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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Immunomodulatory effects of voriconazole and caspofungin on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Candida albicans and Candida krusei.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Candida infections are frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in immunosuppressed patients. T cell-mediated and phagocytic immunity are the primary protective immune responses against fungal infections. Antifungal agents such as voriconazole and caspofungin enter phagocytic cells and lead to various intracellular activities. In this study, the authors aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of voriconazole and caspofungin on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by Candida albicans and Candida krusei.
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In vitro effects of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus on dendritic cells and the role of beta glucan in this effect.
Adv Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Dendritic cells (DCs) are able to initiate and regulate the immune response to fungal infections. ?-glucan stimulates the immune system, modulating cellular and humoral immunity. It has a beneficial effect in fighting fungal infections.
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Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N?=?1635) and Salmonella spp. (N?=?901) but also including Escherichia coli (N?=?368), Candida albicans (N?=?200), Klebsiella pneumoniae (N?=?60), Enterobacter spp. (N?=?54), Enterococcus faecium (N?=?53), and Enterococcus faecalis (N?=?56). From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs) and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC), E. coli (MBC and MIC) and S. aureus (MBC and MIC). There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.
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Gene expression in fungi.
IMA Fungus
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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This contribution is based on the four presentations made at the Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting titled Gene Expression in Fungi held during IMC9 in Edinburgh. This overview is independent from other articles published or that will be published by each speaker. In the SIG meeting, basic principles of in vivo animal models for virulence studies were discussed. Infection associated genes of Candida albicans and fungal adaptation to the host was summarized. Azole susceptibility was evaluated as a combined result of several changes in expression of pertinent genes. Gene transfer in fungi, resulting in fungal evolution and gene adaptation to environmental factors, was reported.
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Ocular fungal infections.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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Microbiology, clinical perspective of ocular fungal infections, and the experimental models were overviewed.
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Fluorometric determination of acid proteinase activity in Candida albicans strains from diabetic patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.
Mycoses
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2010
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Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most frequent disorders in obstetrics and gynaecology. Approximately three-quarters of all adult women experience at least one episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis during their life span. Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the rate of vaginal colonisation and infection with Candida species. The secreted acid proteinase might be especially relevant in the pathogenesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The aim of this study was to determine the acid proteinase activity in the samples of Candida albicans from diabetic patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis by a fluorometric method. Vaginal swabs were taken from 33 women (aged between 22 and 57 years) having symptoms of vaginitis. Patients were divided into three groups: control group, controlled diabetic group and uncontrolled diabetic group. The proteinase activity in the culture supernatants was determined by a modified fluorometric method. Acid proteinase activities were significantly increased in the uncontrolled diabetic group in comparison with both the control group and the controlled diabetic group (P < 0.05). Acid proteinase may play an important role in C. albicans pathogenesis in diabetic patients. Improving glucose control may reduce the risk of Candida colonisation and potentially symptomatic infection, among women with diabetes and hence may be useful even for weaker enzyme activity measurements.
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[In vitro synergistic effect of moxifloxacin and amphotericin B combination against Candida strains].
Mikrobiyol Bul
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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Contradictory results such as synergy or indifferent effect, have been reported about the interactions between quinolones and antifungal drugs in different studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibilities of Candida spp. to moxifloxacin (MOX) alone and MOX + amphotericin B (AmB) combination. A total of 20 strains were included to the study, of which 19 were clinical isolates (10 Candida albicans, 4 Candida glabrata, 2 Candida parapsilosis, 1 Candida tropicalis, 1 Candida pelliculosa ve 1 Candida sake) and 1 was a standard strain (C. albicans ATCC 90028). In vitro susceptibilities of the strains to MOX with AmB were investigated by broth microdilution method according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), and in vitro interaction of these drugs were determined by a chequerboard titration method. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of Candida spp. for MOX were found > or = 400 microg/ml indicating that MOX, by itself has no antifungal activity. AmB MIC values were found 1 microg/ml in 11 of the clinical isolates, and < or = 0.5 microg/ml in the other 8 clinical isolates and 1 standard strain. The inhibitor activity of AmB was slightly enhanced when combined with MOX, there being a decrease of 1-4 fold dilutions in the AmB MICs against all isolates tested. Synergistic effect between MOX and AmB, defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index as < or = 0.5, was observed in 90% (18/20; all were clinical isolates) of the strains, whereas indifferent effect (FIC = 1) was detected in 10% (2/20; 1 was clinical and 1 was standard strain) of the strains. Antagonistic effect was not observed for this combination even at 48th hours. It was concluded that these preliminary results should be confirmed by large-scaled in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluate MOX + AmB combination as a therapeutic option for the treatment of Candida infections.
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Nosocomial transmission of Candida pelliculosa fungemia in a pediatric intensive care unit and review of the literature.
Turk. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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Horizontal transmission of Candida species in the hospital environment and the fungemia rates have increased in the past decade. We describe a nosocomial cluster of fungemia caused by Candida pelliculosa (teleomorph Pichia anomala) in four infants hospitalized in the pediatric intensive care unit. Candida isolates had strictly related fingerprints, as generated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis using five different primer sets. The four babies were all treated successfully and recovered. All of the isolates were susceptible to the antifungals tested including amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, miconazole, micafungin, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Infection control procedures were adapted in the unit and no relapse was detected. In addition, 30 publications presenting 450 pediatric and 28 adult cases are reviewed.
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Molecular detection of cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus 2, human papillomavirus 16-18 in Turkish pregnants.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of viral intrauterine infections in the world. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the main agents of viral sexually transmitted diseases, which cause genital ulcers and genital warts, respectively. HPV infection has been linked to the majority of the anogenital malignancies. The aim of this study was to detect the existence of CMV, HSV-2 and HPV type 16-18 in Turkish pregnants by using sensitive molecular assays.
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Comparison of antifungal efficacies of moxifloxacin, liposomal amphotericin B, and combination treatment in experimental Candida albicans endophthalmitis in rabbits.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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The goal of this study was to compare in vitro and in vivo efficacy of moxifloxacin and liposomal amphotericin B (Amp-B) monotherapies and combination treatment against Candida albicans in an exogenous endophthalmitis model in rabbit eyes. Microplate dilution tests and checkerboard analysis were performed to detect in vitro efficacies. Endophthalmitis was induced by intravitreal injection of C. albicans in 40 rabbit eyes with simultaneous intravitreal drug injection according to prophylactic treatment groups. Group 1 (control group) received 0.1 mL of balanced salt solution, group 2 (moxi group) 100 microg moxifloxacin/0.1 mL, group 3 (Amp-B group) 10 microg liposomal Amp-B/0.1 mL, and group 4 (combi group) both 100 microg moxifloxacin/0.1 mL [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] and 10 microg liposomal Amp-B/0.05 mL intravitreally. Clinical examination, quantitative analysis of microorganisms, and histopathologic examination were performed as in vivo studies. The minimum inhibitory concentration of liposomal Amp-B against C. albicans was found to be 1 microg/mL. Moxifloxacin showed no inhibition of in vitro C. albicans growth. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of liposomal Amp-B for C. albicans were reduced two- to eightfold with increasing concentrations of moxifloxacin in vitro. In vivo, there was no C. albicans growth in the combi group (zero of eight eyes), whereas three eyes (37.5%) showed growth in the Amp-B group. Vitreous inflammation, retinal detachment, focal retinal necrosis, and outer nuclear layer loss were found to be lower in the moxi group compared with the control group. Ganglion cell and inner nuclear layer loss was observed in all eyes (100%) in both the moxi and combi groups, whereas only in 25% (two of eight eyes) in the Amp-B group. Moxifloxacin strongly augments the efficacy of liposomal Amp-B against C. albicans in vitro, although it has no in vitro antifungal activity when used alone. It is interesting that we found a synergistic effect for in vitro tests but failed to demonstrate it in vivo. When 100 microg moxifloxacin/0.1 mL is given intravitreally, it has some toxic effects that are limited to the inner retinal layers.
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Systemic phaeohyphomycosis resembling primary sclerosing cholangitis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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Exophiala dermatitidis, one of the saprophytic dematiaceous fungi, is a cause of local and disseminated phaeohyphomycosis. We report a case of systemic phaeohyphomycosis resembling sclerosing cholangitis caused by E. dermatitidis in a 24-year-old woman.
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Fungemia and cutaneous zygomycosis due to Mucor circinelloides in an intensive care unit patient: case report and review of literature.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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Mucor spp. are rarely pathogenic in healthy adults, but can cause fatal infections in patients with immuosuppression and diabetes mellitus. Documented mucor fungemia is a very rare condition in the literature. We described a fungemia and cutaneous mucormycosis case due to Mucor circinelloides in an 83-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus who developed acute left frontoparietal infarctus while hospitalized in a neurological intensive care unit. The diagnosis was made based on the growth of fungi in the blood, skin biopsy cultures, and a histopathologic examination of the skin biopsy. The isolates were identified as M. circinelloides by molecular methods. This case is important in that it shows a case of cutaneous mucormycosis which developed after fungemia and provides a contribution to the literature regarding Mucor fungemia.
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Invasive fungal infections in pediatric leukemia patients receiving fluconazole prophylaxis.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Children with acute leukemia have increased risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI) but the role of long term antifungal prophylaxis (AFP) in morbidity and mortality of IFI is not well-known.
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Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on cytokine secretion from intraepithelial lymphocytes infected by Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.
Mycoses
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) is a probiotic and used in the prevention or treatment of diarrhoea. Saccharomyces boulardii has many mechanisms to protect the host against diarrhoeal pathogens. It might modulate the immune system. In this study, the influence of S. boulardii on the secretion of cytokines from intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) infected with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) was investigated in vitro. Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta was decreased in the infected IELs incubated with S. boulardii, but different from it, anti-inflammatory cytokine levels such as IL-4 and IL-10, however, were found to be higher. These findings demonstrated that S. boulardii may have protective effects against diarrhoeal pathogens by reducing the proinflammatory response.
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Yeast vaginitis during pregnancy: susceptibility testing of 13 antifungal drugs and boric acid and the detection of four virulence factors.
Med. Mycol.
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A higher prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is seen in pregnant women compared with those who are not pregnant. Recurrence is also more common in pregnant women, and therapeutic responses are reduced. In this investigation, 207 vaginal yeast isolates recovered from pregnant women were tested for susceptibility to 13 antifungal drugs and boric acid and through these studies four virulence factors were also determined. The isolates were recovered from vaginal samples of patients with acute VVC [AVVC, (n = 73)], symptomatic recurrent VVC [RVVC, (n = 89)], asymptomatic RVVC (n = 27), and those without signs and symptoms (n = 18). Candida albicans was the most common species found (59.9%), followed by C. glabrata (19.8%), other Candida spp., (19.8%), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.5%). Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed as described in CLSI document M27-A3. Additionally, we examined phospholipase and proteinase production, adhesion to vaginal epithelial cells and hemolytic activity. Notably, the MIC values of Candida spp. isolates derived from patients with VVC were no different from those of the controls (P > 0.05). In addition, Candida isolates derived from patients with AVVC or RVVC produced significantly higher amounts of phospholipase and proteinase compared with the controls (P < 0.05). Antifungal testing and the determination of virulence factors may lead to the effective and prompt treatment of VVC, particularly in pregnant women.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.