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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cerebral Networks Linked to Itch-related Sensations Induced by Histamine and Capsaicin.
Acta Derm. Venereol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored the central nervous processing of itch induced by histamine and capsaicin, delivered via inactivated cowhage spicules, and the influence of low-dose naltrexone. Scratch bouts were delivered at regular intervals after spicule insertion in order temporarily to suppress the itch. At the end of each trial the subjects rated their itch and scratch-related sensations. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were employed for identifying cerebral networks contributing to the intensities of "itching", "burning", "stinging", "pricking" and "itch relief by scratching". In the capsaicin experiments a network for "burning" was identified, which included the posterior insula, caudate and putamen. In the histamine experiments networks for "itching" and "itch relief" were found, which included operculum, hippocampus and amygdala. Naltrexone generally reduced fMRI activation and the correlations between fMRI signal and ratings. Furthermore, scratching was significantly less pleasant under naltrexone.
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Vascularization of the dorsal base of the second metacarpal bone: an anatomical study using C-arm cone beam computed tomography.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Vascularized bone grafts of the hand are a promising option for treatment of hand abnormalities. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the arterial anatomy of the dorsal aspect of the second metacarpal base to further investigate this possible donor site for bone grafts.
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Biochemical markers of neurodegeneration in hereditary diffuse leucoencephalopathy with spheroids.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Hereditary diffuse leucoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disease with unknown pathophysiology. Diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases is increasingly based on biomarkers. Although lumbar puncture is routinely performed during the diagnostic workup of HDLS, reports on alterations of neurodegeneration-specific biochemical markers have not been documented so far. We report a 35-year-old woman with clinical, radiological and neuropathological signs of HDLS. She suffered from a rapidly progressive frontal lobe syndrome. Brain MRI revealed diffuse leucoencephalopathy with predominant involvement of the periventricular white matter and corpus callosum. Although she was severely impaired and leucoencephalopathy was prominent, only cerebrospinal fluid total-? was moderately elevated. Other markers of neuronal (NSE) and astrocytic (S100B) damage were within normal range. Therefore, biochemical markers of central nervous system damage are not helpful in the diagnosis of HDLS.
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Principles of T2 *-weighted dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI technique in brain tumor imaging.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) is used to track the first pass of an exogenous, paramagnetic, nondiffusible contrast agent through brain tissue, and has emerged as a powerful tool in the characterization of brain tumor hemodynamics. DSC-MRI parameters can be helpful in many aspects, including tumor grading, prediction of treatment response, likelihood of malignant transformation, discrimination between tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis, and differentiation between true early progression and pseudoprogression. This review aims to provide a conceptual overview of the underlying principles of DSC-MRI of the brain for clinical neuroradiologists, scientists, or students wishing to improve their understanding of the technical aspects, pitfalls, and controversies of DSC perfusion MRI of the brain. Future consensus on image acquisition parameters and postprocessing of DSC-MRI will most likely allow this technique to be evaluated and used in high-quality multicenter studies and ultimately help guide clinical care. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Physiological effects of cigarette smoking in the limbic system revealed by 3 tesla magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Several studies and recent models of effects of nicotine, the main addictive and psychoactive component in tobacco, point to action of the drug on the limbic system during maintenance of addiction, either direct or indirect via projections from the ventral tegmental area. The objective of this study was to demonstrate physiological effects of cigarette smoking on the hippocampus and the grey matter of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the human brain with regard to addiction and withdrawal. This aim was achieved by group comparisons of results of magnetic resonance spectroscopy between non-smokers, smokers and smokers during withdrawal. 12 smokers and 12 non-smokers were measured with single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for total N-acetyl aspartate, glutamate and glutamine, choline-containing compounds, myo-inositol and total creatine in the right and the left hippocampus and in the right and the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Smokers were examined twice, first during regular cigarette smoking and second on the third day of nicotine withdrawal. The ratios to total creatine were used for better reliability. In our study, Glx/tCr was significantly increased and tCho/tCr was significantly decreased in the left cingulate cortex in smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.01, both). Six out of seven smokers showed normalization of the Glx/tCr in the left cingulate cortex during withdrawal. Although these results are preliminary due to the small sample size, our results confirm the assumption that cigarette smoking interferes directly or indirectly with the glutamate circuit in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex.
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Essentials in intraoperative indocyanine green videoangiography assessment for intracranial aneurysm surgery: conclusions from 295 consecutively clipped aneurysms and review of the literature.
Neurosurg Focus
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography (VA) in cerebral aneurysm surgery allows confirmation of blood flow in parent, branching, and perforating vessels as well as assessment of remnant aneurysm parts after clip application. A retrospective analysis and review of the literature were conducted to determine the current essential advantages of ICG-VA in aneurysm surgery.
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Clinical/perfusion CT CBV mismatch as prognostic factor in intraarterial thrombectomy in acute anterior circulation stroke.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Contradictory results were reported for the outcome after endovascular recanalization (ERT) in acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke. We assessed whether a clinical/perfusion CT cerebral blood volume (CBV) mismatch concept (CPM) can identify patients who will benefit from reperfusion therapy.
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How art changes your brain: differential effects of visual art production and cognitive art evaluation on functional brain connectivity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Visual art represents a powerful resource for mental and physical well-being. However, little is known about the underlying effects at a neural level. A critical question is whether visual art production and cognitive art evaluation may have different effects on the functional interplay of the brain's default mode network (DMN). We used fMRI to investigate the DMN of a non-clinical sample of 28 post-retirement adults (63.71 years ±3.52 SD) before (T0) and after (T1) weekly participation in two different 10-week-long art interventions. Participants were randomly assigned to groups stratified by gender and age. In the visual art production group 14 participants actively produced art in an art class. In the cognitive art evaluation group 14 participants cognitively evaluated artwork at a museum. The DMN of both groups was identified by using a seed voxel correlation analysis (SCA) in the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC/preCUN). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to relate fMRI data to psychological resilience which was measured with the brief German counterpart of the Resilience Scale (RS-11). We observed that the visual art production group showed greater spatial improvement in functional connectivity of PCC/preCUN to the frontal and parietal cortices from T0 to T1 than the cognitive art evaluation group. Moreover, the functional connectivity in the visual art production group was related to psychological resilience (i.e., stress resistance) at T1. Our findings are the first to demonstrate the neural effects of visual art production on psychological resilience in adulthood.
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Perfusion MRI: the five most frequently asked clinical questions.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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This article addresses questions that radiologists frequently ask when planning, performing, processing, and interpreting MRI perfusion studies in CNS imaging.
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Efficient drug-delivery using magnetic nanoparticles--biodistribution and therapeutic effects in tumour bearing rabbits.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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To treat tumours efficiently and spare normal tissues, targeted drug delivery is a promising alternative to conventional, systemic administered chemotherapy. Drug-carrying magnetic nanoparticles can be concentrated in tumours by external magnetic fields, preventing the nanomaterial from being cleared by metabolic burden before reaching the tumour. Therefore in Magnetic Drug Targeting (MDT) the favoured mode of application is believed to be intra-arterial. Here, we show that a simple yet versatile magnetic carrier-system (hydrodynamic particles diameter <200nm) accumulates the chemotherapeutic drug mitoxantrone efficiently in tumours. With MDT we observed the following drug accumulations relative to the recovery from all investigated tissues: tumour region: 57.2%, liver: 14.4%, kidneys: 15.2%. Systemic intra-venous application revealed different results: tumour region: 0.7%, liver: 14.4 % and kidneys: 77.8%. The therapeutic outcome was demonstrated by complete tumour remissions and a survival probability of 26.7% (P=0.0075). These results are confirming former pilot experiments and implying a milestone towards clinical studies.
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Doppler pulsatility index in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) as a result of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and perihematomal edema often leads to tissue shift, which can be identified in cross-sectional imaging and presents a known predictor of functional outcome. Pulsatility indices (PIs) of the intracranial arteries as measured by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) may serve as surrogate parameters for ICP. This study aims to investigate whether PI correlates with ICP and midline shift and serves as a reliable predictor of functional outcome in patients with ICH.
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Integrated whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging: clinical experience.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Integrated whole-body positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) scanners have recently been introduced and potentially offer new possibilities in hybrid imaging of oncologic patients. Integration of PET in a whole-body MR system requires new PET detector technology and new approaches to attenuation correction of PET data based on MR imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance and image quality parameters of integrated whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging in intraindividual comparison with PET/CT in oncologic patients.
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Perfusion MRI: the five most frequently asked technical questions.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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This and its companion article address the 10 most frequently asked questions that radiologists face when planning, performing, processing, and interpreting different MR perfusion studies in CNS imaging.
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The diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of extracranial carotid stenosis: a multidisciplinary German-Austrian guideline based on evidence and consensus.
Dtsch Arztebl Int
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Extracranial atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid bifurcation cause 10% to 20% of all cases of cerebral ischemia. Until now, there have been no comprehensive evidence- and consensus-based recommendations for the management of patients with extracranial carotid stenosis in Germany and Austria.
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Optimizing contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging characterization of brain metastases: relevance to stereotactic radiosurgery.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Intracranial metastases are the most common form of intra-axial brain tumor. Management approaches to brain metastases include surgical resection, whole-brain radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The management approach that is selected is based typically on algorithms that incorporate the number, size, and location of lesions. SRS is the treatment of choice when metastases detected on imaging are few (maximum, 3-5) and/or of small size (?30 mm) and offers the advantages of noninvasiveness and the ability to treat inaccessible lesions compared with surgical resection. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the standard imaging technique for determining the number, size, and location of metastatic lesions. In SRS, the capability of MRI to delineate lesion borders precisely in 3 dimensions helps reduce recurrence rates and minimize radiation necrosis in surrounding tissue. Optimization of the MRI protocol, including selection of the appropriate gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA), is paramount for accurate lesion imaging. GBCAs differ in their safety, tolerability, and efficacy because of their diverse physicochemical properties. Gadobutrol and gadobenate dimeglumine are high-relaxivity GBCAs that demonstrate superior efficacy for imaging metastatic lesions compared with other GBCAs, whereas gadobutrol additionally provides macrocyclic stability. This article reviews recent comparative trials of GBCAs and discusses their relevance for optimizing MRI protocols in the management of brain metastases, with particular relevance to SRS.
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Glaucoma classification based on visual pathway analysis using diffusion tensor imaging.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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Most of the existing methods for diagnosing glaucoma analyze the eye with a main focus on the retina, despite the transsynaptic nature of the fiber degeneration caused by glaucoma. Thus, they ignore a significant part of the visual system represented by the visual pathway in the brain. The advances in neuroimaging, especially diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), enable the identification and characterization of white matter fibers. In this work, we propose a system based on DTI analysis of the visual pathway fibers in the optic radiation for detecting and discriminating different glaucoma entities. The optic radiation is identified semi-automatically. DTI provides information about the fiber orientation as well as a set of derived parameters describing the degree of diffusion anisotropy and diffusivity. Features for each DTI derived measure are extracted from a specified region of interest on the optic radiation. The features are grouped into three sets: Histogram, co-occurrence matrices, and Laws features. For feature selection, the features are ranked using a support vector machine classifier. The highest ranked features are used for classification. A support vector machine classifier is used for classification in a 10-fold cross validation setup. The system is applied to three age-matched subjects categories containing 27 healthy, 39 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), and 18 normal tension glaucoma (NTG) subjects. The discrimination accuracy between healthy and glaucoma (POAG and NTG) subjects is 94.1% with an area under the ROC of 0.97. Classification accuracy of 92.4% is obtained for the normal and the POAG groups while it increased to 100% in case of healthy and NTG groups. In addition, the system could differentiate between glaucoma types (POAG and NTG) with an accuracy of 98.3%. A complementary analysis was performed to estimate the selection bias in the obtained accuracy. The bias ranged from 10% to 20% depending on the group pair under consideration. The classification results indicate the high performance of the system compared to retina-based glaucoma detection systems. The proposed approach utilizes visual pathway analysis rather than the conventional eye analysis which presents a new trend in glaucoma detection. Analyzing the entire visual system could provide significant information that can improve the glaucoma examination flow and treatment.
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MEG in frontal lobe epilepsies: localization and postoperative outcome.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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This study aimed to analyze magnetoencephalography (MEG) localizations of epileptic clusters in different cortical regions of the frontal lobe and relate these findings to postoperative outcomes associated with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE).
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Classification of peritumoral fiber tract alterations in gliomas using metabolic and structural neuroimaging.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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The aims of this study were to investigate and categorize peritumoral fiber tract alterations while considering changes in metabolism and integrity of fiber structures using multimodal neuroimaging-that is, PET with O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine and diffusion tensor imaging evaluated by fiber density mapping-and to correlate categories of fiber alterations with preoperative neurologic deficits and postoperative course.
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Cerebral microangiopathy in treatment-resistant hypertension.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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Cerebral microangiopathy is a cause of cognitive impairment and indicates high risk for clinically overt cerebrovascular disease. It develops in patients with or without hypertension, and different pathologies may play a supporting role. In this pilot study, the authors aimed to elucidate risk factors contributing to the deleterious action of hypertension on cerebral small vessels. A cross-sectional study in 42 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension was performed. Microangiopathy was investigated by cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Determinants were identified by clinical investigation, computed tomography, intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity measurement, and urinary albumin excretion. Nineteen of 42 patients had cerebral microangiopathy (23 controls). Patients were different with respect to heart rate (60.5 ± 10.2 vs 69.7 ± 15.1 beats per minute; P = .029) and systolic blood pressure during nighttime (138 ± 13 mm Hg vs 126 ± 18 mm Hg; P = .019). In addition, there were significant differences in pulse wave velocity (10.7 ± 2.0 m/s vs 9.4 ± 1.4 m/s; P = .034), peripheral pulse pressure (70.8 ± 16.3 mm Hg vs 59.2 ± 13.6 mm Hg; P = .016), central pulse pressure (62.9 ± 15.8 mm Hg vs 50.3 ± 14.2 mm Hg; P = .012), and aortic augmentation pressure (15.9 ± 6.0 vs 11.8 ± 6.6; P = .040). Systolic blood pressure and signs of hypertensive vasculopathy such as peripheral and central pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity were associated with cerebral microangiopathy in patients with long-standing treatment-resistant hypertension.
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Effects of continuous hypertonic saline infusion on perihemorrhagic edema evolution.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Mass effect of hematoma and the associated perihematomal edema are commonly responsible for neurological deterioration after intracerebral hemorrhage. Efficacy of surgical and medical therapy is limited. We studied the effect of early continuous hypertonic saline infusion on development of perihematomal edema after severe spontaneous supratentorial hemorrhage.
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Semi-automatic volumetric assessment of perihemorrhagic edema with computed tomography.
Eur. J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows perihemorrhagic edema (PHE) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with high contrast, but the procedure is often difficult or not available for clinical use. The aim of the present study was to establish and validate an observer independent method for quantification of PHE on computed tomography (CT) by comparing with simultaneously performed MRI.
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A framework for voxel-based morphometric analysis of the optic radiation using diffusion tensor imaging in glaucoma.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy affecting the entire visual system. The understanding of the glaucoma mechanism and causes remains unresolved. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to analyze the optic nerve and optic radiation showing global fiber abnormalities associated with glaucoma. Nevertheless, the complex structure of the optic radiation and the limitations of DTI make the localization of the glaucoma effect a difficult task. The aim of this work is to establish a framework for the determination of the local changes of the optic radiation due to glaucoma using DTI. The proposed system utilizes a semiautomated algorithm to produce an efficient identification of the optic radiation. Segmented optic radiations are transformed to a unified space using shape-based nonrigid registration. Using the deformation fields that resulted from the registration, the maps of the diffusion tensor-derived parameters are transformed to the unified space. This allows for statistical voxel-wise analysis to produce significant abnormality maps. The proposed system is applied to a group of 13 glaucoma patients and a normal control group of 10 subjects. The groups are age matched to eliminate the age effect on the analysis. Diffusion-related parameters (axial, radial and mean diffusivities) and an anisotropy index (fractional anisotropy) are studied. The anisotropy analysis indicates that the majority of the significant voxels show decreased fractional anisotropy in the glaucoma patients compared with the control group. In addition, the significant regions are mainly distributed in the middle (in reference to anterior-posterior orientation) of the optic radiation. Glaucoma subjects have increased radial diffusivity and mean diffusivity significant voxels with a main concentration in the proximal part of the right optic radiation. The proposed analysis provides a framework to capture the significant local changes of the optic radiation due to glaucoma. The preliminary analysis suggests that the glaucomatous optic radiation may suffer from localized white matter degeneration. The framework facilitates further studies and understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma.
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Embolic cerebral insults after transapical aortic valve implantation detected by magnetic resonance imaging.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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This study assessed the rate of periprocedural embolic ischemic brain injury during transapical aortic valve replacement in 25 consecutive patients.
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The POST trial: initial post-market experience of the Penumbra system: revascularization of large vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke in the United States and Europe.
J Neurointerv Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2010
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The purpose of this study was to assess the initial post-market experience of the device and how it is compared with the Penumbra Pivotal trial used to support the 510k application.
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Hypothermia reduces perihemorrhagic edema after intracerebral hemorrhage.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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The prognosis of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is poor because of the mass effect arising from the hematoma and the associated peri-hemorrhagic edema, leading to increased intracranial pressure. Because the efficacy of surgical and anti-edematous treatment strategies is limited, we investigated the effects of mild induced hypothermia in patients with large sICH.
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Visualisation of tumour regression after local chemotherapy with magnetic nanoparticles - a pilot study.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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Magnetic drug targeting (MDT) is a new locoregional chemotherapy method that increases the drug dose in the tumour region, while simultaneously reducing the overall dose through the application of chemotherapeutic-bound superparamagnetic nanoparticles, which are focused by an external magnetic field to the desired body compartment. An important factor in this kind of therapy is the vascularisation of the targeted tumour. In this pilot study, the visualisation of the tumour-vascularisation before and after MDT was investigated.
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Functional connectivity of the human insular cortex during noxious and innocuous thermal stimulation.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2010
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The insula plays a key role in brain processing of noxious and innocuous thermal stimuli. The anterior and the posterior portions of the insular cortex are involved in different ways in nociceptive and thermoceptive processing. Therefore, their stimulus-specific functional connectivity may also differ. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the activity and functional connectivity of insular cortex subregions during noxious and innocuous thermal stimulation. In 11 healthy subjects, psychophysically controlled noxious and innocuous warm and cold stimuli were applied to the left forearm. To differentiate between the subregions of the insular cortex involved in pain processing and those involved in temperature processing, a 2×2 factorial fMRI analysis was performed. Pain processing insular areas (main effect of pain) were detected in bilateral aINS and contralateral pINS. Temperature processing insular areas (main effect of temperature) were also found in bilateral aINS and contralateral pINS. The individual signal time courses from the pain- and temperature processing insular activation clusters were used for calculation and comparison of stimulus-specific functional connectivity of aINS and pINS by means of a correlation analysis. As expected, both aINS and pINS were functionally connected to a large brain network - which predominantly includes areas involved in nociception and thermoception: primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices, cingulate gyrus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and parietal association cortices (PA). When statistically compared, during both noxious and innocuous stimulation, aINS was more strongly connected to PFC and to ACC than was pINS; pINS meanwhile was more strongly connected to S1 and to the primary motor cortex (M1). Interestingly, S2 was more strongly connected to aINS than to pINS during painful stimulation but not during innocuous thermal stimulation. We conclude that aINS is more strongly functionally connected to areas known for affective and cognitive processing, whereas pINS is more strongly connected with areas known for sensory-discriminative processing of noxious and somatosensory stimuli.
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Tumor volume of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas during treatment with pegvisomant: a prospective multicenter study.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2009
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Context: Clinical and biochemical remission in acromegaly can frequently be achieved with the recombinant GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant, even when other treatments fail. However, increases in tumor volume have been reported. Objective: Because previous studies suffer from inhomogenous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols, this prospective study examined the long-term course of adenoma volume during pegvisomant therapy by standardized MRI. Design: Five centers in Germany participated. High-resolution MRI was performed at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after enrollment. Setting/Patients: Patients were outpatients, and pegvisomant is third-line therapy in most of the cases. Main Outcome Measures: The primary end point was tumor volume at 24 month follow-up, measured by a single, double-blinded rater. Results: Forty-five of 61 patients completed 24 months follow-up (73.8%). Tumor volume increase greater than 25% during the study was observed in three of 61 patients (4.9%), all during the first year of enrollment. All three patients had had octreotide treatment before initiation of pegvisomant; none of them had had radiotherapy. All volumetric findings were comparable with clinical radiological interpretations. ANOVA revealed no significant change in tumor volume after 24 months (n = 45). Conclusions: This study shows that pegvisomant therapy infrequently coincides with tumor growth during long-term treatment of acromegaly. Because all significant tumor volume increases occurred during the first year, these changes might correlate to the change of medication and thus be the result of a rebound from somatostatin-induced shrinkage.
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Cerebral representation of the relief of itch by scratching.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
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Cerebral processing of itch-scratching cycles was studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy volunteers. The back of the hand was repetitively scratched in the absence and presence of itch induced by histamine applied close to the scratched site. Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) effects were assessed in predefined cortical and subcortical brain regions of interest. Scratch-related activation clusters were found in cortical and subcortical areas which had been associated before with pain processing, namely S1, S2, parietal association cortex, motor and premotor cortex, anterior and posterior insula, anterior and medial cingulum, lateral and medial frontal areas, ipsilateral cerebellum and contralateral putamen. Cortical activations were generally stronger in the contralateral hemisphere. General linear model (GLM) analysis and GLM contrast analysis revealed stronger activations during itch-related trials in the motor and premotor cortex, in lateral frontal fields of both sides, and in a left medial frontal cluster. Subcortically, stronger activation during itch-related scratching trials was found in the contralateral putamen and in the ipsilateral cerebellum. Time course analysis showed significantly higher BOLD levels during the last 3-6 s before the start of scratching when the itch intensity was strongest. This effect was found in frontal areas, in the putamen, and in the somatosensory projection areas. During the scratching, no significant differences were found between itch and control conditions with the exception of the putamen, which showed stronger activations during itch-related scratch bouts. We interpret these itch-related activations anticipating the scratching as possible cerebral correlates of the itch processing and the craving for scratch.
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Cellular characterization of the peritumoral edema zone in malignant brain tumors.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2009
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Brain edema is a hallmark of human malignant brain tumors and contributes to the clinical course and outcome of brain tumor patients. The so-called perifocal edema or brain swelling imposes in T2-weighted MR scans as high intensity areas surrounding the bulk tumor mass. The mechanisms of this increased fluid attraction and the cellular composition of the microenvironment are only partially understood. In this study, we focus on imaging perifocal edema in orthotopically implanted gliomas in rodents and correlate perifocal edema with immunohistochemical markers. We identified that areas of perifocal edema not only include the tumor invasion zone, but also are associated with increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and aquaporin-4 expression surrounding the bulk tumor mass. Moreover, a high number of activated microglial cells expressing CD11b and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) accumulate at the tumor border. Thus, the area of perifocal edema is mainly dominated by reactive changes of vital brain tissue. These data corroborate that perifocal edema identified in T2-weighted MR scans are characterized with alterations in glial cell distribution and marker expression forming an inflammatory tumor microenvironment.
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A workflow for patient-individualized virtual angiogram generation based on CFD simulation.
Comput Math Methods Med
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Increasing interest is drawn on hemodynamic parameters for classifying the risk of rupture as well as treatment planning of cerebral aneurysms. A proposed method to obtain quantities such as wall shear stress, pressure, and blood flow velocity is to numerically simulate the blood flow using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. For the validation of those calculated quantities, virtually generated angiograms, based on the CFD results, are increasingly used for a subsequent comparison with real, acquired angiograms. For the generation of virtual angiograms, several patient-specific parameters have to be incorporated to obtain virtual angiograms which match the acquired angiograms as best as possible. For this purpose, a workflow is presented and demonstrated involving multiple phantom and patient cases.
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Microstructural abnormalities of the posterior thalamic radiation and the mediodorsal thalamic nuclei in females with anorexia nervosa--a voxel based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study.
J Psychiatr Res
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Gray matter abnormalities have been found in anorexia nervosa (AN) in several brain regions. However, little is known about white matter abnormalities under the condition of AN. To comprehensively assess the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways in women with anorexia nervosa, we performed voxel-based Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). 21 women with AN according to DSM-IV criteria (9 of them recovered) and 20 female age-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. The patients had a mean body mass index of 17.2 kg/m(2) (controls: 19.6 kg/m(2)). High resolution T1 images (MP-RAGE) and DTI were performed on a 3 T Siemens-scanner. Images were pre-processed and analyzed using a modified protocol for DTI in SPM2. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were compared using t-tests (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared with controls, AN patients showed bilateral reductions of FA maps in the posterior thalamic radiation which includes the optic radiation, and the left mediodorsal thalamus. Our study is limited by the small sample size and its cross-sectional design. A longitudinal design with the same individuals assessed when acutely ill and recovered is warranted for future studies. For the first time, the findings of our DTI study identified disturbances of associational and commissural fibers in the bilateral occipitotemporal white matter. The results help narrowing the prevailing biological models of AN by suggesting that body image distortion is related to microstructural alterations of white matter tracts connecting the extrastriate visual cortex with other brain regions involved in body perception.
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Differences in metabolism of fiber tract alterations in gliomas: a combined fiber density mapping and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging study.
Neurosurgery
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Gliomas propagate diffusely throughout and along white matter structures. Glioma-related changes in structural integrity and metabolism are not detectable by standard magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.
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Cooling in intracerebral hemorrhage (CINCH) trial: protocol of a randomized German-Austrian clinical trial.
Int J Stroke
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Intracerebral hemorrhage accounts for up to 15% of all strokes and is frequently associated with poor functional outcome and high mortality. So far, there is no clear evidence for a specific therapy, apart from general stroke unit or neurointensive care and management of secondary complications. Promising experimental and pilot clinical data support the use of therapeutic hypothermia after intracerebral hemorrhage.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.