It has previously been shown that gefitinib-treated patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification or high polysomy had a statistically significant improvement in response, time to progression, and survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Only few studies utilizing anti-EGFR treatment in advanced esophageal adenocarcinomas have been performed and the results have been heterogeneous. The aim of this study was to evaluate EGFR-targeted therapy with gefitinib in esophageal adenocarcinoma with a high EGFR polysomy.
A close relationship between phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) and the CXCR4/SDF1 axis (chemokine receptor 4/stromal cell derived factor 1) has been shown for several cancers. However, the role of PGK1 has not been investigated for neuroblastoma, and PGK1 might be a therapeutic target for this tumor entity. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of PGK1 expression in neuroblastoma patients, to determine the impact of PGK1 expression levels on survival, and to correlate PGK1 expression with CXCR4 expression and bone marrow dissemination.
Paracrine signaling between podocytes and glomerular endothelial cells through vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) maintains a functional glomerular filtration barrier. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), located on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix, bind signaling molecules such as VEGFA and affect their local concentrations, but whether modulation of these moieties promotes normal crosstalk between podocytes and endothelial cells is unknown. Here, we found that the transcription factor Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) modulates VEGFA and FGF2 signaling by increasing the expression of the 6-O-endosulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2, which remodel the heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfation pattern in the extracellular matrix. Mice deficient in both Sulf1 and Sulf2 developed age-dependent proteinuria as a result of ultrastructural abnormalities in podocytes and endothelial cells, a phenotype similar to that observed in children with WT1 mutations and in Wt1(+/-) mice. These kidney defects associated with a decreased distribution of VEGFA in the glomerular basement membrane and on endothelial cells. Collectively, these data suggest that WT1-dependent sulfatase expression plays a critical role in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier by modulating the bioavailability of growth factors, thereby promoting normal crosstalk between podocytes and endothelial cells.
In spite of multimodular treatment, the therapeutic options for esophageal carcinoma are limited, and metastases remain the leading cause of tumor-related mortality. Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 significantly correlates with poor survival rates in patients with esophageal carcinoma and is associated with lymph node and bone marrow metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the CXCR4 antagonist CTCE-9908 on metastatic homing and primary tumor growth in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic xenograft model of esophageal cancer.
A functional linkage of the structurally unrelated receptors HER2 and CXCR4 has been suggested for breast cancer but has not been evaluated for esophageal carcinoma. The inhibition of HER2 leads to a reduction of primary tumor growth and metastases in an orthotopic model of esophageal carcinoma. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in metastatic dissemination of various tumors and correlates with poor survival in esophageal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate a correlation between the expression levels of HER2 and CXCR4 and to evaluate the involvement of CXCR4-expression in HER2-positive esophageal carcinoma. The effects of HER2-inhibition with trastuzumab and of CXCR4-inhibition with AMD3100 on primary tumor growth, metastatic homing, and receptor expression were evaluated in vitro and in an orthotopic model of metastatic esophageal carcinoma using MRI for imaging. The clinical relevance of HER2- and CXCR4-expression was examined in esophageal carcinoma patients. A significant correlation of HER2- and CXCR4-expression in primary tumor and metastases exists in the orthotopic model. Trastuzumab and AMD3100 treatment led to a significant reduction of primary tumor growth, metastases and micrometastases. HER2-expression was significantly elevated under AMD3100 treatment in the primary tumor and particularly in the metastases. The positive correlation between HER2- and CXCR4-expression was validated in esophageal cancer patients. The correlation of CXCR4- and HER2-expression and the elevation of HER2-expression and reduction of metastases through CXCR4-inhibition suggest a possible functional linkage and a role in tumor dissemination in HER2-positive esophageal carcinoma.
The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand (stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha; SDF-1?) play an important role in tumor cell chemotaxis and metastatic homing of esophageal carcinoma. Several methods are available to examine tumor cell migration in vitro. However, in vivo chemotaxis is subject to complex tumor-host interactions. The aim of this study was to establish an in vivo model of chemotaxis for esophageal carcinoma that allows the examination of tumor cell migration and metastatic homing in the complex microenvironment.
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