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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Discovery and Characterization of the Tuberculosis Drug Lead Ecumicin.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The new tuberculosis (TB) lead ecumicin (1), a cyclic tridecapeptide, was isolated from Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123, following a high-throughput campaign for anti-TB activity. The large molecular weight of 1599 amu detected by LC-HR-MS precluded the initial inference of its molecular formula. The individual building blocks were identified by extensive NMR experiments. The resulting two possible planar structures were distinguished by LC-MS(2). Determination of absolute configuration and unambiguous structural confirmation were carried out by X-ray crystallography and Marfey's analysis.
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Transumbilical Retrieval of Surgical Specimens Through a Multichannel Port.
JSLS
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Laparoscopic surgery is often used to excise adnexal masses; however, the retrieval of specimens such as large cystic masses through conventional 5- or 10-mm ports is difficult and time-consuming. We compared outcomes between conventional laparoscopic surgery for adnexal masses and transumbilical specimen retrieval through a multichannel port during single- or 2-port laparoscopy.
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Large Solid Hemangioblastoma in the Cerebellopontine Angle: Complete Resection Using the Transcondylar Fossa Approach.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Hemangioblastomas (HBMs) in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) have rarely been reported. When they are within the CPA, they may be misdiagnosed as vestibular schwannoma (VS) or cystic meningioma. Therefore, differential diagnosis is important for the safe treatment of the lesion. Large solid HBMs, similar to intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), are difficult to surgically remove from an eloquent area because of their location and hypervascularity. We report a case of an HBM in the CPA, which manifested as a hearing impairment or VS. Similar to AVM surgery, the tumor was widely opened and removed en bloc without a new neurological complication using the modified transcondylar fossa approach without resection of the jugular tubercle. Accurate diagnosis, pre-operative embolization, and a tailored approach were essential for the safe treatment of the HBM in the CPA.
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Acid-activated biochar increased sulfamethazine retention in soils.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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Sulfamethazine (SMZ) is an ionizable and highly mobile antibiotic which is frequently found in soil and water environments. We investigated the sorption of SMZ onto soils amended with biochars (BCs) at varying pH and contact time. Invasive plants were pyrolyzed at 700 °C and were further activated with 30 % sulfuric (SBBC) and oxalic (OBBC) acids. The sorption rate of SMZ onto SBBC and OBBC was pronouncedly pH dependent and was decreased significantly when the values of soil pH increased from 3 to 5. Modeled effective sorption coefficients (K D,eff) values indicated excellent sorption on SBBC-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils for 229 and 183 L/kg, respectively. On the other hand, the low sorption values were determined for OBBC- and BBC700-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that the pseudo second order model was the best followed by intra-particle diffusion and the Elovich model, indicating that multiple processes govern SMZ sorption. These findings were also supported by sorption edge experiments based on BC characteristics. Chemisorption onto protonated and ligand containing functional groups of the BC surface, and diffusion in macro-, meso-, and micro-pores of the acid-activated BCs are the proposed mechanisms of SMZ retention in soils. Calculated and experimental q e (amount adsorbed per kg of the adsorbent at equilibrium) values were well fitted to the pseudo second order model, and the predicted maximum equilibrium concentration of SBBC for loamy sand soils was 182 mg/kg. Overall, SBBC represents a suitable soil amendment because of its high sorption rate of SMZ in soils.
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Use of APACHE II and SAPS II to predict mortality for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke patients.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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We studied the applicability of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute stroke and compared the results with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We also conducted a comparative study of accuracy for predicting hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke mortality. Between January 2011 and December 2012, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke patients admitted to the ICU were included in the study. APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were compared using a calibration curve, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the results were compared with the GCS and NIHSS. Overall 498 patients were included in this study. The observed mortality was 26.3%, whereas APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were 35.12% and 35.34%, respectively. The mean GCS and NIHSS scores were 9.43 and 21.63, respectively. The calibration curve was close to the line of perfect prediction. The ROC curve showed a slightly better prediction of mortality for APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients. The GCS and NIHSS were inferior in predicting mortality in both patient groups. Although both the APACHE II and SAPS II systems can be used to measure performance in the neurosurgical ICU setting, the accuracy of APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients was superior.
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Extraneural Metastases of Glioblastoma without Simultaneous Central Nervous System Recurrence.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is well known as the most common malignant primary brain tumor. It could easily spread into the adjacent or distant brain tissue by infiltration, direct extension and cerebro-spinal fluid dissemination. The extranueural metastatic spread of GBM is relatively rare but it could have more progressive disease course. We report a 39-year-old man who had multiple bone metastases and malignant pleural effusion of the GBM without primary site recurrence.
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Clinical relevance of the revised Atlanta classification focusing on severity stratification system.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Recognizing the limitation of the Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis (AP), two international classifications have been recently proposed; the revised Atlanta classification and the determinant-based classification. There is an inconsistency between the two international classifications on whether infected necrosis (IN) is the major determinant of severity in AP. The aim of the current study was to validate the revised Atlanta classification and to determine the association of this new classification system with relevant clinical outcome in patients with AP.
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Off-treatment virologic relapse and outcomes of re-treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients who achieved complete viral suppression with oral nucleos(t)ide analogs.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The durability of off-treatment virologic responses has not been fully elucidated in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who have previously achieved complete virologic suppression with nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy. This study aimed to assess off-treatment virologic relapse rates and to characterize the outcomes of subsequent re-treatment in CHB patients who have discontinued oral NA following complete virologic suppression.
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All-optical gain-clamped EDFA using external saturation signal for burst-mode upstream in TWDM-PONs.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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While the gain-transient suppression of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) has been widely studied, the large interval between upstream burst-mode signals from optical network units (ONUs) in time- and wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical networks (TWDM-PONs) presents new challenges. A non-gain-clamped EDFA acting as a preamplifier does not have the desired overshoot on the burst-mode signal when there are only a few ONUs in operation in the TWDM-PON. To solve this problem, we propose an all-optical gain-clamped EDFA (OGC-EDFA) that uses a distributed feedback laser diode to generate a saturation signal. An OGC-EDFA based on a ring laser configuration was also tested to compare the overshoot performance; the both OGC-EDFAs showed negligible overshoot performance. Given the negligible overshoot and wide input dynamic range of the OGC-EDFA, the proposed amplifier is thought to be a simple, low-cost solution for TWDM-PON applications.
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Evaluation of risk factors for vertebral compression fracture after stereotactic radiosurgery in spinal tumor patients.
Korean J Spine
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an emerging treatment modality for malignant spinal tumors. After SRS, some patients suffered from pain aggravation due to development of vertebral compression fracture (VCF). In these cases, surgery should be considered.
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Factors affecting tumor ablation during high intensity focused ultrasound treatment.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) utilizes a targeted extracorporeal focused ultrasound beam to ablate neoplastic pancreatic tissue. We used an in vitro model to examine the effects of bone, metallic stents, plastic stents, metal plates, and cyst-like lesions on HIFU treatment.
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Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided gallbladder drainage for acute cholecystitis: From evidence to practice.
Dig Endosc
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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With the evolution of the linear echoendoscope and the improved ability to direct a needle within the field of interest, the therapeutic potential of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has greatly expanded. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided transmural gallbladder drainage (EUS-GBD) may be the next frontier for therapeutic EUS. Since EUS-GBD was first described in 2007, recent reports have suggested it as an alternative to external gallbladder drainage for acute cholecystitis. EUS-GBD includes EUS-guided transmural nasogallbladder drainage, EUS-guided gallbladder aspiration, and EUS-guided transmural gallbladder stenting. Indications for the EUS-GBD technique as currently practiced, including equipment, technical details, complications, and efficacy are herein reviewed.
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Isolated Central Nervous System Relapse of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of childhood cancer and may exhibit central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Advances in chemotherapy and effective CNS prophylaxis have significantly decreased the incidence of CNS relapse of ALL to 5-10%. Here, we report the case of a patient with isolated CNS relapse of standard risk group pre-B-cell type ALL in an 11-year-old girl, relapsed 3 years after successful completion of chemotherapy. An 11-year-old girl visited our hospital complaining of headache, dizziness, vomiting, and visual field defects. Neurological examination revealed left-side homonymous hemianopsia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a large irregular dural-based sulcal hematoma in the right parietal and occipital lobes. Surgery to remove the hematoma revealed the existence of hematopoietic malignancy after pathologic evaluation. Bone marrow biopsy was subsequently performed but showed no evidence of malignancy.
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Brain Metastases of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Horner's Syndrome.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has relatively favorable prognosis. Blood-borne metastases of PTC are very rare among the thyroid malignancies. Moreover a case of blood-borne central nervous system metastasized PTC with only unilateral Horner's syndrome, and without any abnormalities in laboratory or physical examinations has not been described before. A 53-year-old female patient had been managed in ophthalmologic clinic due to vague symptoms of right monocular blurred vision with eye dryness for 3 months, but showed no signs of improvement. So it was performed a magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the possibilities of cerebral lesion. And a left frontal mass was incidentally found, and the tumor turned out to be a PTC that had metastasized to brain, regional lymph node, cervical, thoracic spine, and lung. We describe a PTC with extraordinary initial symptoms that metastasized to an unusual site. We recommend that if a papillary thyroid tumor with unusual symptoms or at an advanced stage is found, further investigation should be performed for distant metastasis.
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The Clinico-Oncologic Outcomes of Elderly Patients with Glioblastoma after Surgical Resection Followed by Concomitant Chemo-Radiotherapy.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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There have been controversies in the treatment of elderly patients with glioblastoma. We introduce the outcome of the treatment of elderly patients with glioblastoma comparing with younger patients.
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Long-term outcomes after endoscopic ultrasonography-guided gallbladder drainage for acute cholecystitis.
Endoscopy
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided transmural gallbladder drainage (EUS-GBD) has been proposed for the management of acute cholecystitis in high risk patients; however, little is known about the long-term outcomes of this treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the procedural and long-term outcomes of EUS-GBD with self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS).
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Prospective Evaluation of New 22 Gauge Endoscopic Ultrasound Core Needle Using Capillary Sampling With Stylet Slow-Pull Technique for Intra-Abdominal Solid Masses.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy and diagnostic yield of the histologic core obtained with a 22 G endoscopic ultrasound histology needle using capillary sampling with stylet slow-pull technique without on-site cytopathologist.
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Preliminary report on a new hybrid metal stent for EUS-guided biliary drainage (with videos).
Gastrointest. Endosc.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) may be a feasible and useful alternative in patients with malignant biliary obstruction after failed ERCP. One of the main limitations of EUS-BD is the lack of devices specifically tailored to this technique.
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Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to lignin: effects of hydrophobicity and temperature.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The study of the sorption of contaminants to lignin is significant for understanding the migration of contaminants in the environment as well as developing low cost sorbent. In this study, sorption of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthalene, acenaphthene and phenanthrene, to lignin was investigated. Sorption isotherms were well described by both linear and Freundlich sorption models. Sorption coefficients of PAHs to lignin from water obtained from regression of both linear model (K d) and Freundlich model (K f) were highly positively correlated with hydrophobicity of PAHs. The amorphous structure of lignin provided sufficient sorption domain for partitioning of PAHs, and the attraction between PAHs molecules and aromatic fractions in lignin via ?-? electron-donor-acceptor (?-? EDA) interaction is hypothesized to provide a strong sorption force. Thermodynamic modeling revealed that sorption of PAHs to lignin was a spontaneous and exothermic process.
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Survival effect of tumor size and extrapancreatic extension in surgically resected pancreatic cancer: proposal for improved T classification.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The T classification for pancreatic cancer of the American Joint Committee on Cancer may be inaccurate owing to lack of consideration of tumor size in cases of extension beyond the pancreas. To examine the accuracy of American Joint Committee on Cancer staging and to determine the prognostic implication of combined tumor size and extrapancreatic extension, 6145 cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database were categorized according to tumor size and extension as follows: group 1 (G1, ?2 cm and limited to the pancreas), G2 (>2 cm and limited to the pancreas), G3 (?2 cm with extrapancreatic extension), and G4 (>2 cm with extrapancreatic extension). The median survival of G1, G2, G3, and G4 were 23, 15, 19, and 14 months, respectively (P < .001), and the survival time in G3 was closer to that of G2 than G4. To test the classification system for accuracy of prognosis, G3 was merged with G2. The survival discrimination of this new grouping was greater (overall comparison, P < .001; G1 versus G2 + G3, P < .001; G2 + G3 versus G4, P < .001; ?(2) = 92.043) than that of the current T-classification scheme (overall comparison, P < .001; G1 versus G2, P < .001; G2 versus G3 + G4, P = .048; ?(2) = 60.424). To better discriminate survival, patients with a tumor less than or equal to 2 cm extending beyond the pancreas should be downstaged from the current class T3 to class T2.
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[Safety and effectiveness of successive extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for pancreatolithiasis under intravenous bolus pethidine administration alone].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatolithiasis on successive days under intravenous bolus of pethidine alone.
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Differential effect of 3-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for the quantification of mitral regurgitation according to the severity and characteristics.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The aim of this study is to explore the differential effect of 3-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for the quantification of mitral regurgitation (MR). Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography-based MR quantification has well-documented limitations.
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Endoscopic drainage of pseudocysts.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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During the last decade, great progress has been made in minimally invasive endoscopic techniques. For pancreatic pseudocysts (PPCs), endoscopic drainage has become the first-line therapeutic option. Recent advances in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-related techniques have focused on EUS-guided transmural drainage, which is now replacing the conventional endoscopy-guided transmural drainage. While transmural drainage is usually performed using multiple plastic stents with or without a nasocystic drain, fully covered self-expandable metal stents are now being used with increasing frequency. In this review, we discuss some of the controversies related to the endoscopic drainage of PPCs.
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Ethanol lavage of huge hepatic cysts by using EUS guidance and a percutaneous approach.
Gastrointest. Endosc.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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EUS-guided and percutaneous lavage therapy for large hepatic cysts can replace surgical drainage. EUS-guided therapy can especially enable the alcohol lavage to be done with a 1-step approach.
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Invasive plant-derived biochar inhibits sulfamethazine uptake by lettuce in soil.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Veterinary antibiotics are frequently detected in soils posing potential contamination of food crops. Sulfamethazine (SMT) uptake was investigated by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in the soils treated with/without biochar derived from an invasive plant, burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) (BBC700). Soils were contaminated with SMT at 5 and 50mgkg(-1), and treated with/without 5% BBC700 (ww(-1)). The lettuces were harvested after 5weeks of cultivation and were analyzed for SMT by a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. With 5% BBC700, the uptake of SMT was reduced by 86% in the soil spiked with 5mgkg(-1) SMT compared to the control whereas a 63% reduction was observed in the soil spiked with 50mgkg(-1) SMT. Application of BBC700, into soils effectively reduced the SMT uptake by lettuce.
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Proton beam therapy reduces the incidence of acute haematological and gastrointestinal toxicities associated with craniospinal irradiation in pediatric brain tumors.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The benefits of proton beam craniospinal irradiation (PrBCSI) in children have been extensively reported in dosimetric studies. However, there is limited clinical evidence supporting the use of PrBCSI. We compared the acute toxicity of PrBCSI relative to that of conventional photon beam CSI (PhBCSI) in children with brain tumours.
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Influence of propofol and fentanyl on deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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We investigated the effect of propofol and fentanyl on microelectrode recording (MER) and its clinical applicability during subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. We analyzed 8 patients with Parkinson's disease, underwent bilateral STN DBS with MER. Their left sides were done under awake and then their right sides were done with a continuous infusion of propofol and fentanyl under local anesthesia. The electrode position was evaluated by preoperative MRI and postoperative CT. The clinical outcomes were assessed at six months after surgery. We isolated single unit activities from the left and the right side MERs. There was no significant difference in the mean firing rate between the left side MERs (38.7 ± 16.8 spikes/sec, n=78) and the right side MERs (35.5 ± 17.2 spikes/sec, n=66). The bursting pattern of spikes was more frequently observed in the right STN than in the left STN. All the electrode positions were within the STNs on both sides and the off-time Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III scores at six months after surgery decreased by 67% of the preoperative level. In this study, a continuous infusion of propofol and fentanyl did not significantly interfere with the MER signals from the STN. The results of this study suggest that propofol and fentanyl can be used for STN DBS in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease improving the overall experience of the patients.
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Optimized scheduling technique of null subcarriers for peak power control in 3GPP LTE downlink.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is a key multiple access technique for the long term evolution (LTE) downlink. However, high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) can cause the degradation of power efficiency. The well-known PAPR reduction technique, dummy sequence insertion (DSI), can be a realistic solution because of its structural simplicity. However, the large usage of subcarriers for the dummy sequences may decrease the transmitted data rate in the DSI scheme. In this paper, a novel DSI scheme is applied to the LTE system. Firstly, we obtain the null subcarriers in single-input single-output (SISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, respectively; then, optimized dummy sequences are inserted into the obtained null subcarrier. Simulation results show that Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) sequence is the best for the dummy sequence and the ratio of 16 to 20 for the WHT and randomly generated sequences has the maximum PAPR reduction performance. The number of near optimal iteration is derived to prevent exhausted iterations. It is also shown that there is no bit error rate (BER) degradation with the proposed technique in LTE downlink system.
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Stereotactic radiosurgery for cavernous sinus hemangiomas.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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We performed this retrospective study to analyze the outcome of patients with cavernous sinus hemangioma (CSH) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We analyzed 19 patients with CSHs who were treated with SRS between 1998 and 2011. The median age of the patients was 50 years (range, 35-73 years), and 16 (84.2%) of the patients were female. SRS was performed as a primary treatment for 18 patients and to treat a residual lesion after surgical resection in one patient. Nine (47.4%) patients had cranial neuropathies in 14 cranial nerves before SRS, whereas five (26.3%) patients were initially asymptomatic. The mean volume of the CSHs was 6.1 ± 7.2 cm(3) (range, 0.3-32.3 cm(3)), and the median marginal dose at the 50% isodose line was 14.5 Gy (range, 11.5-16.0 Gy). The mean follow-up period was 37 months (range, 12-85 months). At the last follow-up, the lesion volume had decreased in all patients. The average tumor volume had decreased to 26% (range, 0-70%) of the initial volume at the last follow-up MRI. The first follow-up MRI, performed 6.1 ± 1.0 months after the SRS, showed that the tumor volume had decreased to 41% (range, 0-88%) of the initial volume. All 14 of the cranial neuropathies observed before SRS had improved, with complete remission in 12 (85.7%) cranial nerves and partial remission in two (14.3%). There were no radiation-induced neuropathies or complications during the follow-up period. SRS appears to be an effective and safe treatment modality for the management of CSHs.
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Clinical significance of radiological stability in reconstructed thoracic and lumbar spine following vertebral body resection.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Vertebral body replacement following corpectomy in thoracic or lumbar spine is performed with titanium mesh cage (TMC) containing any grafts. Radiological changes often occur on follow-up. This study investigated the relationship between the radiological stability and clinical symptoms.
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Tetrathiafulvalene as an electron acceptor for positive charge induction on the surface of silver nanoparticles for facilitated olefin transport.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), a well-known electron donor, can also behave as an electron acceptor after being adsorbed on the surface of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), thereby inducing a partial positive charge on the Ag NPs surface. The Ag NPs activated by TTF help propylene transport much faster than propane, i.e., facilitated olefin transport, resulting in extremely high separation performance for propylene-propane mixtures.
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Treatment Outcomes of Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma that Invades Hepatic Vein or Inferior Vena Cava.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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We aimed to elucidate the treatment outcomes of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and survival-associated factors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with hepatic vein (HV) and/or inferior vena cava (IVC) invasion.
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Comparison between Midazolam Used Alone and in Combination with Propofol for Sedation during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an uncomfortable procedure that requires adequate sedation for its successful conduction. We investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined use of intravenous midazolam and propofol for sedation during ERCP.
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Histological Changes in the Bile Duct after Long-Term Placement of a Fully Covered Self-Expandable Metal Stent within a Common Bile Duct: A Canine Study.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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To date, it has been difficult to determine the optimal stenting duration of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) in a benign biliary stricture. The purpose of this study was to identify the histopathological changes in a bile duct resulting from long-term placement of a FCSEMS.
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Sequential sludge digestion after diverse pre-treatment conditions: sludge removal, methane production and microbial community changes.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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A lab-scale sequential sludge digestion process which consists of a mesophilic anaerobic digester (MAD) and a thermophilic aerobic digester (TAD) was developed. Thermal, thermal-alkaline and long-term alkaline pre-treatments were applied to the feed sludge to examine their effects on sludge removal and methane production. Especially after thermal-alkaline pre-treatment, high COD removal was maintained; methane production rate was also drastically increased by improving the hydrolysis step of sludge degradation. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis indicated that bacterial communities were represented by three phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria) and that Clostridium straminisolvens was the major bacterial species in MAD. Quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that Methanosaeta concilli was the major archaeal species in MAD, and that Ureibacillus sp. was the most abundant bacterial species in TAD.
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Role of the PNPLA3 I148M Polymorphism in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Fibrosis in Korea.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The role of the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs738409, in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been studied in the Korean population.
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Utility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration for peri-arterial soft tissue cuffs without identifiable pancreas mass on CT and EUS: a prospective comparative study.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Pancreatic cancer may present as a peri-arterial soft tissue cuff (PSTC) around the superior mesenteric artery or celiac axis without an identifiable pancreatic mass. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in patients with a PSTC without definite pancreas involvement and those with a typical pancreatic mass. The patients who underwent EUS-FNA of a PSTC without pancreatic involvement were prospectively enrolled. The patients who underwent EUS-FNA for a pancreatic mass were recruited as a control group. A total of 224 patients underwent 247 EUS-FNAs. Among the 13 patients with a PSTC, 11 were positive for malignancy as determined by EUS-FNA, with 5 diagnosed after the first session and 6 after the second session. The diagnostic yield of PSTCs by EUS-FNA was significantly lower than that for typical pancreatic masses (65% vs. 87%, p = 0.02). An on-site cytopathologist and repeated EUS-FNA are recommended to improve the diagnostic accuracy of this disease entity.
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A pilot proof-of-concept study of a modified device for one-step endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage in a new experimental biliary dilatation animal model.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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To evaluate the technical feasibility of a modified tapered metal tip and low profile introducer for one-step endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) in a new experimental biliary dilatation porcine model.
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Simplified fistula dilation technique and modified stent deployment maneuver for EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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To evaluate the success rates, procedural time and adverse event rates of the modified methods in endoscopic ultrasonography-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HGS).
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Randomised phase II trial of photodynamic therapy plus oral fluoropyrimidine, S-1, versus photodynamic therapy alone for unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is an uncommon cancer and its overall incidence is increasing. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proposed as palliative management for unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (UHC). To date, little is known about the role of the addition of systemic chemotherapy to PDT for UHC. We performed a prospective, randomised, phase II trial to compare PDT plus S-1 and PDT alone for UHC.
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Inhibitory effect of veterinary antibiotics on denitrification in groundwater: a microcosm approach.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Veterinary antibiotics in groundwater may affect natural microbial denitrification process. A microcosm study was conducted to evaluate the influence of sulfamethazine and chlortetracycline at different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/L) on nitrate reduction in groundwater under denitrifying condition. Decrease in nitrate removal and nitrite production was observed with the antibiotics. Maximum inhibition of nitrate removal was observed after seven days of incubation with 0.01 mg/L sulfamethazine (17.0%) and 1.0 mg/L chlortetracycline (15.4%). The nitrite production was inhibited with 1.0 mg/L sulfamethazine to 82.0% and chlortetracycline to 31.1%. The initial/final nitrate concentrations indicated that 0.01 mg/L sulfamethazine and 1.0 mg/L chlortetracycline were most effective in inhibiting activity of denitrifying bacteria in groundwater. After 12 days of incubation, the sulfamethazine biodegradation was observed whereas chlortetracycline was persistent. Sulfamethazine and chlortetracycline in groundwater could inhibit the growth and capability of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria, thereby threatening nitrate pollution in groundwater.
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MicroRNA 135a suppresses lymph node metastasis through down-regulation of ROCK1 in early gastric cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in gastric cancer progression and metastasis. This study investigated the role of miRNA-135a in early gastric cancer (EGC) including lymph node (LN) metastasis. We examined the correlation between miRNA-135a expression and clinical outcomes in 59 patients who underwent surgery for EGC. Using gastric cancer cell lines, we performed functional and target gene analyses. miRNA-135a expression was down-regulated in 33.9% of patients. These patients showed a significantly more advanced stage (TNM stage ? IB, 35.0% vs. 12.8%, p?=?0.045) and higher rate of LN metastasis (30.0% vs. 5.1%, p?=?0.014) than those with up-regulation of miRNA-135a expression. In a multivariate analysis, down-regulation of miRNA-135a was an independent risk factor for LN metastasis (adjusted odds ratio, 8.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-59.81; p?=?0.042). Functional analyses using gastric cancer cell lines showed that miRNA-135a suppressed cell viability, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell invasion, and migration. ROCK1 was a target of miRNA-135a and its expression was inversely correlated to that of miRNA-135a. ROCK1 expression was significantly increased in EGC patients with LN metastasis than in those without LN metastasis. Our results confirm the tumor-suppressive role of miRNA-135a, and demonstrate its role in LN metastasis in EGC. miRNA-135a and its target gene ROCK1 may be novel therapeutic and prognostic targets for EGC.
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Surface-Mediated Formation of Pu(IV) Nanoparticles at the Muscovite-Electrolyte Interface.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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The formation of Pu(IV)-oxo-nanoparticles from Pu(III) solutions by a surface-enhanced redox/polymerization reaction at the muscovite (001) basal plane is reported, with a continuous increase in plutonium coverage observed in situ over several hours. The sorbed Pu extends >70 Å from the surface with a maximum concentration at 10.5 Å and a total coverage of >9 Pu atoms per unit cell area of muscovite (0.77 ?g Pu/cm(2)) (determined independently by in situ resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity and by ex-situ alpha-spectrometry). The presence of discrete nanoparticles is confirmed by high resolution atomic force microscopy. We propose that the formation of these Pu(IV) nanoparticles from an otherwise stable Pu(III) solution can be explained by the combination of a highly concentrated interfacial Pu-ion species, the Pu(III)-Pu(IV) redox equilibrium, and the strong proclivity of tetravalent Pu to hydrolyze and form polymeric species. These results are the first direct observation of such behavior of plutonium on a naturally occurring mineral, providing insights into understanding the environmental transport of plutonium and other contaminants capable of similar redox/polymerization reactions.
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Neuroprotective Benzyl Benzoate Glycosides from Disporum viridescens Roots in HT22 Hippocampal Neuronal Cells.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract from Disporum viridescens roots led to the isolation of five new benzyl benzoate glycosides, BBGs (1-5). The neuroprotective activities of the BBGs were screened using neuronal HT22 hippocampal cells. BBG-D (4) significantly protected murine hippocampal HT22 cells against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by maintaining the antioxidative defense systems such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and the glutathione content. BBG-D, in a dose-and time-dependent manner, increased HO-1 expression through the selective activation of pERK signaling among the MAPK pathways. These results suggest that BBG-D could be a promising candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases related to glutamate-induced oxidative neuronal cytotoxicity.
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Temporary placement of fully covered self-expandable metal stents in benign biliary strictures.
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Benign biliary strictures (BBSs) have been endoscopically managed with plastic stent placement. However, data regarding fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs) in BBS patients remain scarce in Korea.
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Anti-Obesity Phenotypic Screening Looking to Increase OBR Cell Surface Expression.
J Biomol Screen
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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The leptin receptor, OBR, is involved in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. Most obese people are resistant to leptin and do not respond to the hormone. The prevention and reversal of leptin resistance is one of the major current goals of obesity research. We showed previously that increased OBR cell surface expression concomitantly increases cellular leptin signaling and prevents obesity development in mice. Improvement of OBR cell surface expression can thus be considered as an interesting anti-obesity therapeutic strategy. To identify compounds that increase the surface expression of OBR, we developed a cell-based, phenotypic assay to perform a high-content screen (HCS) against a library of 50,000 chemical compounds. We identified 67 compounds that increased OBR cell surface expression with AC50 values in the low micromolar range and no effect on total OBR expression and cellular toxicity. Compounds were classified into 16 chemical clusters, of which 4 potentiated leptin-promoted signaling through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, development of a robust phenotypic screening approach resulted in the discovery of four new scaffolds that demonstrate the desired biological activity and could constitute an original therapeutic solution against obesity and associated disorders.
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[A comparative study on serum immunoglobulin and tumor marker levels in the patients with autoimmune pancreatitis and pancreatobiliary malignancies].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) often occurs with obstructive jaundice in old age in cases of weight loss, mimicking pancreatobiliary cancer. This study aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity serum IgG, IgG4 and CEA, CA 19-9 levels for the diagnosis of AIP and their ability to distinguish AIP from pancreatobiliary cancer.
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An innovative sewage sludge reduction by using a combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic process with thermal-alkaline treatment and sludge recirculation.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Lab-scale High Efficiency Digestion (HED) systems containing a Mesophilic Anaerobic Reactor (MAR), Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (TAR), liquid/solid separation unit, and thermal-alkaline treatment were developed to evaluate the efficiencies of sludge reduction and methane production. The HED process was divided into three phases to examine the influence of sludge pretreatment and pretreated sludge recirculation using TCOD and VSS reduction, COD solubilization, and methane production. The VSS removal with a solid/liquid separation unit, sludge recirculation, and thermal-alkaline treatment drastically increased up to 95% compared to the feed concentration. In addition, the results of COD solubilization and VSS/TSS showed that the solubilization of cells and organic matters by the thermal-alkaline treatment was highly increased, which was also consistent with the SEM images. In particular, the methane production rate increased 24-fold when the feed sludge and recirculated sludge were pretreated together. Collectively, the HED experiments performed with sludge recirculation and thermal-alkaline treatment demonstrated that the HED systems can be successfully employed for highly efficient sewage sludge reduction and methane gas production.
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Galeal tack-up sutures to prevent subgaleal cerebrospinal fluid collection.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Postoperative subgaleal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection is considered as one of the common minor surgical complication which can lead to prolonged hospitalization. We introduce "galeal tack-up suture" to prevent postoperative subgaleal CSF collection.
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Immobilization of lead in contaminated firing range soil using biochar.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Soybean stover-derived biochar was used to immobilize lead (Pb) in military firing range soil at a mass application rate of 0 to 20 wt.% and a curing period of 7 days. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. The mechanism responsible for Pb immobilization in military firing range soil was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy analyses. The treatment results showed that TCLP Pb leachability decreased with increasing biochar content. A reduction of over 90 % in Pb leachability was achieved upon treatment with 20 wt.% soybean stover-derived biochar. SEM-EDX, elemental dot mapping and XAFS results in conjunction with TCLP leachability revealed that effective Pb immobilization was probably associated with the pozzolanic reaction products, chloropyromorphite and Pb-phosphate. The results of this study demonstrated that soybean stover-derived biochar was effective in immobilizing Pb in contaminated firing range soil.
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Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: A review.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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Biochar is a stable carbon-rich by-product synthesized through pyrolysis/carbonization of plant- and animal-based biomass. An increasing interest in the beneficial application of biochar has opened up multidisciplinary areas for science and engineering. The potential biochar applications include carbon sequestration, soil fertility improvement, pollution remediation, and agricultural by-product/waste recycling. The key parameters controlling its properties include pyrolysis temperature, residence time, heat transfer rate, and feedstock type. The efficacy of biochar in contaminant management depends on its surface area, pore size distribution and ion-exchange capacity. Physical architecture and molecular composition of biochar could be critical for practical application to soil and water. Relatively high pyrolysis temperatures generally produce biochars that are effective in the sorption of organic contaminants by increasing surface area, microporosity, and hydrophobicity; whereas the biochars obtained at low temperatures are more suitable for removing inorganic/polar organic contaminants by oxygen-containing functional groups, electrostatic attraction, and precipitation. However, due to complexity of soil-water system in nature, the effectiveness of biochars on remediation of various organic/inorganic contaminants is still uncertain. In this review, a succinct overview of current biochar use as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water is summarized and discussed.
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Forward-viewing endoscopic ultrasound-guided NOTES interventions: a study on peritoneoscopic potential.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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To evaluate the feasibility of diagnostic and therapeutic transgastric (TG) peritoneoscopic interventions with a forward-viewing endoscopic ultrasound (FV-EUS).
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Speciation and phytoavailability of lead and antimony in a small arms range soil amended with mussel shell, cow bone and biochar: EXAFS spectroscopy and chemical extractions.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Mussel shell (MS), cow bone (CB) and biochar (BC) were selected to immobilize metals in an army firing range soil. Amendments were applied at 5% (wt) and their efficacies were determined after 175 d. For metal phytoavailability test, maize (Zea mays L.) plants were cultivated for 3weeks. Results showed that all amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb by up to 99% in planted/unplanted soils. Contrarily, exchangeable Sb were increased in the MS- and CB-amended soils. The rise in soil pH (~1 unit) by the amendments affected Pb and Sb mobility in soils. Bioavailability of Pb to maize was reduced by up to 71% in the amended soils. The Sb uptake to maize was decreased by up to 53.44% in the BC-amended soil. Sequential chemical extractions showed the transformation of easily available Pb to stable residual form with the amendment treatments. Scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping revealed the Pb association with Al and Si in the MS-amended soil and that with P in the CB- and BC-amended soils. Additionally, the extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic analysis indicated the transformation of organic bound Pb in unamended control soil to relatively more stable Pb-hydroxide (Ksp=10(-17.1)), chloropyromorphite (Ksp=10(-84.4)) and Pb-phosphate (Ksp=10(-23.8)) in soils amended with MS, CB and BC, respectively. Application of BC was the best in decreasing the phytoavailability of Pb and Sb in the studied army firing range soil.
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An infant with prenatally diagnosed congenital anaplastic astrocytoma who remains disease-free after proton therapy.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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The authors present a rare of prenatally diagnosed congenital anaplastic astrocytoma. A 9-month-old boy had three recurrences despite two surgical resections and various chemotherapeutic regimens. He underwent the 3rd gross tumor removal at 11 months of age, followed by proton therapy, and now he remains disease-free for 3 yr without a significant neurocognitive dysfunction. This is the 1st case of a pediatric tumor treated by proton therapy in Korea, and proton therapy may be a treatment of choice for a congenital anaplastic astrocytoma in infants and young children, considering limitation of radiation therapy.
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Influence of thermophilic aerobic digestion as a sludge pre-treatment and solids retention time of mesophilic anaerobic digestion on the methane production, sludge digestion and microbial communities in a sequential digestion process.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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In this study, the changes in sludge reduction, methane production and microbial community structures in a process involving two-stage thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) and mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) under different solid retention times (SRTs) between 10 and 40 days were investigated. The TAD reactor (RTAD) was operated with a 1-day SRT and the MAD reactor (RMAD) was operated at three different SRTs: 39, 19 and 9 days. For a comparison, control MAD (RCONTROL) was operated at three different SRTs of 40, 20 and 10 days. Our results reveal that the sequential TAD-MAD process has about 42% higher methane production rate (MPR) and 15% higher TCOD removal than those of RCONTROL when the SRT decreased from 40 to 20 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR results indicate that RMAD maintained a more diverse bacteria and archaea population compared to RCONTROL, due to the application of the biological TAD pre-treatment process. In RTAD, Ureibacillus thermophiles and Bacterium thermus were the major contributors to the increase in soluble organic matter. In contrast, Methanosaeta concilii, a strictly aceticlastic methanogen, showed the highest population during the operation of overall SRTs in RMAD. Interestingly, as the SRT decreased to 20 days, syntrophic VFA oxidizing bacteria, Clostridium ultunense sp., and a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanobacterium beijingense were detected in RMAD and RCONTROL. Meanwhile, the proportion of archaea to total microbe in RMAD and RCONTROL shows highest values of 10.5 and 6.5% at 20-d SRT operation, respectively. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the increased COD removal and methane production at different SRTs in RMAD might be attributed to the increased synergism among microbial species by improving the hydrolysis of the rate limiting step in sludge with the help of the biological TAD pre-treatment.
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Quantitative comparison of CDKN2B methylation in pediatric and adult myelodysplastic syndromes.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Transcriptional repression of tumor suppressor genes is determined by the quantity of promoter hypermethylation. We analyzed the methylation quantity of CDKN2B in pediatric myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
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Endoscopic gastrojejunostomy with a natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery technique.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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To determine the technical feasibility and safety of an endoscopic gastrojejunostomy with a pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) technique using a T-anchoring device in a porcine survival model.
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Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Korean patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 6.
Clin Mol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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The distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes varies geographically. In Korea, genotypes 1 and 2 comprise more than 90% of HCV infections, while genotype 6 is very rare. This study compared the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with genotype 6 HCV infection with those infected with HCV genotypes 1 and 2.
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Modeling adsorption kinetics of trichloroethylene onto biochars derived from soybean stover and peanut shell wastes.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most hazardous organic pollutants in groundwater. Biochar produced from agricultural waste materials could serve as a novel carbonaceous adsorbent for removing organic contaminants from aqueous media. Biochars derived from pyrolysis of soybean stover at 300 °C and 700 °C (S-300 and S-700, respectively), and peanut shells at 300 °C and 700 °C (P-300 and P-700, respectively) were utilized as carbonaceous adsorbents to study batch aqueous TCE remediation kinetics. Different rate-based and diffusion-based kinetic models were adopted to understand the TCE adsorption mechanism on biochars. With an equilibrium time of 8-10 h, up to 69 % TCE was removed from water. Biochars produced at 700 °C were more effective than those produced at 300 °C. The P-700 and S-700 had lower molar H/C and O/C versus P-300 and S-300 resulting in high aromaticity and low polarity accompanying with high surface area and high adsorption capacity. The pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models were well fitted to the kinetic data, thereby, indicating that chemisorption and pore diffusion were the dominating mechanisms of TCE adsorption onto biochars.
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Comparison of lumbopelvic rhythm and flexion-relaxation response between 2 different low back pain subtypes.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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A cross-sectional study to compare the kinematics and muscle activities during trunk flexion and return task in people with and without low back pain (LBP).
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Environmental impact assessment and eco-friendly decision-making in civil structures.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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This study develops two useful procedures in performing an environmental-impact assessment. One is the advanced life-cycle assessment (LCA) method, which effectively tracks the flow of materials and considers the recycling and demolition of a civil structure. The other is an eco-friendly decision-making procedure, which may effectively apply when determining the prototype of a civil structure. The advanced LCA method differs from traditional LCA procedure, as it classifies the input material prior to the impact assessment. Classification work is performed to establish independent life-cycle stages for each material. The processes of recycling and demolition are appropriately added to the life-cycle stages. The impact assessment is performed separately for the materials, and results are aggregated at the end of the analysis. The eco-friendly decision-making procedure enables designers to choose an economical, and environmentally friendly, alternative during the planning phase of the construction project. This procedure rationally amalgamates economical value and environmental effects into a single indicator. The life cycle cost (LCC) of a structure can be analysed by using conventional LCC tools, whereas the environmental impact is estimated by LCA. The results from LCC and LCA are then integrated by using either a CO2 conversion method or an analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The CO2 conversion method presents the result as a monetary value, whereas the AHP presents the result as a non-dimensional value. A practical example using a steel box girder bridge and a pre-stressed concrete (PSC) box-girder bridge is also given in order to aid the understanding of the presented procedure.
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Trichloroethylene adsorption by pine needle biochars produced at various pyrolysis temperatures.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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In this study, pine needles were converted to biochar (BC) at different pyrolysis temperatures of 300, 500, and 700 °C to sorb trichloroethylene (TCE), and the changes in BC properties with each temperature were evaluated. Pyrolysis temperature showed a pronounced effect on BC properties. Decreases in molar H/C and O/C ratios resulted from removing O- and H-containing functional groups with increasing temperature, and produced high aromaticity and low polarity BCs. BCs produced at higher temperature showed greater TCE removal efficiency from water due to their high surface area, micro-porosity, and carbonized extent. The performance of various BCs for TCE removal was assessed by the Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models, among which the Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models best described TCE adsorption onto various BCs, indicating prevailing sorption mechanism as pore-filling.
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Tailor-made highly luminescent and ambipolar transporting organic mixed stacked charge-transfer crystals: an isometric donor-acceptor approach.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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We have rationally designed a densely packed 1:1 donor-acceptor (D-A) cocrystal system comprising two isometric distyrylbenzene- and dicyanodistyrylbenzene-based molecules, forming regular one-dimensional mixed stacks. The crystal exhibits strongly red-shifted, bright photoluminescence originating from an intermolecular charge-transfer state. The peculiar electronic situation gives rise to high and ambipolar p-/n-type field-effect mobility up to 6.7 × 10(-3) and 6.7 × 10(-2) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively, as observed in single-crystalline OFETs prepared via solvent vapor annealing process. The unique combination of favorable electric and optical properties arising from an appropriate design concept of isometric D-A cocrystal has been demonstrated as a promising candidate for next generation (opto-)electronic materials.
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Clinical features and outcome of cryptogenic hepatocellular carcinoma compared to those of viral and alcoholic hepatocellular carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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Cryptogenic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is thought to arise due to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study investigated the prevalence, clinical features, and outcomes of cryptogenic HCC and compared them with those of HCC related to hepatitis B virus infection (HBV-HCC), hepatitis C virus infection (HCV-HCC), and alcohol (ALC-HCC) in Korea.
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Anticancer effect of arsenic trioxide on cholangiocarcinoma: in vitro experiments and in vivo xenograft mouse model.
Clin. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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The purpose of our study was to investigate anticancer activity of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on cholangiocarcinoma through in vitro and in vivo experiments using human cholangiocarcinoma cancer cells (CC-t6 cells) and a nude mouse model. The effect of As2O3 on CC-t6 cell survival was determined in vitro using MTT assay. Analysis of cell cycle phase distribution and quantification of apoptosis/necrosis, which were achieved by flow cytometry, were performed in order to understand the mechanism of As2O3. In vivo experiment was performed to assess the effectiveness of local injection of As2O3 on tumor inhibition by comparing the following three groups each consisting of five nude mouse xenograft models: high dose As2O3 (5 mg/kg), low dose As2O3 (1 mg/kg), and saline. In MTT assay, As2O3 inhibited the growth of CC-t6 cells more effectively than cisplatin or adriamycin at concentrations between 1 and 100 ?M for most time points between 24 and 72 h (p < 0.05). With increased concentration of As2O3, there was dose-dependent increase in G 0/G 1 phase and dose-dependent decrease in S phase. As2O3-mediated inhibition of cell viability was achieved via induction of apoptosis and necrosis in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of As2O3 into CC-t6-induced tumors in nude mice inhibited the growth of subcutaneous tumor xenografts. As2O3 treatment dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of CC-t6 cells via G 0/G 1 phase arrest and retarded tumor growth in nude mice, suggesting that As2O3 may be effective in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.
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Analysis of treatment outcomes of intraventricular chemotherapy in 105 patients for leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from non-small-cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Reports on the treatment result of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) from a single primary cancer are rare and mixed treatment modalities make it even more difficult to interpret the results properly. Here, we report clinical outcomes of an intraventricular chemotherapy for LMC from non-small-cell lung cancer.
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A Simplified One-Step Nuclear Transfer Procedure Alters the Gene Expression Pattern and Developmental Potential of Cloned Porcine Embryos.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Various SCNT techniques of mammalian species have been developed to adjust species-specific procedures, for the differences of the oocytes from the species. Since the species-specific SCNT protocols may result in different expression levels of developmentally important genes, they may affect embryonic development and pregnancy. In this study, porcine oocytes treated with demecolcine for facilitation of enucleation with protruded genetic material, and the enucleation and donor cell injection were performed either simultaneously with a single pipette (simplified one-step SCNT; SONT) or separately with each pipettes (conventional two-step SCNT as control; CTNT). After the in vitro culture of the blastocysts from both groups, the expression level of developmentally important genes (OCT4, NANOG, EOMES, CDX2, GLUT-1, PolyA and HSP70) was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Both developmental rate to the blastocyst stage and the expression level of genes(CDX2, EOMES and HSP70) were elevated in SONT groups compared to the CTNT. The genes with elevated expression are known to be related with the formation of the trophectoderm and heating stress-arrest. These results showed that our SONT technique improved the embryonic development of SCNT porcine embryos and increased the expression of genes that are important for placental formation and stress-arrest in the cloned porcine embryo.
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Critical use of balloon angioplasty after recanalization failure with retrievable stent in acute cerebral artery occlusion.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Sudden major cerebral artery occlusion often resists recanalization with currently available techniques or can results in massive symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) after thrombolytic therapy. The purpose of this study was to examine mechanical recanalization with a retrievable self-expanding stent and balloon in acute intracranial artery occlusions.
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Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.