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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Efficacy and safety of luseogliflozin as monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Luseogliflozin--a novel, orally bioavailable, 1-thio-D-glucitol derivative and a selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor--has shown efficacy and tolerability in previous phase 2 studies. This phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparative study aimed to confirm the superiority of 24 week luseogliflozin 2.5?mg monotherapy over placebo in reducing hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
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Dose-finding study of luseogliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II study.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Luseogliflozin is a selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This phase II study was conducted to confirm the efficacy and safety of luseogliflozin monotherapy at doses of up to 10?mg in Japanese patients with T2DM.
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Efficacy and safety of luseogliflozin monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II study.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Luseogliflozin is a novel sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment. An exploratory Phase II study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of several doses of luseogliflozin in Japanese T2DM patients.
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Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of single and multiple luseogliflozin dosing in healthy Japanese males: a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Adv Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Luseogliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, inhibits reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubule. It was developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Twisted gastrulation, a BMP antagonist, exacerbates podocyte injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Podocyte injury is the first step in the progression of glomerulosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7) in podocyte injury and the existence of native Bmp signaling in podocytes. Local activity of Bmp7 is controlled by cell-type specific Bmp antagonists, which inhibit the binding of Bmp7 to its receptors. Here we show that the product of Twisted gastrulation (Twsg1), a Bmp antagonist, is the central negative regulator of Bmp function in podocytes and that Twsg1 null mice are resistant to podocyte injury. Twsg1 was the most abundant Bmp antagonist in murine cultured podocytes. The administration of Bmp induced podocyte differentiation through Smad signaling, whereas the simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. The administration of Bmp also inhibited podocyte proliferation, whereas simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. Twsg1 was expressed in the glomerular parietal cells (PECs) and distal nephron of the healthy kidney, and additionally in damaged glomerular cells in a murine model of podocyte injury. Twsg1 null mice exhibited milder hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, and milder histological changes while maintaining the expression of podocyte markers during podocyte injury model. Taken together, our results show that Twsg1 plays a critical role in the modulation of protective action of Bmp7 on podocytes, and that inhibition of Twsg1 is a promising means of development of novel treatment for podocyte injury.
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Japan Renal Biopsy Registry and Japan Kidney Disease Registry: Committee Report for 2009 and 2010.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (J-RBR) was started in 2007 and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (J-KDR) was then started in 2009 by the Committee for Standardization of Renal Pathological Diagnosis and the Committee for the Kidney Disease Registry of the Japanese Society of Nephrology. The purpose of this report is to describe and summarize the registered data from 2009 and 2010. For the J-KDR, data were collected from 4,016 cases, including 3,336 (83.1 %) by the J-RBR and 680 (16.9 %) other cases from 59 centers in 2009, and from 4,681 cases including 4,106 J-RBR cases (87.7 %) and 575 other cases (12.3 %) from 94 centers in 2010, including the affiliate hospitals. In the J-RBR, 3,165 native kidneys (94.9 %) and 171 renal grafts (5.1 %) and 3,869 native kidneys (94.2 %) and 237 renal grafts (5.8 %) were registered in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Patients younger than 20 years of age comprised 12.1 % of the registered cases, and those 65 years and over comprised 24.5 % of the cases with native kidneys in 2009 and 2010. The most common clinical diagnosis was chronic nephritic syndrome (55.4 % and 50.0 % in 2009 and 2010, respectively), followed by nephrotic syndrome (22.4 % and 27.0 %); the most frequent pathological diagnosis as classified by the pathogenesis was IgA nephropathy (31.6 % and 30.4 %), followed by primary glomerular diseases (except IgA nephropathy) (27.2 % and 28.1 %). Among the primary glomerular diseases (except IgA nephropathy) in the patients with nephrotic syndrome, membranous nephropathy was the most common histopathology in 2009 (40.3 %) and minor glomerular abnormalities (50.0 %) were the most common in 2010 in native kidneys in the J-RBR. Five new secondary and longitudinal research studies by the J-KDR were started in 2009 and one was started in 2010.
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Serial renal biopsy findings in a case of POEMS syndrome with recurrent acute renal failure.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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This report describes a patient presenting with recurrent acute renal failure occurring in the course of POEMS syndrome, a multisystem disease associated with plasma cell dyscrasia. Several combined immunosuppression therapies failed to resolve recurrent acute renal failure; autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was therefore applied. A renal biopsy was performed on each of four occasions when he developed renal dysfunction. The renal biopsy showed typical renal histology of POEMS, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis-like lesions and narrowing of vessel lumina of various sizes caused by endothelial injury, which progressed to glomerulosclerosis and vessel occlusion. Recurrent acute renal failure might be caused by ischemia due to arterial occlusion. Serum levels of vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF), which is considered to be a causative factor of endothelial lesions in POEMS syndrome, were not elevated throughout the course of this case.
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Comparison of the psychosocial quality of life in hemodialysis patients between the elderly and non-elderly using a visual analogue scale: the importance of appetite and depressive mood.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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The number of hemodialysis (HD) patients is increasing along with their mean age in Japan. The assessment of their psychosocial status and quality of life (QOL) is therefore becoming more and more important along with laboratory data or comorbidities.
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An autopsy case of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) with intestinal bleeding in chronic renal failure.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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A 50-year-old man who underwent hemodialysis (HD) at local outpatient HD center due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was transferred to our hospital because of pneumonia. He had severe emaciation and past history of congestive heart failure. Presenting symptoms almost consistently involved difficulty in hearing and recurrent attacks of migraine-like headaches. He was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy, showing diastolic mechanical dyssynchrony by tissue Doppler echocardiography. On the day of death, he had hematemesis and hemorrhagic shock. Autopsy revealed perforation of duodenum, and genetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA from cardiac muscle and iliopsoas muscle revealed a 3243A > G mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene, which is related to mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Multiple organ failure due to the mutation of mitochondrial DNA with gastrointestinal bleeding is not a common.
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Durable hematological response and improvement of nephrotic syndrome on thalidomide therapy in a patient with refractory light chain deposition disease.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a rare disease for which an optimal treatment is not yet available. Here, we report the clinical course of a 32-year-old woman with LCDD who was successfully treated with thalidomide. She presented with nephrotic syndrome. Based on the renal biopsy findings and the presence of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains in her serum and urine, LCDD was diagnosed. Prednisolone and cytotoxic chemotherapy used for multiple myeloma proved ineffective. We initiated administration of thalidomide (100 mg daily) and dexamethasone (20 mg for 4 days per month). After 8 months of treatment, she achieved complete hematological remission, defined as the disappearance of monoclonal protein and a normalized free light chain ratio, which led to improvement of her renal insufficiency. She has shown sustained hematological and organ response for 31 months with thalidomide therapy. Thus, thalidomide therapy seems to be a promising approach to the treatment of LCDD.
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Dysfunction of fibroblasts of extrarenal origin underlies renal fibrosis and renal anemia in mice.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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In chronic kidney disease, fibroblast dysfunction causes renal fibrosis and renal anemia. Renal fibrosis is mediated by the accumulation of myofibroblasts, whereas renal anemia is mediated by the reduced production of fibroblast-derived erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates erythropoiesis. Despite their importance in chronic kidney disease, the origin and regulatory mechanism of fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, we have demonstrated that the majority of erythropoietin-producing fibroblasts in the healthy kidney originate from myelin protein zero-Cre (P0-Cre) lineage-labeled extrarenal cells, which enter the embryonic kidney at E13.5. In the diseased kidney, P0-Cre lineage-labeled fibroblasts, but not fibroblasts derived from injured tubular epithelial cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition, transdifferentiated into myofibroblasts and predominantly contributed to fibrosis, with concomitant loss of erythropoietin production. We further demonstrated that attenuated erythropoietin production in transdifferentiated myofibroblasts was restored by the administration of neuroprotective agents, such as dexamethasone and neurotrophins. Moreover, the in vivo administration of tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, restored attenuated erythropoietin production as well as fibrosis in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis. These findings reveal the pathophysiological roles of P0-Cre lineage-labeled fibroblasts in the kidney and clarify the link between renal fibrosis and renal anemia.
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Japan Renal Biopsy Registry: the first nationwide, web-based, and prospective registry system of renal biopsies in Japan.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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The Committee for the Standardization of Renal Pathological Diagnosis and the Working Group for Renal Biopsy Database of the Japanese Society of Nephrology started the first nationwide, web-based, and prospective registry system, the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (J-RBR), to record the pathological, clinical, and laboratory data of renal biopsies in 2007.
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Activation of Src mediates PDGF-induced Smad1 phosphorylation and contributes to the progression of glomerulosclerosis in glomerulonephritis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2011
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Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) plays critical roles in mesangial cell (MC) proliferation in mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. We showed previously that Smad1 contributes to PDGF-dependent proliferation of MCs, but the mechanism by which Smad1 is activated by PDGF is not precisely known. Here we examined the role of c-Src tyrosine kinase in the proliferative change of MCs. Experimental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (Thy1 GN) was induced by a single intravenous injection of anti-rat Thy-1.1 monoclonal antibody. In Thy1 GN, MC proliferation and type IV collagen (Col4) expression peaked on day 6. Immunohistochemical staining for the expression of phospho-Src (pSrc), phospho-Smad1 (pSmad1), Col4, and smooth muscle ?-actin (SMA) revealed that the activation of c-Src and Smad1 signals in glomeruli peaked on day 6, consistent with the peak of mesangial proliferation. When treated with PP2, a Src inhibitor, both mesangial proliferation and sclerosis were significantly reduced. PP2 administration also significantly reduced pSmad1, Col4, and SMA expression. PDGF induced Col4 synthesis in association with increased expression of pSrc and pSmad1 in cultured MCs. In addition, PP2 reduced Col4 synthesis along with decreased pSrc and pSmad1 protein expression in vitro. Moreover, the addition of siRNA against c-Src significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Smad1 and the overproduction of Col4. These results provide new evidence that the activation of Src/Smad1 signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of glomerulosclerosis in experimental glomerulonephritis.
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Loss of the BMP antagonist USAG-1 ameliorates disease in a mouse model of the progressive hereditary kidney disease Alport syndrome.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a key component of the filtering unit in the kidney. Mutations involving any of the collagen IV genes (COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5) affect GBM assembly and cause Alport syndrome, a progressive hereditary kidney disease with no definitive therapy. Previously, we have demonstrated that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 (USAG-1) negatively regulates the renoprotective action of BMP-7 in a mouse model of tubular injury during acute renal failure. Here, we investigated the role of USAG-1 in renal function in Col4a3-/- mice, which model Alport syndrome. Ablation of Usag1 in Col4a3-/- mice led to substantial attenuation of disease progression, normalization of GBM ultrastructure, preservation of renal function, and extension of life span. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that USAG-1 and BMP-7 colocalized in the macula densa in the distal tubules, lying in direct contact with glomerular mesangial cells. Furthermore, in cultured mesangial cells, BMP-7 attenuated and USAG-1 enhanced the expression of MMP-12, a protease that may contribute to GBM degradation. These data suggest that the pathogenetic role of USAG-1 in Col4a3-/- mice might involve crosstalk between kidney tubules and the glomerulus and that inhibition of USAG-1 may be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alport syndrome.
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[Case of kidney failure with thrombotic microangiopathy lesions in renal biopsy caused by accelerated hypertension in young adult].
Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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A 19-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of severe hypertension with renal dysfunction. Two years before admission, his hypertension had been diagnosed as essential hypertension based on a series of examinations when his renal function was not impaired. Visits to his primary physician ended when he developed severe hypertension of 210/140 mmHg, at which time renal dysfunction and serum creatinine of 2.25 mg/dL were discovered. Renin and antidiuretic hormone were slightly elevated, but renal artery stenosis or other abnormalities were not detected by magnetic resonance imaging and computer tomography. After the hypertension was controlled by medication, a renal biopsy was performed to assess renal impairment. Histology demonstrated lesions compatible with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and ischemic lesions, including fibrinoid necrosis, intimal thickening, occlusion in the small arteries, wrinkling and duplication of the glomerular basement membrane with microthrombi, and focal interstitial fibrosis. Renal function ameliorated after the hypertension was controlled. This case suggests that severe and accelerated hypertension can cause TMA with renal impairment even in young people.
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Angio-embolization of renal artery pseudoaneurysm after renal biopsy: a case report.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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Renal artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare clinical entity that has been reported after renal biopsy, percutaneous renal surgery, penetrating trauma, and rarely blunt renal trauma. We present the case of a 37-year-old man with ruptured renal artery pseudoaneurysm accompanied by massive gross hematuria, urinary clot retention, and bladder tamponade, which were the presenting signs seven hours after renal biopsy. Abdominal CT scan showed a large perinephric, intracapsular hematoma of left kidney. His angiogram revealed a left renal segmental artery pseudoaneurysm that measured 1 cm x 1 cm. He was successfully treated by selective embolization of the arterial branch supplying the pseudoaneurysm.
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Improvement of renal function after opening occluded atherosclerotic renal arteries.
J Invasive Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) with stenting has been effective in the control of hypertension, renal function and pulmonary edema caused by atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS). However, concerning the viability of renal function, this procedure has not been fully established, especially in the presence of renal atrophy or severe renal parenchymal disease. We report a dramatically improved case of acute renal failure caused by acute worsening ARAS treated by stenting. A 72-year-old female was admitted for accelerated renal dysfunction (serum ceatinine; 1.2-2.3 mg/dl) and hypertension (190/100 mmHg). At 10 days after admission, the patients serum ceatinine increased to 6.7 mg/dl, her pulmonary edema was exaggerated and hemodialysis was required. Ultrasonography showed bilateral high-echoic kidneys, but no apparent finding of renal artery stenosis (RAS). At day 15, computed tomographic angiography indicated bilateral ostial RAS. Renal angiography demonstrated total occlusion of the right and severe (90%) disease in the left. ARAS was diagnosed by intravascular ultrasonography. The guidewire was inserted in both renal arteries, PTRA with stenting was performed in the right and a stent was directly implanted in the left. Immediately, each kidney enlarged to almost normal size, leading to satisfactory urination. She was released from hemodialysis the next day since her serum creatinine was normal and the pulmonary edema was improved. Although there is still no reliable prognostic factor including resistive index or kidney size, it is important that PTRA with stenting in ARAS should be considered in a case of accelerated renal dysfunction because of the possible improvement.
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A case of living-related renal transplant from the donor with membranous nephropathy.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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When a patient who had renal replacement therapy becomes older, an elder donor candidate may be considered as a potential donor for living-related transplantation. Elder donor candidate might have pre-existing disease including mild renal dysfunction, such as proteinuria. Marginally appropriate donors might be considered for renal graft because of the shortage of donors. A successful outcome after kidney transplantation from a living-related donor diagnosed as membranous nephropathy is reported.
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Identification of multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE1 and MATE2-K) variants with complete loss of transport activity.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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H(+)/organic cation antiporters (multidrug and toxin extrusion: MATE1 and MATE2-K) play important roles in the renal tubular secretion of cationic drugs. We have recently identified a regulatory single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the MATE1 gene (-32G>A). There is no other information about SNPs of the MATE gene. In this study, we evaluated the functional significance of genetic polymorphisms in MATE1 and MATE2-K. We sequenced all exons of MATE1 and MATE2-K genes in 89 Japanese subjects and identified coding SNPs (cSNPs) encoding MATE1 (V10L, G64D, A310V, D328A and N474S) and MATE2-K (K64N and G211V). All the variants except for MATE1 V10L showed significant decrease in transport activity. In particular, MATE1 G64D and MATE2-K G211V variants completely lost transport activities. When membrane expression level was evaluated by cell surface biotinylation, those of MATE1 (G64D and D328A) and MATE2-K (K64N and G211V) were significantly decreased compared with that of wild type. These findings suggested that the loss of transport activities of the MATE1 G64D and MATE2-K G211V variants were due to the alteration of protein expression in cell surface membranes. This is the first demonstration of functional impairment of the MATE family induced by cSNPs.
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Protein inhibitor of activated STAT, PIASy regulates ?-smooth muscle actin expression by interacting with E12 in mesangial cells.
PLoS ONE
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Phenotypic transformation of mesangial cells (MCs) is implicated in the development of glomerular disease; however, the mechanisms underlying their altered genetic program is still unclear. ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) is known to be a crucial marker for phenotypic transformation of MCs. Recently, E-boxes and the class I basic helix-loop-helix proteins, such as E12 have been shown to regulate?-SMA expression. Therefore, we tried to identify a novel E12 binding protein in MCs and to examine its role in glomerulonephritis. We found that PIASy, one of the protein inhibitors of activated STAT family protein, interacted with E12 by yeast two-hybrid screens and coimmunopreciptation assays. Overexpression of E12 significantly enhanced the?-SMA promoter activity, and the increase was blocked by co-transfection of PIASy, but not by a PIASy RING mutant. In vivo sumoylation assays revealed that PIASy was a SUMO E3 ligase for E12. Furthermore, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) treatment induced expression of both PIASy and E12, consistent with ?-SMA expression. Moreover, reduced expression of PIASy protein by siRNA specific for PIASy resulted in increased TGF-?-mediated ?-SMA expression. In vivo, PIASy and E12 were dramatically upregulated along with ?-SMA and TGF-? in the proliferative phase of Thy1 glomerulonephritis. Furthermore, an association between PIASy and E12 proteins was observed at day 6 by IP-western blotting, but not at day 0. These results suggest that TGF-? up-regulates PIASy expression in MCs to down-regulate?-SMA gene transcription by the interaction with E12.
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Low density lipoprotein apheresis ameliorates interferon-? production in patients with nephrotic syndrome.
Ther Apher Dial
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Rapid amelioration of hypercholesterolemia in nephrotic syndrome (NS) using low density lipoprotein-apheresis (LDL-A) sometimes leads to NS remission, along with improvement of impaired biodefense system; however, the mechanism of how LDL-A affects NS is still unknown. We studied IFN-? production under IL-12 stimulation for 24 h in whole blood from 30 NS patients, 31 non-NS patients, 35 healthy volunteers and another four persistent NS patients due to refractory focal segmental glomerulonephritis and minimal change type nephrotic syndrome. We compared IFN-? production in whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from persistent NS patients before and after each of 14 LDL-A procedures. Finally, we studied the effect that persistent NS patients serum before and after LDL-A had on IFN-? production in healthy volunteers PBMC. Whole blood IFN-? production was significantly lower in NS patients compared with healthy volunteers or non-NS patients. In persistent NS, after LDL-A, IFN-? production returned to normal levels. IFN-? production in PBMC varied greatly among these patients and did not show consistent changes after LDL-A. Healthy volunteers PBMC incubated with persistent NS patients serum obtained after LDLA showed higher IFN-? production than before LDL-A. IFN-? production in peripheral blood is impaired if a patient is in a nephrotic state. LDL-A might restore suppressed PBMC function in persistent NS patients, thereby ameliorating the nephrotic state, possibly through removing interfering serum factors.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.