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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Membrane protein mobility depends on the length of extra-membrane domains and on the protein concentration.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Diffusion of membrane proteins is not only determined by the membrane anchor friction but also by the overall concentration of proteins and the length of their extra-membrane domains. We have studied the influence of the latter two cues by mesoscopic simulations. As a result, we have found that the total friction of membrane proteins, ?, increases approximately linearly with the length of the extra-membrane domain, L, whereas a slightly nonlinear dependence on the total protein concentration, ? was observed. We provide an educated guess for the functional form of ?(L, ?) and the associated diffusion coefficient. This expression not only matches our simulation data but it is also in favorable agreement with previously published experimental data. Our findings indicate that diffusion coefficients of membrane proteins are not solely determined by the friction of membrane anchors but also extra-membrane domains and the crowdedness of the membrane need to be considered to obtain a comprehensive view of protein diffusion on cellular membranes.
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Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with increased genital HIV-1 RNA in Zimbabwean women.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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?Mycoplasma genitalium is a common sexually transmitted infection associated with HIV infection. Some studies suggest that M. genitalium may increase HIV transmissibility. However results have been inconsistent and this association has never been examined longitudinally.
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Phenotype Alterations in Regulatory T-Cell Subsets in Primary HIV Infection and Identification of Tr1-like Cells as the Main Interleukin 10-Producing CD4+ T Cells.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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?Conventional regulatory T cells (Tregs) can suppress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific immune responses but cannot control immune activation in primary HIV infection. Here, we characterized Treg subsets, using recently defined phenotypic delineation, and analyzed the relative contribution of cell subsets to the production of immunosuppressive cytokines in primary HIV infection.
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Sequential use of double-balloon catheter and oral misoprostol versus oral misoprostol alone for induction of labour at term (CRBplus trial): a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial.
BJOG
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy of inducing labour using a double-balloon catheter and oral misoprostol sequentially, in comparison with oral misoprostol alone.
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[Length of hospital stay for patients with proximal femoral fractures : Influencing factors.]
Unfallchirurg
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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In departments of orthopedic and trauma surgery patients with proximal femoral fractures constitute the largest proportion of trauma patients. The length of stay (LOS) has economic consequences and prolonged LOS leads to a shortage in bed capacity.
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Accuracy in detecting and measuring residual fragments with the Uro Dyna-CT.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Residual calculi after stone therapy need to be treated if they are clinically significant, mainly depending on the size of the calculi. There are different ways to detect and measure the size of residual calculi as for example KUB or computed tomography. The Uro Dyna-CT (Siemens Healthcare solutions, Erlangen, Germany) allows cross-sectional imaging and 3D reconstructions during endourological interventions. In this ex vivo study, we investigate the accuracy of imaging residual calculi with the Uro Dyna-CT.
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Anticoagulation in patients with impaired renal function and with haemodialysis. Anticoagulant effects, efficacy, safety, therapeutic options.
Hamostaseologie
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Patients with impaired renal function are exposed to an increased risk for bleeding complications depending on the amount of the anticoagulant eliminated by the kidneys. The elimination of unfractionated heparins, vitamin K antagonists and argatroban is only minimally influenced by a reduced renal function. Low-molecular weight heparins, fondaparinux, danaparoid, hirudins and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) cause a variably increased bleeding risk in renal impairment. Dose reductions are recommended for all of these anticoagulants in renal impairment, some are even contraindicated at certain levels of renal impairment. Their benefit over the conventional anticoagulants is preserved if renal dosing is employed. For end-stage renal disease patients specific treatment regimens are required.
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Rituximab extended schedule or re-treatment trial for low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma: eastern cooperative oncology group protocol e4402.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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In low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma (FL), maintenance rituximab (MR) has been shown to improve progression-free survival when compared with observation. It is not known whether MR provides superior long-term disease control compared with re-treatment rituximab (RR) administered on an as-needed basis. E4402 (RESORT) was a randomized clinical trial designed to compare MR against RR.
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[Everyday competencies and learning processes in old age : Results and perspectives of the PIAAC extension study "Competencies in later life"].
Z Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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This article deals with the study "Competencies in later life" (CiLL), a parallel study to the German program for the international assessment of adult competencies (PIAAC) survey which assesses the level and distribution of skills of the adult population in a representative study. Assuming the growing importance of learning and education in a society challenged by demographic changes, the first section of the paper outlines the qualitative research of learning activities of focus groups in the daily life of elderly people. The second section of the paper presents the survey design and exemplary findings of the quantitative CiLL study. Initial results show that basic skills of the elderly are highly influenced by personal and sociodemographic variables, particularly by educational background. The data available indicate that the participation of the elderly in adult education and the options available for competence development have to be increased.
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Mental, neurological, and substance use disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Depression, alcohol use disorders (AUD), and neurocognitive disorders are the 3 most prevalent mental, neurological, and substance use disorders in people living with HIV infection in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Importantly, they have an impact on everyday functions and on HIV outcomes. Many LMICs have validated tools to screen for and diagnose depression and AUD in the general population that can be used among people living with HIV infection. Current screening and diagnostic methods for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in the era of antiretroviral therapy are suboptimal and require further research. In our view, 2 research priorities are most critical. One is the development of an integrated screening approach for depression, AUD, and neurocognitive disorders that can be used by nonspecialists in LMICs. Second, research is needed on interventions for depression and AUD that also target behavior change, as these could impact on adherence to antiretroviral therapy and improve mental symptoms. Mentorship and fellowship schemes at an individual and institutional level need to be further supported to build capacity and provide platforms for research on HIV and mental, neurological, and substance use disorders in LMICs.
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Anisotropic diffusion of macromolecules in the contiguous nucleocytoplasmic fluid during eukaryotic cell division.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Character and rapidity of protein diffusion in intracellular fluids are key determinants of the dynamics and steady state of a plethora of biochemical reactions. So far, an anomalous diffusion in cytoplasmic fluids with viscoelastic and even glassy characteristics has been reported in a variety of organisms on several length scales and timescales. Here, we show that the contiguous fluid of former cytoplasm and nucleoplasm features an anisotropically varying diffusion of macromolecules during eukaryotic cell division. In metaphase, diffusion in the contiguous nucleocytoplasmic fluid appears less anomalous along the spindle axis as compared to perpendicular directions. As a consequence, the long-time diffusion of macromolecules preferentially points along the spindle axis, leading to prolonged residence of macromolecules in the spindle region. Based on our experimental data, we suggest that anisotropic diffusion facilitates the encounter and interaction of spindle-associated proteins, e.g., during the formation of a dynamic spindle matrix.
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Central venous thrombosis and thrombophilia in cystic fibrosis: A prospective study.
J. Cyst. Fibros.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Catheter venous thrombosis may result in life-threatening embolic complications. Recently, a thrombophilic tendency was described in cystic fibrosis (CF), the significance of which remains unclear. The aims of this study were to (1) document the frequency of catheter venous thrombosis detected by colour-Doppler-ultrasound (Doppler-US), (2) assess genetic and acquired thrombophilia risk factors for catheter venous thrombosis and hypercoagulability status and (3) provide recommendations on laboratory screening when considering insertion of a totally implantable vascular access device (TIVAD) in CF patients.
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Systematic review of strategies to increase men's HIV-testing in sub-Saharan Africa.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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This systematic review summarizes evidence on the effectiveness of strategies to increase men's HIV-testing in sub-Saharan Africa.
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[Factors influencing course of hospitalization in patients with hip fractures : Complications, length of stay and hospital mortality.]
Z Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Time of surgery, age, sex, and co-morbidities influence the complication and mortality rate in patients with hip fractures. Patients with relevant co-morbidities, who were hospitalized at the weekend have a higher mortality rate. Complications prolong length of stay (LOS), which results in higher costs and shortage of bed capacity.
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[Spectrum of missions for a rescue helicopter : Changes in a south German urban area over the last 25 years.]
Anaesthesist
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Over the past decade the number of air rescue missions has increased continuously. The reasons for this are still discussed at great length. In addition to the demographic changes to becoming an increasingly older and sicker society, the political reform in the healthcare system with a simultaneous reduction and concentration of hospitals and formation of centers is also under discussion.
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Risk factors for active trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in treatment-naïve trachoma-hyperendemic communities of the Bijagós Archipelago, Guinea Bissau.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is hyperendemic on the Bijagós Archipelago of Guinea Bissau. An understanding of the risk factors associated with active trachoma and infection on these remote and isolated islands, which are atypical of trachoma-endemic environments described elsewhere, is crucial to the implementation of trachoma elimination strategies.
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HIV among people who inject drugs in the Middle East and North Africa: systematic review and data synthesis.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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It is perceived that little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The primary objective of this study was to assess the status of the HIV epidemic among PWID in MENA by describing HIV prevalence and incidence. Secondary objectives were to describe the risk behavior environment and the HIV epidemic potential among PWID, and to estimate the prevalence of injecting drug use in MENA.
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T-cell activation positively correlates with cell-associated HIV-DNA level in viremic patients with primary or chronic HIV-1 infection.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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We investigated the relationship between the size of blood HIV reservoirs and T-cell activation in patients with primary HIV infection (PHI) and chronic HIV infection (CHI) before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption. Levels of T-cell activation strongly positively correlated with HIV-DNA levels in viremic PHI and CHI patients. In ART-treated CHI patients, residual immune activation was not associated with HIV-DNA levels. Interestingly, early levels of HIV-DNA in PHI predicted the extent of residual T-cell proliferation under ART.
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Head and neck cancer relapse after chemoradiotherapy correlates with CD163+ macrophages in primary tumour and CD11b+ myeloid cells in recurrences.
Br. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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We investigated the prognostic role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT).
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Introduction of Inhaled Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen for Pain Management during Labour - Evaluation of Patients' and Midwives' Satisfaction.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Aim: Effective pain management during labour is important because pain affects the birth experience. Epidural analgesia is effective but often it may not be possible; however, inhaled analgesia offers another option. Use of inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen for pain management in labour is well established in obstetrics but is still not used much in Germany. This study aimed to investigate the acceptance of the inhaled analgesia of inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen by midwives and pregnant women during labour. Material and Methods: In this observational study carried out between April and September 2013, a total of 66 pregnant women received inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen during labour on request and after prior assessment of suitability. After the birth, all of the women and the responsible midwives were interviewed about their experience and satisfaction with the inhaled analgesia. Results: A statistically significant reduction of pain was achieved with nitrous oxide and oxygen. The inhaled analgesia was mostly used by women who refused epidural analgesia. The likelihood of using inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen again was reported as higher for patients who tolerated it well (p?=?0.0129) and used it in the second stage of labour (p?=?0.0003) and when bearing down (p?=?0.0008). Conclusion: Inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen is an effective method for pain management during labour and is accepted well by women in labour and by midwives.
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Feasibility of arthroscopic 3-dimensional, purely autologous chondrocyte transplantation for chondral defects of the hip: a case series.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe technical aspects of arthroscopic, purely autologous chondrocyte transplantation of the hip and to report short-term data of the postoperative outcome in a consecutive series of patients.
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[Treatment duration of trauma and orthopedic patients in an emergency department].
Chirurg
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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The majority of emergency patients are admitted to hospital via the emergency department. Overcrowding in emergency departments results in dissatisfied patients, increased complication rates, and negative medicoeconomic consequences. To overcome these problems, sufficient personnel strength should be available depending on treatment duration and the patients' characteristics.
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Dynamic acoustic control of individual optically active quantum dot-like emission centers in heterostructure nanowires.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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We probe and control the optical properties of emission centers forming in radial heterostructure GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As nanowires and show that these emitters, located in Al0.3Ga0.7As layers, can exhibit quantum-dot like characteristics. We employ a radio frequency surface acoustic wave to dynamically control their emission energy, and occupancy state on a nanosecond time scale. In the spectral oscillations, we identify unambiguous signatures arising from both the mechanical and electrical component of the surface acoustic wave. In addition, different emission lines of a single emission center exhibit pronounced anticorrelated intensity oscillations during the acoustic cycle. These arise from a dynamically triggered carrier extraction out of the emission center to a continuum in the radial heterostructure. Using finite element modeling and Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin theory we identify quantum tunneling as the underlying mechanism. These simulation results quantitatively reproduce the observed switching and show that in our systems these emission centers are spatially separated from the continuum by >10.5 nm.
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Association between Mycoplasma genitalium infection and HIV acquisition among female sex workers in Uganda: evidence from a nested case-control study.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Cross-sectional studies have shown a strong association between Mycoplasma genitalium and HIV infections. We previously reported that in a cohort of female sex workers in Uganda, M genitalium infection at baseline was associated with HIV seroconversion. Here we examine the temporal association between the M genitalium infection status shortly before HIV seroconversion and HIV acquisition.
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Probing the type of anomalous diffusion with single-particle tracking.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Many reactions in complex fluids, e.g. signaling cascades in the cytoplasm of living cells, are governed by a diffusion-driven encounter of reactants. Yet, diffusion in complex fluids often exhibits an anomalous characteristic ('subdiffusion'). Since different types of subdiffusion have distinct effects on timing and equilibria of chemical reactions, a thorough determination of the reactants' type of random walk is key to a quantitative understanding of reactions in complex fluids. Here we introduce a straightforward and simple approach for determining the type of subdiffusion from single-particle tracking data. Unlike previous approaches, our method also is sensitive to transient subdiffusion phenomena, e.g. obstructed diffusion below the percolation threshold. We validate our strategy with data from experiment and simulation.
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Neuropathic symptoms, quality of life, and clinician perception of patient care in medical oncology outpatients with colorectal, breast, lung, and prostate cancer.
J Cancer Surviv
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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We investigated how treatment-induced neuropathic symptoms are associated with patients' quality of life (QOL) and clinician-reported difficulty in caring for patients.
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The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lay counsellor-delivered psychological treatments for harmful and dependent drinking and moderate to severe depression in primary care in India: PREMIUM study protocol for randomized controlled trials.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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The leading mental health causes of the global burden of disease are depression in women and alcohol use disorders in men. A major hurdle to the implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments in primary care in developing countries is the non-availability of skilled human resources. The aim of these trials is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two psychological treatments developed for the treatment of depression and alcohol use disorders in primary care in India.
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North Central Cancer Treatment Group/Alliance trial N08CA-the use of glutathione for prevention of paclitaxel/carboplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy: a phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a significant side effect of taxane and platinum-based chemotherapy. Several studies have supported the potential benefit of glutathione for the prevention of platinum-induced CIPN. The current trial was designed to determine whether glutathione would prevent CIPN as a result of carboplatin/paclitaxel therapy.
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The Nakuru eye disease cohort study: methodology & rationale.
BMC Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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No longitudinal data from population-based studies of eye disease in sub-Saharan-Africa are available. A population-based survey was undertaken in 2007/08 to estimate the prevalence and determinants of blindness and low vision in Nakuru district, Kenya. This survey formed the baseline to a six-year prospective cohort study to estimate the incidence and progression of eye disease in this population.
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Implementation of fluidized granulated iron reactors in a chromate remediation process.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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A new approach concerning in-situ remediation on source ('hot-spot') decontamination of a chromate damage in connection with an innovative pump-and-treat-technique has been developed. Iron granulates show significant higher reduction rates, using fluidized bed conditions, than a literature study with a fixed bed installation of small-sized iron granules. First results from an abandoned tannery site concerning injections of sodium dithionite as a chromate reductant for the vadose zone in combination with a pump-and-treat-method, allying the advantages of granulated zero valent iron (ZVI), are reported. Reduction amounts of chromate have been found up to 88% compared with initial values in the soil after a soil water exchange of 8 pore volumes within 2.5 months. Chromate concentrations in the pumped effluent have been reduced to under the detection limit of 0.005 mg/L by treatment with ZVI in the pilot plant.
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Pericardial, intra-abdominal, and subcutaneous adipose tissue in patients with major depressive disorder.
Acta Psychiatr Scand
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk for developing coronary artery disease (CAD). Recently, pericardial adipose tissue, a metabolically active visceral fat depot surrounding the heart, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD. Therefore, we investigated pericardial adipose tissue volumes in patients with MDD and compared them to healthy comparison subjects.
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Neuropilin-2 and its ligand VEGF-C predict treatment response after transurethral resection and radiochemotherapy in bladder cancer patients.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The standard treatment for invasive bladder cancer is radical cystectomy. In selected patients, bladder-sparing therapy can be performed by transurethral resection (TURBT) and radio-chemotherapy (RCT) or radiotherapy (RT). Our published in vitro data suggest that the Neuropilin-2 (NRP2)/VEGF-C axis plays a role in therapy resistance. Therefore, we studied the prognostic impact of NRP2 and VEGF-C in 247 bladder cancer patients (cN0M0) treated with TURBT and RCT (n?=?198) or RT (n?=?49) and a follow-up time up to 15 years. A tissue microarray was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. NRP2 expression emerged as a prognostic factor in overall survival (OS; HR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.48 - 7.86; p?=?0.004) and was associated with a 3.85-fold increased risk of an early cancer specific death (95% CI: 0.91 - 16.24; p?=?0.066) in multivariate analyses. Cancer specific survival (CSS) dropped from 166 months to 85 months when NRP2 was highly expressed (p?=?0.037). Patients with high VEGF-C expression have a 2.29-fold increased risk of shorter CSS (95% CI: 1.03-5.35; p?=?0.043) in univariate analysis. CSS dropped from 170 months to 88 months in the case of high VEGF-C expression (p?=?0.041). Additionally, NRP2 and VEGF-C coexpression is a prognostic marker for OS in multivariate models (HR: 7.54; 95% CI: 1.57-36.23; p?=?0.012). Stratification for muscle invasiveness (T1 vs. T2-T4) confirmed the prognostic role of NRP2 and NRP2/VEGF-C co-expression in patients with T2-T4 but also with high risk T1 disease. In conclusion, immunohistochemistry for NRP2 and VEGF-C has been determined to predict therapy outcome in bladder cancer patients prior to TURBT and RCT.
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Concomitant chemoradiotherapy versus induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy as definitive, first line treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A retrospective single center analysis.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Despite the lack of evidence to support its implementation in the clinical practice, induction chemotherapy (IC) before chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is often used in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). We retrospectively examined the tolerability, feasibility, and clinical outcome of both concepts in a single center analysis.
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The dynamic spindle matrix.
Curr. Opin. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Chromosome segregation during mitosis is mediated by the mitotic spindle, a structure composed of microtubules associated with a variety of proteins. Additionally, a distinct biochemical milieu, the 'spindle matrix', has long been proposed to assist this process and recent work provided compelling evidence for its existence in living animal cells. Here we focus on the dynamic properties of such a matrix, highlighting its roles in the spatial and temporal control of mitotic fidelity in respect to recent findings in different systems. Based on these findings and on theoretical principles behind molecular crowding, we challenge the idea of the spindle matrix as one functional entity and propose that some observed phenomena associated with this elusive structure could simply be a consequence of intrinsic cellular architecture and cytoplasmic 'compartmentalization' during mitosis.
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Crowding, diffusion, and biochemical reactions.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Diffusion is the basic mode of transport for molecules in living cells. Diffusion leads to dispersion of individual molecules, but it is also the driving force behind biochemical reactions and pattern formation as diffusional motion mediates reactant encounters. Owing to macromolecular crowding in all cellular fluids and biomembranes, diffusion of molecules in cells is quite different from the motion observed in dilute solutions in a test tube. Hindered and anomalous diffusion are seen in cells, and biochemical reactions are affected by these. This review is intended to give an introduction and a brief overview about causes and consequences of crowding-induced diffusion anomalies and their impact on biochemical reactions.
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Clinical Features and Risk Factors for Atazanavir (ATV)-Associated Urolithiasis: A Case-Control Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Clinical features and risk factors for atazanavir (ATV)-associated urolithiasis have not been fully investigated.
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CD4+ cell count recovery in naïve patients initiating cART, who achieved and maintained plasma HIV-RNA suppression.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A key objective of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is to reach and maintain high CD4 cell counts to provide long-term protection against AIDS-defining opportunistic infections and malignancies, as well as other comorbidities. However, a high proportion of patients present late for care. Our objective was to assess CD4 cell count recovery up to seven years in naïve patients initiating cART with at least three drugs in usual clinical care.
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Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in HIV-1-infected women taking antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort study from Burkina Faso.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are common sexually transmitted infections (STI). We assessed the cumulative risk of NG and CT in a cohort of HIV-1-infected high-risk women taking antiretrovirals over 4 years in Burkina Faso.
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Etiology of genital ulcer disease and association with HIV infection in Malawi.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic management for patients presenting with genital ulcer disease (GUD) in developing countries. However, effective treatment guidelines depend on a current country-specific GUD etiological profile, which may change over time.
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Epidemiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Africa.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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To describe the epidemiology and an aetiological model of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in Africa.
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[Early complication rate of fractures close to the hip joint : Dependence on treatment in on-call services and comorbidities.]
Unfallchirurg
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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Guidelines advocate early surgery for proximal femoral fractures so that operations are frequently performed in on-call duty times. Multimorbid patients also suffer more frequently from postoperative complications. Does on-call duty or night shift services correlate with higher postoperative complication rates and what influence do comorbidities have?
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Effect of HSV-2 on population-level trends in HIV incidence in Uganda between 1990 and 2007.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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To assess the long-term effects of population-level HSV-2 infection on HIV incidence.
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TBX3 Directs Cell-Fate Decision toward Mesendoderm.
Stem Cell Reports
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Cell-fate decisions and pluripotency are dependent on networks of key transcriptional regulators. Recent reports demonstrated additional functions of pluripotency-associated factors during early lineage commitment. The T-box transcription factor TBX3 has been implicated in regulating embryonic stem cell self-renewal and cardiogenesis. Here, we show that TBX3 is dynamically expressed during specification of the mesendoderm lineages in differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro and in developing mouse and Xenopus embryos in vivo. Forced TBX3 expression in ESCs promotes mesendoderm specification by directly activating key lineage specification factors and indirectly by enhancing paracrine Nodal/Smad2 signaling. TBX3 loss-of-function analyses in the Xenopus underline its requirement for mesendoderm lineage commitment. Moreover, we uncovered a functional redundancy between TBX3 and Tbx2 during Xenopus gastrulation. Taken together, we define further facets of TBX3 actions and map TBX3 as an upstream regulator of the mesendoderm transcriptional program during gastrulation.
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Unusual acute and delayed skin reactions during and after whole-brain radiotherapy in combination with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib : Two case reports.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Besides radiotherapy (RT) and surgery, the introduction of BRAF inhibitors like vemurafenib has provided new opportunities for treatment of patients with metastasized malignant melanomas. RT and vemurafenib are being increasingly used concurrently, although little is known about the potential side effects of this combination. Vemurafenib is known to cause severe cutaneous skin reactions such as phototoxicity and evidence is accumulating that RT may further enhance these side effects.
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[Abstracts at congresses of the German Society of Urology. Trends and quality].
Urologe A
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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The congress of the German Society of Urology is the third biggest urology congress worldwide and reflects the scientific landscape of urology in Germany. In the congress abstracts, detailed data regarding study design, current trends in urologic research and the cooperation of authors are lacking. We wanted to identify factors contributing to the likelihood of an abstract being followed by a publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
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Effect of Chlamydia diagnosis on heterosexual relationships.
Int J STD AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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This study investigated whether a Chlamydia diagnosis was associated with relationship breakup or physical violence from partners when compared to other attenders at a sexually transmitted infections (STIs) clinic. Patients diagnosed with Chlamydia and who had a regular partner at the time of diagnosis, were contacted 3-12 months later and completed a questionnaire on relationship history. A comparison group of gender-matched non-STI patients were also interviewed. About half of Chlamydia cases (exposed) and non-cases (unexposed) had broken up with their partner since diagnosis (52% vs. 47%; p=0.42), but cases were more likely to have split up within one week of diagnosis (48% vs. 24%; p=0.003), and somewhat more likely to resume the relationship (24% vs. 15%; p=0.24). The prevalence of reported physical violence in the past year was slightly higher in cases than the unexposed group (9% vs. 4%; p=0.09). Cases that saw a health adviser were less likely to report experiencing physical violence than those who had not seen a health adviser (7% vs. 12%: p=0.31). Patients with Chlamydia are more likely to suffer relationship breakup soon after diagnosis than STI clinic attenders without an STI. Health advice should include reassurance about sexual relationships as well as safer sex.
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In vivo confocal microscopy and histopathology of the conjunctiva in trachomatous scarring and normal tissue: a systematic comparison.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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To compare in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) with the histopathological examination of tissue and cellular changes in normal and diseased conjunctiva.
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The outcome of trachomatous trichiasis surgery in Ethiopia: risk factors for recurrence.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Over 1.2 million people are blind from trachomatous trichiasis (TT). Lid rotation surgery is the mainstay of treatment, but recurrence rates can be high. We investigated the outcomes (recurrence rates and other complications) of posterior lamellar tarsal rotation (PLTR) surgery, one of the two most widely practised TT procedures in endemic settings.
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Mechanical cues in the early embryogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Biochemical signaling pathways in developmental processes have been extensively studied, yet the role of mechanical cues during embryogenesis is much less explored. Here we have used selective plane illumination microscopy in combination with a simple mechanical model to quantify and rationalize cell motion during early embryogenesis of the small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. As a result, we find that cell organization in the embryo until gastrulation is well described by a purely mechanical model that predicts cells to assume positions in which they face the least repulsive interactions from other cells and the embryos egg shell. Our findings therefore suggest that mechanical interactions are key for a rapid and robust cellular arrangement during early embryogenesis of C. elegans.
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Characterization of indoor dust from Brazil and evaluation of the cytotoxicity in A549 lung cells.
Environ Geochem Health
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Over the past decade, ambient air particulate matter (PM) has been clearly associated with adverse health effects. In Brazil, small and poor communities are exposed to indoor dust derived from both natural sources, identified as blowing soil dust, and anthropogenic particles from mining activities. This study investigates the physicochemical and mineralogical composition of indoor PM10 dust samples collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and evaluates its cytotoxicity and inflammatory potential. The mean PM10 mass concentration was 206 ?g/m(3). The high dust concentration in the interior of the residences is strongly related to blowing soil dust. The chemical and mineralogical compositions were determined by ICP-OES and XRD, and the most prominent minerals were clays, Fe-oxide, quartz, feldspars, Al(hydr)oxides, zeolites, and anatase, containing the transition metals Fe, Cr, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ti, and Mn as well as the metalloid As. The indoor dust samples presented a low water solubility of about 6 %. In vitro experiments were carried out with human lung alveolar carcinoma cells (A549) to study the toxicological effects. The influence of the PM10 dust samples on cell viability, intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was analysed. The indoor dust showed little effects on alamarBlue reduction indicating unaltered mitochondrial activity. However, significant cell membrane damage, ROS production, and IL-8 release were detected in dependence of dose and time. This study will support the implementation of mitigation actions in the investigated area in Brazil.
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The symptom burden of cancer: Evidence for a core set of cancer-related and treatment-related symptoms from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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A set of common cancer-related and treatment-related symptoms has been proposed for quality of care assessment and clinical research. Using data from a large, multicenter, prospective study, the authors assessed the effects of disease site and stage on the percentages of patients rating these proposed symptoms as moderate to severe.
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Catatonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and cotard syndrome in a 22-year-old woman: a case report.
Case Rep Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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The following case study describes a 22-year-old woman with depression and symptoms of psychosis who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome after using Risperidone, thus requiring life support equipment and Bromocriptine, later recovering after seven days. From a psychiatric and neurological point of view, however, the persistence of catatonic syndrome and Cotard syndrome delusions was observed, based on assertions such as "I do not have a heart," "my heart is not beating," "I can not breathe," "I am breaking apart," "I have no head" (ideas of negation) and statements about the patient being responsible for the "death of the whole world" (ideas of enormity). Brain NMR revealed leukoencephalopathy, interpreted as scar lesions caused by perinatal neurological damage, after discarding other pathologies. The patient responded well to electroconvulsive therapy after 11 sessions. Organic vulnerability to these syndromes, as well as their coexistence and clinical differentiation is discussed in the light of the data observed.
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Li+ transport in poly(ethylene oxide) based electrolytes: neutron scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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The dynamics of Li(+) transport in polyethylene oxide (PEO) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imde mixtures are investigated by combining neutron spin-echo (NSE) and dielectric spectroscopy with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results are summarized in a relaxation time map covering wide ranges of temperature and time. The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity and the dielectric ? relaxation time is found to be identical, indicating a strong coupling between both. The relaxation times obtained from the NSE measurements at 0.05 Å(-1)
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[Active muscle extension testing of the hamstrings: reference values and impacting factors].
Sportverletz Sportschaden
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Less muscle elasticity of the hamstrings increases the risk of muscle strain. Muscle balance is the purpose of muscle stretching. The active knee-extension test (AKE) represents an established test of muscle elasticity. For evaluating the test results standard values are necessary. The aim of this study is to measure standard values of the AKE test in a collective of healthy male and female fitness athletes and to determine factors of muscle elasticity.
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Lack of regression of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions despite immune restoration under cART.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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A high prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections were observed in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in the precART (combined antiretroviral therapy) era. The impact of cART on the natural history of HPV infection and ASIL is poorly documented.
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Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes predict response to definitive chemoradiotherapy in head and neck cancer.
Br. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Background:We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) expression in pretreatment specimens from patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT).Methods:The prevalence of CD3+, CD8+, CD4+ and FOXP3+ TILs was assessed using immunohistochemistry in tumour tissue obtained from 101 patients before CRT and was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics as well as local failure-free- (LFFS), distant metastases free- (DMFS), progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Survival curves were measured using the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences in survival between the groups were estimated using the log-rank test. Prognostic effects of TIL subset density were determined using the Cox regression analysis.Results:With a mean follow-up of 25 months (range, 2.3-63 months), OS at 2 years was 57.4% for the entire cohort. Patients with high immunohistochemical CD3 and CD8 expression had significantly increased OS (P=0.024 and P=0.028), PFS (P=0.044 and P=0.047) and DMFS (P=0.021 and P=0.026) but not LFFS (P=0.90 and P=0.104) in multivariate analysis that included predictive clinicopathologic factors, such as age, sex, T-stage, N-stage, tumour grading and localisation. Neither CD4 nor FOXP3 expression showed significance for the clinical outcome. The lower N-stage was associated with improved OS in the multivariate analysis (P=0.049).Conclusion:The positive correlation between a high number of infiltrating CD3+ and CD8+ cells and clinical outcome indicates that TILs may have a beneficial role in HNSCC patients and may serve as a biomarker to identify patients likely to benefit from definitive CRT.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 15 October 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.640 www.bjcancer.com.
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The Th17/Treg ratio, IL-1RA and sCD14 levels in primary HIV infection predict the T-cell activation set point in the absence of systemic microbial translocation.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Impairment of the intestinal barrier and subsequent microbial translocation (MT) may be involved in chronic immune activation, which plays a central role in HIV pathogenesis. Th17 cells are critical to prevent MT. The aim of the study was to investigate, in patients with primary HIV infection (PHI), the early relationship between the Th17/Treg ratio, monocyte activation and MT and their impact on the T-cell activation set point, which is known to predict disease progression. 27 patients with early PHI were included in a prospective longitudinal study and followed-up for 6 months. At baseline, the Th17/Treg ratio strongly negatively correlated with the proportion of activated CD8 T cells expressing CD38/HLA-DR or Ki-67. Also, the Th17/Treg ratio was negatively related to viral load and plasma levels of sCD14 and IL-1RA, two markers of monocyte activation. In untreated patients, the Th17/Treg ratio at baseline negatively correlated with CD8 T-cell activation at month 6 defining the T-cell activation set point (% HLA-DR(+)CD38(+) and %Ki-67(+)). Soluble CD14 and IL-1RA plasma levels also predicted the T-cell activation set point. Levels of I-FABP, a marker of mucosal damages, were similar to healthy controls at baseline but increased at month 6. No decrease in anti-endotoxin core antibody (EndoCAb) and no peptidoglycan were detected during PHI. In addition, 16S rDNA was only detected at low levels in 2 out 27 patients at baseline and in one additional patient at M6. Altogether, data support the hypothesis that T-cell and monocyte activation in PHI are not primarily driven by systemic MT but rather by viral replication. Moreover, the "innate immune set point" defined by the early levels of sCD14 and IL-1RA might be powerful early surrogate markers for disease progression and should be considered for use in clinical practice.
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Ocular parameters of biological ageing in HIV-infected individuals in South Africa: relationship with chronological age and systemic biomarkers of ageing.
Mech. Ageing Dev.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk of age-related morbidity despite antiretroviral treatment (ART). Several anatomic and functional ophthalmological parameters are associated with increasing chronological age. These may, therefore, potentially serve as biomarkers of ageing. We investigated associations between ocular parameters (lens density, retinal vessel calibre, corneal endothelium and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness) and two cellular biomarkers of ageing (leukocyte telomere length and CDKN2A expression) and with frailty in a cross-sectional study of 216 HIV-infected individuals. All ocular parameters, telomere length and frailty were associated with chronological age, whereas CDKN2A expression was not. Retinal venular calibre and lens density were associated with shorter telomere length (p-trend=0.04, and 0.08, respectively), whereas CDKN2A expression and frailty status were not associated with ocular parameters. Longitudinal studies are warranted to assess the integration of retinal vascular calibre and lens density with systemic markers to develop an overall index of biological ageing in HIV infection.
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Diagnosing Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in East Africa: Case-Control Study of Clinical and In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Assessment.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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To examine the reliability of clinical examination and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in distinguishing ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) from benign conjunctival lesions.
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[Professional image of anesthetists in the general public : Influence of provision of information and previous experience with the discipline.]
Anaesthesist
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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The profession of the anesthetist in Germany includes the disciplines anesthesia, intensive care, emergency and pain medicine. Despite the versatility and competence of the profession, patients do not appear to have recognized anesthesiology as a medical discipline or anesthetists as medical doctors.
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Single-particle tracking data reveal anticorrelated fractional Brownian motion in crowded fluids.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Anomalous diffusion with a sublinear growth of the particles mean-square displacement (subdiffusion) has been observed frequently in crowded fluids, e.g., in the cytoplasm of living cells or in artificial solutions. Based on a recently reported set of single-particle tracking data, it is shown here that trajectories of nanoparticles immersed in artificial crowded fluids display all signatures of anticorrelated fractional Brownian motion. Moreover, the trajectories power spectrum follows a scaling that reports on the fluids viscoelasticity. Macromolecular crowding therefore renders fluids viscoelastic which in turn leads to subdiffusion of immersed tracer particles with all the characteristics of fractional Brownian motion.
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Impact of S3 training courses "Sedation and Emergency Management in Endoscopy for Endoscopy Nurses and Assisting Personnel" on the process and structure quality in gastroenterological endoscopy in practices and clinics - results of a nationwide survey.
Z Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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After the S3 Guideline Sedation in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy was published, a training curriculum for a three-day course for endoscopy nurses was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate what effect the course participation had on the daily routine process and structure quality by implementing a German-wide survey in gastroenterology practices and clinics.
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Immunity and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a rare disease, but its incidence has been increasing dramatically since the 1970s. Men who have sex with men (MSM) and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the two main risk factors. Risk of developing SCCA is increased more than 100-fold in HIV-seropositive MSM. We review here how immunodeficiency could promote SCCA and how restoration of immunity since the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy can influence the natural history and incidence of SCCA. We also review the prognostic and therapeutic implications of immunosuppression in these patients. Finally, we show how, with anti-HPV vaccines, immunity is a target in the prevention of SCCA and could in the future be used in its treatment.
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Oral alpha-lipoic acid to prevent chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is frequently a dose-limiting factor in cancer treatment and may cause pain and irreversible function loss in cancer survivors. We tested whether alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) could decrease the severity of peripheral neuropathy symptoms in patients undergoing platinum-based chemotherapy.
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Add-on omalizumab in children with severe allergic asthma: a 1-year real life survey.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Omalizumab has been shown to reduce exacerbation rates in moderate to severe allergic asthma. Our aim was to evaluate omalizumab efficacy and safety in a real-life setting in severe asthmatic children. 104 children (aged 6-18 years), followed up in paediatric pulmonary tertiary care centres, were included at the beginning of omalizumab treatment. Asthma control levels, exacerbations, inhaled corticosteroid dose, lung function and adverse events were evaluated over 1 year. Children were characterised by allergic sensitisation to three or more allergens (66%), high IgE levels (mean 1125 kU · L(-1)), high rate of exacerbations (4.4 per year) and healthcare use during the previous year, and high inhaled corticosteroid dose (mean 703 ?g equivalent fluticasone per day). Asthma control levels defined as good, partial or poor, improved from 0%, 18% and 82% at entry to 53%, 30% and 17% at week 20, and to 67%, 25% and 8% at week 52, respectively (p<0.0001). Exacerbation and hospitalisation rates dropped by 72% and 88.5%, respectively. At 12 months, forced expiratory volume in 1 s improved by 4.9% (p=0.023), and inhaled corticosteroid dose decreased by 30% (p<0.001). Six patients stopped omalizumab for related significant adverse events. Omalizumab improved asthma control in children with severe allergic asthma and was generally well tolerated. The observed benefit was greater than that reported in clinical trials.
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Efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of once-daily boosted darunavir in pretreated HIV-infected patients.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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The efficacy and safety of switching to a combined regimen containing darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) was investigated in a retrospective study.
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Feasibility study of patient positioning verification in electron beam radiotherapy with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID).
Phys Med
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of verification and documentation in electron beam radiotherapy using the photon contamination detected with an electronic portal imaging device. For investigation of electron beam verification with an EPID, the portal images are acquired irradiating two different tissue equivalent phantoms at different electron energies. Measurements were performed on an Elekta SL 25 linear accelerator with an amorphous-Si electronic portal imaging device (EPID: iViewGT™, Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK). As a measure of EPID image quality contrast (CR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are determined. For characterisation of the imaging of the EPID RW3 slabs and a Gammex 467 phantom with different material inserts are used. With increasing electron energy the intensity of photon contamination increases, yielding an increasing signal-to-noise ratio, but images are showing a decreasing contrast. As the signal-to-noise ratio saturates with increasing dose a minimum of 50 MUs is recommended. Even image quality depends on electron energy and diameter of the patient, the acquired results are mostly sufficient to assess the accuracy of beam positioning. In general, the online EPID acquisition has been demonstrated to be an effective electron beam verification and documentation method. The results are showing that this procedure can be recommended to be routinely and reliably done in patient treatment with electron beams.
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A multisite, community oncology-based randomized trial of a brief educational intervention to increase communication regarding complementary and alternative medicine.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread, yet there is relatively little discussion regarding its use between oncology patients and their health care practitioners.
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Adjuvant IMRT/XELOX radiochemotherapy improves long-term overall- and disease-free survival in advanced gastric cancer.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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In a retrospective analysis, adjuvant intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with modern chemotherapy improved advanced gastric cancer survival rates compared to a combination of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and conventional chemotherapy. We report on the long-term outcomes of two consecutive patient cohorts that were treated with either IMRT and intensive chemotherapy, or 3D-CRT and conventional chemotherapy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.