysis of the IELSG-19 Randomized Study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Apart from localized gastric disease, there is no consensus on standard initial treatment of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The IELSG-19 study (Randomized Trial of Chlorambucil Versus Chlorambucil Plus Rituximab Versus Rituximab in MALT Lymphoma) was launched to compare chlorambucil alone versus chlorambucil plus rituximab in patients not previously given systemic anticancer therapy.
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Plasmablastic transformation of low-grade B-cell lymphomas: report on 6 cases.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Histologic transformation of low-grade B-cell lymphoma to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is associated with poor prognosis. Although plasma cell differentiation is common in these lymphomas, an overt plasmablastic transformation (PBL-T) has been only rarely reported. We report 6 cases of PBL-T occurring in 3 chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL) and 3 follicular lymphomas. Five patients were men, and the mean age was 65 years (range, 52 to 72 y). None of them had history of immunodeficiency. In 3 cases the PBL-T occurred 34 to 85 months after the initial diagnosis, and in 3 it was detected simultaneously with the small cell component at diagnosis. All patients received chemotherapy after transformation, and 4 died 4 to 24 months after this diagnosis. In 3 cases, PBL-T occurred in an extranodal site. All PBL-Ts had immunoblastic morphology with admixed plasma cells, were CD20 and PAX5 negative, expressed ? light chain, and 5 were CD138 positive. All cases were negative for HHV8, and only 1 PBL-T was Epstein-Barr virus positive. Evidence of a clonal relationship between the small cell and PBL-T components was found in 5 cases. In 2 CLL cases, both components had 13q deletions, and in all follicular lymphoma cases both components harbored the t(14;18) translocation. MYC translocations were observed in 2 cases transformed from a CLL. In conclusion, PBL-T expands the clinicopathologic spectrum of the transformation of low-grade B-cell lymphomas. These transformed tumors are clinically, histologically, and phenotypically similar to primary plasmablastic lymphomas, but they are not associated with immunodeficiency and rarely have Epstein-Barr virus infection or MYC alterations.
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Clinical practice guidelines for first-line/after-relapse treatment of patients with follicular lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Key points and recommendations Follicular lymphoma is a subgroup of non-Hodgkin lymphomas of B-cell origin, characterized by a pattern of remissions and continued relapses. It is the second most common type of lymphoid cancer in Western Europe, representing 22-40% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The annual incidence of the disease has increased in recent decades. At this time, and with the arrival of new treatment options, patients outcomes have significantly improved. It is therefore essential to standardize recommendations for the treatment and follow-up of patients with follicular lymphoma, in each clinical scenario. Searches were performed in Medline (PubMed, 1966-present) and The Cochrane Library, using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms whenever possible. The best scientific evidence was obtained from selected randomized studies and meta-analyses. For recommendations where there was no scientific evidence, the consensus of clinical experts was obtained regarding clinical and therapeutic attitudes to improve the treatment of these patients. Recommendations are compiled according to: (i) induction treatment in first-line; (ii) post-induction treatment in first-line; (iii) rescue treatment after relapse; (iv) post-induction treatment in relapse and (v) subsequent treatments. There are different recommendations for each group. They take into account different variables, such as therapeutic options, patient follow-up, laboratory and imaging data, previous response and special groups. The recommendations contained in this guide have been assigned different grades (A, B, C and D), depending on the level of evidence on which they are based (where there is no scientific evidence, they follow the consensus of Good Clinical Practice: see the Appendix). These guidelines provide healthcare professionals with updated and consensual tools for the better management of patients with follicular lymphoma.
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Induction of immunogenic apoptosis by blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor activation with a specific antibody.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Despite promising results in the use of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Abs for cancer therapy, several issues remain to be addressed. An increasing emphasis is being placed on immune effector mechanisms. It has become clear for other Abs directed to tumor targets that their effects involve the adaptive immunity, mainly by the contribution of Fc region-mediated mechanisms. Given the relevance of EGFR signaling for tumor biology, we wonder whether the oncogene inhibition could contribute to Ab-induced vaccine effect. In a mouse model in which 7A7 (an anti-murine EGFR Ab) and AG1478 (an EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor) displayed potent antimetastatic activities, depletion experiments revealed that only in the case of the Ab, the effect was dependent on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Correspondingly, 7A7 administration elicited a remarkable tumor-specific CTL response in hosts. Importantly, experiments using 7A7 F(ab)(2) suggested that in vivo Ab-mediated EGFR blockade may play an important role in the linkage with adaptive immunity. Addressing the possible mechanism involved in this effect, we found quantitative and qualitative differences between 7A7 and AG1478-induced apoptosis. EGFR blocking by 7A7 not only prompted a higher proapoptotic effect on tumor metastases compared with AG1478, but also was able to induce apoptosis with immunogenic potential in an Fc-independent manner. As expected, 7A7 but not AG1478 stimulated exposure of danger signals on tumor cells. Subcutaneous injection of 7A7-treated tumor cells induced an antitumor immune response. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of a tumor-specific CTL response generated by Ab-mediated EGFR inhibition, suggesting an important contribution of immunogenic apoptosis to this effect.
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CHOP-like chemotherapy with or without rituximab in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma: 6-year results of an open-label randomised study of the MabThera International Trial (MInT) Group.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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The MInT study was the first to show improved 3-year outcomes with the addition of rituximab to a CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone)-like regimen in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. Extended follow-up was needed to establish long-term effects.
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The expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor BiP/GRP78 predicts response to chemotherapy and determines the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors in diffuse large b-cell lymphoma.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway is associated with poor response to doxorubicin-containing regimens, such as rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin (doxorubicin), vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP), in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, interferes with ER responses and improves survival in patients with aggressive hematologic malignant tumors, although its use in DLBCL patients remains controversial. The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), also known as immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP), is an ER stress sensor involved in the resistance to doxorubicin and bortezomib, but its role in the response to chemotherapy in DLBCL has not been explored before. We show that high BiP/GRP78 expression is related to worse overall survival (median overall survival, 5.2 versus 3.4 years). Moreover, cell death after R-CHOP in DLCBL cell lines is associated with decreased BiP/GRP78 expression. Conversely, DLBCL cell lines are primarily resistant to bortezomib, probably owing to BiP/GRP78 overexpression. Small-interfering RNA silencing of BiP/GRP78 renders all cell lines sensitive to bortezomib. R-CHOP with bortezomib (R-CHOP-BZ) reduces BiP/GRP78 expression and overcomes bortezomib resistance, mimicking the small-interfering RNA silencing of BiP/GRP78. Accordingly, R-CHOP-BZ is the most effective treatment, providing a rationale for the use of this combinational therapy to improve DLBCL patient survival. Moreover, this study provides preclinical evidence that the germinal center B-cell-like subtype DLBCL is sensitive to bortezomib combined with immunochemotherapy.
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Exome sequencing identifies recurrent mutations of the splicing factor SF3B1 gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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Here we perform whole-exome sequencing of samples from 105 individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most frequent leukemia in adults in Western countries. We found 1,246 somatic mutations potentially affecting gene function and identified 78 genes with predicted functional alterations in more than one tumor sample. Among these genes, SF3B1, encoding a subunit of the spliceosomal U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP), is somatically mutated in 9.7% of affected individuals. Further analysis in 279 individuals with CLL showed that SF3B1 mutations were associated with faster disease progression and poor overall survival. This work provides the first comprehensive catalog of somatic mutations in CLL with relevant clinical correlates and defines a large set of new genes that may drive the development of this common form of leukemia. The results reinforce the idea that targeting several well-known genetic pathways, including mRNA splicing, could be useful in the treatment of CLL and other malignancies.
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Differential effects of esculetin and daphnetin on in vitro cell proliferation and in vivo estrogenicity.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) and daphnetin (7,8-dihydroxycoumarin) are secondary metabolites of plants used in folk medicine. These compounds have showed great antiproliferative activity in several tumor cell lines and have been proposed as potential anticancer agents. However, the estrogenic potential of these two compounds has to date not been reported. The present study compared esculetin and daphnetin on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of the MCF-7 estrogen-responsive human carcinoma cell line. In vivo and in vitro estrogenic activity for both compounds was also evaluated. Esculetin inhibited cell proliferation after 72 h exposure (IC50=193 ± 6.6 ?M), while daphnetin evidenced inhibiting effects starting at 24-h exposure (72 h, IC50=73 ± 4.1 ?M). Both effects showed changes in cyclin D1 gene expression. In non-estrogenic conditions (E-screening assay), esculetin produced biphasic response on proliferation of the MCF-7 cells; at 10(-8)-10(-6)M, concentrations induced proliferative effects as EC50=4.07 × 10(-9)M (E(2)=2.91 × 10(-12)M); at higher concentrations (10(-5)-10(-4)M), cell proliferation was inhibited. Relative proliferative effect at E(2) was 52% (E(2)=100), relative proliferative potency was 0.072 (E(2)=100). Additionally, esculetin tested in vivo showed estrogenic effects at 50-100mg/kg doses; relative uterotrophic effect at E(2) was 37%, with relative uterotrophic potency registered at 0.003. In contrast, daphnetin did not induce estrogenic effects in vitro or with in vivo models. The low estrogenic activity of esculetin could prove useful in postmenopausal therapy but not as a safe antitumor agent in estrogen-dependent tumors. Daphnetin-based antiproliferative selectivity with MCF-7 cells showed that daphnetin is a promising antitumoral agent also acting on estrogen dependent tumors.
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First-line treatment for primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with rituximab-CHOP, CNS prophylaxis, and contralateral testis irradiation: final results of an international phase II trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) has poor prognosis with failures in contralateral testis, CNS, and extranodal sites. To prevent these events, we designed an international phase II trial (International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group 10 [IELSG-10]) that addressed feasibility and activity of conventional chemoimmunotherapy associated with CNS prophylaxis and contralateral testis irradiation. The trial was conducted by the IELSG and the Italian Lymphoma Foundation.
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Heat shock protein 60 from Klebsiella pneumoniae protects mononuclear cells from apoptotic cell death induced by dexamethasone.
Microb. Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Bacterial heat shock proteins can have anti-apoptotic effects on human cells. We investigated whether enterobacterial HSP60 can protect peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from DXM-induced apoptosis and if this effect requires cytoskeleton participation.
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Critical transition in tissue homeostasis accompanies murine lung senescence.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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Respiratory dysfunction is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in aged populations. The susceptibility to pulmonary insults is attributed to "low pulmonary reserve", ostensibly reflecting a combination of age-related musculoskeletal, immunologic and intrinsic pulmonary dysfunction.
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High microvessel density determines a poor outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus chemotherapy.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease. Gene expression profiling studies have shown that the tumor microenvironment affects survival and that the angiogenesis-related signature is prognostically unfavorable. The contribution of histopathological microvessel density to survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas treated with immunochemotherapy remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to assess the prognostic impact of histopathological microvessel density in two independent series of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy.
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Angiotensin receptor blockade attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung injury and rescues lung architecture in mice.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent smoking-related disease for which no disease-altering therapies currently exist. As dysregulated TGF-? signaling associates with lung pathology in patients with COPD and in animal models of lung injury induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), we postulated that inhibiting TGF-? signaling would protect against CS-induced lung injury. We first confirmed that TGF-? signaling was induced in the lungs of mice chronically exposed to CS as well as in COPD patient samples. Importantly, key pathological features of smoking-associated lung disease in patients, e.g., alveolar injury with overt emphysema and airway epithelial hyperplasia with fibrosis, accompanied CS-induced alveolar cell apoptosis caused by enhanced TGF-? signaling in CS-exposed mice. Systemic administration of a TGF-?-specific neutralizing antibody normalized TGF-? signaling and alveolar cell death, conferring improved lung architecture and lung mechanics in CS-exposed mice. Use of losartan, an angiotensin receptor type 1 blocker used widely in the clinic and known to antagonize TGF-? signaling, also improved oxidative stress, inflammation, metalloprotease activation and elastin remodeling. These data support our hypothesis that inhibition of TGF-? signaling through angiotensin receptor blockade can attenuate CS-induced lung injury in an established murine model. More importantly, our findings provide a preclinical platform for the development of other TGF-?-targeted therapies for patients with COPD.
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Hepatitis C virus and GBV-C virus prevalence among patients with B-cell lymphoma in different European regions: a case-control study of the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group.
Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with some B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B cell-NHLs). Patients with HCV infection frequently show co-infections with GB virus C (GBV-C, formerly known as hepatitis G virus), and some studies have suggested a higher incidence of GBV-C infection in patients with B cell-NHLs. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the association between HCV and/or GBV-C infection and B cell-NHLs in different geographic areas. One hundred thirty-seven lymphoma cases and 125 non-lymphoma matched controls were enrolled in an international case-control study conducted in Switzerland (Bellinzona), Spain (Barcelona) and England (Southampton) on samples collected from 2001 to 2002. In Bellinzona (41 cases and 81 controls), the overall prevalence of HCV was 3.3% (4.9% in NHLs), and the overall prevalence of GBV-C was 24% (22% in NHLs). In Barcelona (46 cases and 44 controls), the prevalence of HCV was 10% (8.7% in NHLs) and the prevalence of GBV-C 20% (13% in NHLs). There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of both infections between patients with NHL and controls. In Southampton, 50 NHL cases were analysed, none of them was found to be HCV-positive; therefore, no control group was analysed and GBV-C analysis was not performed, too. Both in Bellinzona and in Barcelona, the seropositivity rate was significantly lower for HCV than for GBV-C, suggesting that their transmission can be independent. The incidence of HCV was significantly higher in Barcelona than that in Bellinzona. This study confirmed the existence of marked geographic differences in the prevalence of HCV in NHL but cannot provide any significant evidence for an association between HCV and/or GBV-C and B-cell NHLs.
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Whole-genome sequencing identifies recurrent mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the most frequent leukaemia in adults in Western countries, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical presentation and evolution. Two major molecular subtypes can be distinguished, characterized respectively by a high or low number of somatic hypermutations in the variable region of immunoglobulin genes. The molecular changes leading to the pathogenesis of the disease are still poorly understood. Here we performed whole-genome sequencing of four cases of CLL and identified 46 somatic mutations that potentially affect gene function. Further analysis of these mutations in 363 patients with CLL identified four genes that are recurrently mutated: notch 1 (NOTCH1), exportin 1 (XPO1), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88) and kelch-like 6 (KLHL6). Mutations in MYD88 and KLHL6 are predominant in cases of CLL with mutated immunoglobulin genes, whereas NOTCH1 and XPO1 mutations are mainly detected in patients with unmutated immunoglobulins. The patterns of somatic mutation, supported by functional and clinical analyses, strongly indicate that the recurrent NOTCH1, MYD88 and XPO1 mutations are oncogenic changes that contribute to the clinical evolution of the disease. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of CLL combining whole-genome sequencing with clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes. It highlights the usefulness of this approach for the identification of clinically relevant mutations in cancer.
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Gene-expression profiling and not immunophenotypic algorithms predicts prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) can be divided into germinal-center B cell-like (GCB) and activated-B cell-like (ABC) subtypes by gene-expression profiling (GEP), with the latter showing a poorer outcome. Although this classification can be mimicked by different immunostaining algorithms, their reliability is the object of controversy. We constructed tissue microarrays with samples of 157 DLBCL patients homogeneously treated with immunochemotherapy to apply the following algorithms: Colomo (MUM1/IRF4, CD10, and BCL6 antigens), Hans (CD10, BCL6, and MUM1/IRF4), Muris (CD10 and MUM1/IRF4 plus BCL2), Choi (GCET1, MUM1/IRF4, CD10, FOXP1, and BCL6), and Tally (CD10, GCET1, MUM1/IRF4, FOXP1, and LMO2). GEP information was available in 62 cases. The proportion of misclassified cases by immunohistochemistry compared with GEP was higher when defining the GCB subset: 41%, 48%, 30%, 60%, and 40% for Colomo, Hans, Muris, Choi, and Tally, respectively. Whereas the GEP groups showed significantly different 5-year progression-free survival (76% vs 31% for GCB and activated DLBCL) and overall survival (80% vs 45%), none of the immunostaining algorithms was able to retain the prognostic impact of the groups (GCB vs non-GCB). In conclusion, stratification based on immunostaining algorithms should be used with caution in guiding therapy, even in clinical trials.
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Initial features and outcome of cutaneous and non-cutaneous primary extranodal follicular lymphoma.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2011
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Follicular lymphoma (FL), a typically nodal disease, can arise in extranodal sites in about 10% of cases. The present study aimed to analyse the main differential features of patients with primary extranodal FL. Thirty-nine patients with primary extranodal FL were identified from a series of 354 patients with FL diagnosed at a single institution and their main clinicobiological features were analysed. Twenty patients (5·6%) had a primary extranodal non-cutaneous FL, and 19 (5·4%) a cutaneous FL. BCL2(+) and CD10(+) expression and BCL2/IGHJ@ rearrangement were less frequently observed in cutaneous FL. Absence of B-symptoms, early stage, absence of bone marrow involvement and low-risk Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) were more frequent in extranodal FL. Five-year overall survival (OS) was 100%, 83% and 78% for cutaneous, non-cutaneous and nodal FL, respectively. When stage I patients were analysed separately, no differences were seen in terms of OS. In multivariate analysis, FLIPI was the most important variable to predict outcome. In conclusion, extranodal FLs, particularly cutaneous, have particular clinico-biological features, which differentiate them from nodal cases. Nevertheless, primary site of the disease is not the main issue to predict outcome.
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High response rate and improvement of long-term survival with combined treatment modalities in patients with poor-risk primary thyroid diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group and Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi study.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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The impact of different treatment modalities and prognostic factors on the clinical course of primary thyroid diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PTDLBCL) is still the subject of research. This study was conducted to clarify these clinical aspects of this disorder. The clinical parameters of 48 patients with PTDLBCL at time of diagnosis were comparable to those of previous studies. Patients underwent either radiotherapy (RT)? ± ?surgery (SX), chemotherapy (CHT) alone or in combination with local treatments (RT or SX), or SX followed by CHT and RT. A 90% complete remission (CR) rate was observed among patients who underwent combined treatment modalities (CTM), compared to 76% among the others. The 5-year progression-free survival differed significantly between both groups (p?=?0.028). Poor performance status and advanced age correlated with decreased survival. PTDLBCL is a curable disease prevalent in elderly patients. Combined treatment modalities were able to induce an elevated rate of CR, improving long-term survival in younger patients. However, the outcome in elderly patients still remains unsatisfactory.
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Evidence of bioactivation of halomethanes and its relation to oxidative stress response in Chirostoma riojai, an endangered fish from a polluted lake in Mexico.
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Halomethanes (HMs) are produced autochthonously in water bodies through the action of ultraviolet light in the presence of HM precursors, such as dissolved organic carbon and halogens. In mammals, toxic effects induced by HMs are diverse and include oxidative stress, which is also induced by divalent and polyvalent metals; however, in fish little information is available on HM metabolism and its possible consequences at the population level. In the present study, high CYP 2E1 and GST theta-like activities were found in viscera of the Toluca silverside Chirostoma riojai from Lake Zumpango (LZ; central Mexico). Formaldehyde, one of the HM metabolites, was correlated with CYP 2E1 activity and also induced lipid peroxidation in viscera. Hepatic CYP 2E1 activity was correlated with GST theta-like activity, suggesting the coupling of both pathways of HM bioactivation and its consequent oxidative damage. Sediment metals, among others, were also responsible for oxidative stress, particularly iron, lead, arsenic and manganese. However, under normal environmental conditions, the antioxidant enzymes of this species sustain catalysis adapted to oxidative stress. Findings suggest that this fish species apparently has mechanisms of adaptation and recovery that enable it to confront toxic agents of natural origin, such as metals and other substances formed through natural processes, e.g., HMs. This has allowed C. riojai to colonize LZ despite the high sensitivity of this species to xenobiotics of anthropogenic origin.
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Identification of methylated genes associated with aggressive clinicopathological features in mantle cell lymphoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is genetically characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation and a high number of secondary chromosomal alterations. The contribution of DNA methylation to MCL lymphomagenesis is not well known. We sought to identify epigenetically silenced genes in these tumours that might have clinical relevance.
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The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments on papaya postharvest quality and activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase.
J Food Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments (AHWT) at 55 °C for 0, 3, 6 and 9 min on quality attributes and cell-wall enzymatic activity during storage at 25 °C was investigated in papaya fruit. The total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), firmness and fresh weight loss were not affected, whereas color on skin was negatively affected by the treatments of 6- and 9-min. However, the skin color was not different between the 3-min treated fruit and the untreated fruit during the storage. Decay was delayed and reduced by AHWT. We observed that the 3-min treatment of 55 °C did not affect softening and quality of papaya cv Maradol when applied as a pesticide-free treatment at color-break stage of papaya. PME (Pectinmethylesterase) and PG (Polygalacturonase) activities were not significantly affected by AHWT. We concluded that the AHWT did not affect the softening process from papaya pulp since the cell-wall enzyme activity (PME and PG) was not altered by treatments.
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Rituximab maintenance for 2 years in patients with high tumour burden follicular lymphoma responding to rituximab plus chemotherapy (PRIMA): a phase 3, randomised controlled trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2010
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Patients with follicular lymphoma can have long survival times, but disease progression typically occurs 3-5 years after initial treatment. We assessed the potential benefit of 2 years of rituximab maintenance after first-line treatment in patients with follicular lymphoma receiving a rituximab plus chemotherapy regimen.
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Current immunochemotherapy strategies in follicular lymphoma.
Adv Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Nowadays, there is no consensus about the best treatment for patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) in differing situations. In frontline treatment, a watchful waiting policy remains a good option if the patient has no risk criteria; the role of rituximab is under investigation in this setting. In patients needing therapy, immunotherapy or immunochemotherapy are the best options; although it has not been established which chemotherapy, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP); cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP); fludarabine, or bendamustine combinations, is the best partner for rituximab. Following frontline treatment, recent and still unpublished data strongly suggest a role for maintenance with rituximab, instead of observation only. At relapse, immunochemotherapy is the standard induction approach. The role of maintenance after induction is well established, although comparative studies with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) or other combinations are warranted. The role of ASCT in this setting is a matter of discussion. Other monoclonal antibodies, as well as vaccines and other immunotherapies, are currently under investigation. Finally, allogeneic transplantation should be reserved for a very select group of young high-risk patients in the setting of clinical trials.
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Clinico-biological characterization and outcome of primary nodal and extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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To study the main clinico-biological characteristics and the outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) according to the primary site (nodal vs. extranodal), we included 262 patients consecutively diagnosed with DLBCL in a single institution, 5 years before and after immunochemotherapy was considered as the standard treatment. Altogether 116 patients received CHOP (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone) and 146 rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP). The primary site was the lymph node in 140 patients (53%), Waldeyers ring (WR) in 22, gastrointestinal (GI) in 33, and other extranodal in 67. The addition of rituximab significantly improved the CR rate in nodal, but not in extranodal, lymphomas. Patients receiving R-CHOP showed higher OS than those treated with CHOP alone (5-year OS: 71% vs. 48%). This difference was maintained in primary nodal (5-year OS: 69% vs. 37%, p < 0.0001), but was not observed in primary extranodal (75% vs. 65%, p = 0.45) lymphomas. The IPI, treatment, and primary site were the main variables for OS in multivariate analysis. In nodal cases, IPI and treatment maintained value, whereas only IPI predicted OS in extranodal cases. In conclusion, immunochemotherapy treatment dramatically improved the outcome of patients with nodal DLBCL; however, its effect was less in primary extranodal cases, so the prognosis of patients with nodal and extranodal lymphomas has been equalized in the rituximab era.
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Expanded and highly active proliferation centers identify a histological subtype of chronic lymphocytic leukemia ("accelerated" chronic lymphocytic leukemia) with aggressive clinical behavior.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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The concept of "accelerated" chronic lymphocytic leukemia is frequently used by both pathologists and clinicians. However, neither histological criteria to define this form of chronic lymphocytic leukemia nor its clinical correlates and prognostic impact have been formally defined in large series of patients.
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Bcl-2 sustains hormetic response by inducing Nrf-2 nuclear translocation in L929 mouse fibroblasts.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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Hormesis is the process whereby exposure to a low dose of a chemical agent induces an adaptive effect on the cell or organism. This response evokes the expression of cytoprotective and antioxidant proteins, allowing pro-oxidants to emerge as important hormetic agents. The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 is known to protect cells against death induced by oxidants; it has been suggested that Bcl-2 might also modulate steady-state reactive oxygen species levels. The aim of this work was to find out if Bcl-2 might play a role during the hormetic response and in Nrf-2 activation. We have established a model to study the oxidative conditioning hormesis response (OCH) by conditioning the cell line L929 with 50muM H(2)O(2) for 9h. This condition did not induce oxidative damage nor oxidative imbalance, and OCH cells maintained a 70-80% survival rate after severe H(2)O(2) treatment compared to nonconditioned cells. When cells were pretreated with the Bcl-2 inhibitor HA14-1 or were silenced with Bcl-2-siRNA, both the hormetic effect and the Nrf-2 nuclear translocation previously observed were abrogated. Our results suggest a sequence of causal events related to increase in Bcl-2 expression, induction of Nrf-2 activation, and sustained expression of cytoprotective proteins such as GST and gammaGCS.
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