Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas. Butterflies constitute an useful group to investigate biodiversity patterns in specific geographic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the altitudinal patterns distribution and to recognize the main grouping factors of these families. We conducted a comparative study between the butterfly fauna (Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae) of five Mexican mountain ranges (Sierra de Manantlán, Sierra de Atoyac de Alvarez, Loxicha Region, Teocelo-Xalapa and Sierra de Juárez), that included 34 sites of altitudinal ranges from 100 to 2 820m. Data was obtained from the Zoology Museum of the National University of Mexico, and comprised more than 60 000 butterfly records of 398 taxa (subspecies level) proceeding during the last 35 years. Fauna similarity between localities were analyzed using a cluster analysis by Sorensen similarity coefficient. Species richness showed a general tendency to decrease with altitude; the main difference was found between the locality with higher altitude and the rest of the sites. The principal factors affecting the identified clusters followed this order: the location in Pacific or Atlantic slope, and location on a particular mountain range. Three altitudinal levels (low elevations, up to 1 200m; intermediate elevations, from 1200 to 1800 m; and high elevations, from 1800 to 2500 m) were described in accordance to their main characteristic taxa. While Neartic elements were common in the highest altitudinal floor, Neotropical taxa were common in the lowest one. It was more difficult to characterize the intermediate level in which a high number of localities were clustered; this intermediate level was characterized by the presence of some endemic species. The results suggest that historical factors are preeminent in butterfly fauna composition in these areas. Future studies may include other Mexican mountain areas to obtain more information on the different factors (latitude, altitude, slope) influencing biodiversity patterns.
A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects. Heraclides androgeus epidaurus was described and illustrated by Godman & Salvin in 1890 based on specimens obtained in Veracruz, indicating that their distribution encompassed both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Mexico. Later authors commented that there were morphological differences between the male wings from both populations. We analyzed, described and nominated Heraclides androgeus reyesorum ssp. nov. Vargas, Llorente & Luis distributed in the Mexican Pacific coast, based on 62 specimens, and compared it with H a. epidaurus from the Gulf of Mexico, based on more than 200 specimens housed at UNAM: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias and the Colección Nacional de Insectos of the Instituto de Biologia, as well as some collections from the USA. The main characters were the width of the yellow and black bands on forewings in males, which had a significant difference between the populations of both sides of Mexico, although some characters were variable and showed partial overlap. In the hindwings, the differences were the extent of the subterminal lunules in dorsal and ventral view. We also analyzed the male genitalia, finding notorious differences in both sclerotic processes of the harpe. Subspecific differences between females refer to the brightness and extent of green spots on the hindwings and the extent of lunules in the ventral view. The greatest abundance of H. a. reyesorum ssp. nov. was in the tropical deciduous forest, with gallery forest and in the lower range of the cloud forest, present at altitudes of 500-800 m and 1000-1 750 m, respectively. We discussed the pattern of endemism due to historical vicariant processes and explain the presence of the new subspecies of H. androgeus and other taxa of specific level.
Globally, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects approximately 130 million people and 3 million new infections occur annually. HCV is also recognized as an important cause of chronic liver disease in children. The absence of proofreading properties of the HCV RNA polymerase leads to a highly error prone replication process, allowing HCV to escape host immune response. The adaptive nature of HCV evolution dictates the outcome of the disease in many ways. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of HCV in three unrelated children who acquired chronic HCV infection as a result of mother-to-child transmission, two of whom were also coinfected with HIV-1. The persistence of discrete HCV variants and their population structure were assessed using median joining network and Bayesian approaches. While patterns of viral evolution clearly differed between subjects, immune system dysfunction related to HIV coinfection or persistent HCV seronegativity stand as potential mechanisms to explain the lack of molecular evolution observed in these three cases. In contrast, treatment of HCV infection with PegIFN, which did not lead to sustained virologic responses in all 3 cases, was not associated with commensurate variations in the complexity of the variant spectrum. Finally, the differences in the degree of divergence suggest that the mode of transmission of the virus was not the main factor driving viral evolution.
Resveratrol and quercetin (RQ) in combination (1:1 ratio) previously inhibited growth in human leukemia cells. This study investigated the anticancer activity of the same mixture in HT-29 colon cancer cells. RQ decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by up to 2.25-fold and increased the antioxidant capacity by up to 3-fold in HT-29 cells (3.8-60 ?g/mL), whereas IC50 values for viability were 18.13, 18.73, and 11.85 ?g/mL, respectively. RQ also induced caspase-3-cleavage (2-fold) and increased PARP cleavage. Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors are overexpressed in colon and other cancers and regulate genes required for cell proliferation survival and angiogenesis. RQ treatment decreased the expression of Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 mRNA and this was accompanied by decreased protein expression. Moreover, the Sp-dependent antiapoptotic survival gene survivin was also significantly reduced, both at mRNA and protein levels. RQ decreased microRNA-27a (miR-27a) and induced zinc finger protein ZBTB10, an Sp-repressor, suggesting that interactions of RQ with the miR-27a-ZBTB10-axis play a role in Sp downregulation. This was confirmed by transfection of cells with the specific mimic for miR-27a, which partially reversed the effects of RQ. These findings are consistent with previous studies on botanical anticancer agents in colon cancer cells.
Tuberculosis is an important public health problem in Mexico. However, limited information about the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in the country is available. In this work, 109 multidrug-resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis isolates collected in 23 different states of Mexico in 2003 were retrospectively characterized by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs. All isolates, except for a single cluster containing two strains (subcluster E1), were split when information from the 12-loci MIRUs and spoligo-pattern was simultaneously analyzed. The discriminative power of 12-loci MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping, by the Hunter-Gaston index, were 0.9998 and 0.9011, respectively. These findings suggest that almost all cases were epidemiologically unrelated. Instead, the genetic variations observed among these strains are suggestive of emergence of acquired drug-resistance during the course of treatment. The results suggest a high degree of genetic variability and a high frequency of SIT53 (T1 family) spoligotype among the MDR M. tuberculosis isolates included in the study.
Worldwide, acute leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer. It is particularly common in the Hispanic populations residing in the United States, Costa Rica, and Mexico City. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of acute leukemia in children who were diagnosed and treated in public hospitals in Mexico City.
Investigate how the subventricular proliferation and organisation is modified in a patient with FTLD-ALS. We studied the subventricular zone (SVZ) of a patient with FTLD-ALS immunohistochemical and histologically. We found an increase of Ki-67 positive cells and neuroblast in the subventricular zone, suggesting an activation of proliferating activity in response to FTD-ALS. This proliferation can act as a compensatory mechanism for rapid neuronal death and its modulation could provide a new therapeutic pathway in ALS. These results suggest a modification of neurogenesis in FTD-ALS.
The pathogenicity of four native strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrine) (Acari: Ixodidae) was evaluated. A R. microplus strain that is resistant to organophosphates, pyrethroids, and amidines, was used in this study. Adult R. microplus females were bioassayed using the immersion test of Drummond against 60 B. thuringiensis strains. Four strains, GP123, GP138, GP130, and GP140, were found to be toxic. For the immersion test, the total protein concentration for each bacterial strain was 1.25 mg/ml. Mortality, oviposition, and egg hatch were recorded. All of the bacterial strains had significant effects compared to the controls, but no significant differences were seen between the 4 strains. It is evident that these B. thuringiensis strains have a considerable detrimental effect on the R. microplus strain that is resistant to pesticides.
Extra-axial cavernous haem angiomas are uncommon lesions histologically identical to cavernomas in other locations. However, their radiological features and clinical behaviour may differ. They are frequently misdiagnosed preoperatively, as they often mimic other tumours. We describe a patient suffering from loss of the sense of smell, due to a cavernous haemangioma implanted in the dura mater of the anterior cranial fossa close to the olfactory bulb. To our knowledge, this is the first patient reported with such a lesion.
The WHO grading scheme distinguishes benign (grade I), atypical (grade II) and anaplastic (grade III) meningiomas. Both atypical and anaplastic meningiomas exhibited an overall increased rate of recurrence, but between 15-20% benign meningiomas will also exhibit an unfavourable clinical course with recurrence before 10 years despite aggressive surgery. We investigated 247 cases of meningiomas grade I and II. The immunohistochemical expression of 30 different molecular biomarkers of cell adhesion molecules, cell-cycle and apoptosis regulators and checkpoints was analyzed. We also determined apoptosis by in-situ hybridization (APOPDETEKTM) and loss of chromosome 1p36 by FISH. The study revealed a statistically significant co-variation (p<0.05) between meningiomas grade II associated with several clinicopathological features (Simpson grade of clinical resection, necrosis, nuclear atypia, macronucleoli, transition to small cell, sheet-like growth, high cellularity), increased expression of several biomarkers of tumour proliferation (Cyclin A, Cyclin E, MIB-1 or MDM2), proteases (Cathepsin D) or cell-adhesion (CD44) and lower expression of progesterone receptors than meningiomas grade I. The presence of Psammoma bodies or the location at convexity were protective prognostic factors for tumour recurrence while high cellularity and early age of onset (<57 year-old) were indicators of increased recurrence risk. The expression of COX-2, gamma-catenin, Topoisomerase IIa, VEGF and MIB-1 was significantly higher in the cohort of recurrent meningiomas. Meningiomas with chromosome 1p36 loss showed a higher recurrence rate (33.3%) than meningiomas with normal chromosome 1p36 (18%). Increased COX-2 expression in recurrent meningioma may also suggest a putative role of COX-2 inhibitors as a chemopreventive treatment for recurrence.
We analysed the results of three protocols from 1990 to 2005. Protocol I (1990-1996) consisted of a 2 year VAPA regime. Protocol II (1996-2003) on 1 year daunorubicin/cytarabine alternating with etoposide/cytarabine. Protocol III (2003-2005) on six cycles MRC AML 10 modified. Patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia 0 to 18 years were included. Demographic and clinical characteristics were analysed. Patients with >100,000 leukocytes, M4 or M5 and primary CNS disease were considered high risk. We compared remission rate, overall and event-free survival. Descriptive statistics, chi square, Kaplan-Meier and long rank tests were used. One hundred forty-five patients were included, 46 in Protocol I; 60 in II and 39 in III. There were no differences in characteristics between groups, except for more low risk patients in Protocol II (61%vs. 43% and 41%. (p = 0.05). Remission rate for Protocol I was 52%, for II 50% and for III 92% (p = 0.0001). Relapse was 18, 30 and 35, respectively (p = 0.141). Five-year event-free survival was 17.9% +/- 6.6%, 15.5% +/- 4.1% and 43.5% +/- 4.1% (s.e) (p = 0.0002). Five-year overall survival was 19.5% +/- 8%, 17.2% +/- 5.9% and 51.2% +/- 4.1% (s.e) (p = 0.0002). The results were superior in the MRC-10 derived protocol.
The Scolytidae fauna associated to the cacao agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico was studied during 2007. Adult insects were captured by using ethanol and light traps, and by direct collecting in their host plants. 3,192 specimens of 34 species belonging to 18 genera of Scolytidae were collected. Twenty-two species are new records for the State of Tabasco. The genera with more species were Xyleborus (6) and Hypothenemus (6). We conclude that the Scolytidae fauna associated to the cacao agroecosystem captured with the three trap systems are similar through the year of study. We also conclude that although the ethanol traps were more efficient, obtaining the highest species diversity, the use of other methods is important.
Here, we analyze the viral divergence among hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic cases infected with genotype 1. The intrahost viral evolution was assessed by deep sequencing using the 454 Genome Sequencer platform. The results showed a rapid nucleotide sequence divergence. This notorious short-term viral evolution is of the utmost importance for the study of HCV transmission, because direct links between related samples were virtually lost. Thus, rapid divergence of HCV significantly affects genetic relatedness studies and outbreak investigations.
The epidemiological patterns of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, which are strongly associated with climate, are characterized by more frequent infections occurring among children in temperate regions than in the tropics. In temperate regions, varicella exhibits a seasonal cyclic behavior in which the number of cases increases significantly during the winter and spring seasons, further supporting the role of environmental factors in disease transmission. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this distinctive behavior are not fully understood. In Mexico, information regarding the epidemiology of varicella is scarce, and the distribution of VZV infection has not been analyzed.
Rabbit pups represent a natural model of food anticipatory activity (FAA). FAA is the behavioral output of a putative food entrainable oscillator (FEO). It had been suggested that the FEO is comprised of a distributed system of clocks that work in concert in response to gastrointestinal input by food. Scheduled food intake synchronizes several nuclei in the brain, and the hypothalamus has received particular attention. On the contrary, brainstem nuclei, despite being among the brain structures to first receive food cues, have been scarcely studied. Here we analysed by immunohistochemistry possible oscillation of FOS and PER1 proteins through a complete 24-h cycle in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of 7-8-day-old rabbit pups scheduled to nurse during the night (02:00 h) or day (10:00 h), and also in fasted subjects to explore the possible persistence of oscillations. We found a clear induction of FOS that peaks 1.5 h after nursing in all nuclei studied. PER1 was only synchronized in the PBN, reaching highest values 12 h after nursing. Only PER1 oscillations persisted, with a shift, in fasted subjects. We conclude that the DVC nuclei are probably more related to the transmission of food cues to other brain regions, but that the PBN participates in the integration of information essential for FAA. Our results support previous findings suggesting that the DVC nuclei, but not PBN, are not essential for FAA. We suggest that PBN is a key component of the proposed distributed system of clocks involved in FAA.
Haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation using CD34(+) cells depleted of T lymphocytes by the CliniMACS is a treatment for hematological malignancy. We report on four Mexican children, three with acute lymphocytic leukemia and one with chronic myelocytic leukemia, who was transplanted with 12 × 10(6) CD34(+) stem cells/kg body weight (98% of purity) with a follow-up of 9½ years. The engraftment was successful in three of the four children. All showed cytomegalovirus reactivation, and one died because of graft rejection and infectious complication. The risk of infections was a major problem.
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