We report herein a Rh(III)-catalyzed cyclization of N-nitrosoanilines with alkynes for streamlined synthesis of indoles. The synthetic protocol features a distinct internal oxidant, N-N bond, as a reactive handle for catalyst turnover, as well as a hitherto tantalizingly elusive intermolecular redox-neutral manifold, predicated upon C-H activation, for the formation of a five-membered azaheterocycle. The compatibility of seemingly dichotomous acidic and basic conditions ensures reaction versatility for multifarious synthetic contexts. The tolerance of an array of auxiliary functional groups potentially permits predefined, programmable substitution patterns to be incorporated into the indole scaffold. Comprehensive mechanistic studies, under acidic condition, support [RhCp*](2+) as generally the catalyst resting state (switchable to [RhCp*(OOC(t)Bu)](+) under certain circumstance) and C-H activation as the turnover-limiting step. Given the variety of covalent linkages available for the nitroso group, this labile functionality is likely to be harnessed as a generic handle for strikingly diverse coupling reactions.
A silver-mediated tandem protocol for the synthesis of quinolines involving the oxidative coupling/cyclization of N-arylimines and alkynes has been developed. We demonstrated that scenario-dependent metalation could occur either at the ortho C-H bond of an N-arylimine through protonation-driven enhancement of acidity or at the terminal C-H bond of an alkyne by virtue of the carbophilic ?-acidity of silver. The diverse set of mechanistic manifolds implemented with a single type of experimental protocol points toward the importance of stringent reactivity analysis of each individual potentially reactive molecular site. Importantly, the direct arene C-H bond activation provides a unique and distinct mechanistic handle for the expansion of reactivity paradigms for silver. As expected, the protocol allows for the incorporation of both internal and terminal alkynes into the products, and in addition, both electron-withdrawing and -donating groups are tolerated on N-arylimines, thus enabling the vast expansion of substituent architectures on quinoline framework. Further, an intriguing phenomenon of structural isomerization and chemical bond cleavage has been observed for aliphatic internal alkynes.
Gel electrophoresis staining methodologies documented thus far are largely utilized in a biomolecule context-dependent manner. We report herein the development of a generic, ultrafast, and sensitive multimode fluorescent system for the efficient identification of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Interaction between a positively charged, planar ligand-based coordination complex with partner biomolecule leads to aggregation-induced fluorescence quenching and allows for the image contrast generation within one minute. Alternatively, successive reactions of the biomolecule-loaded gel with cation and ligand, in either order of sequence, provide an equally effective staining efficacy. Image contrast reversal is accomplished through a facile washing or photobleaching procedure. The versatility in the applicable target species and signal generation modes provides a hint at the design of novel staining structures and potentially enables the high-throughput readout of biomolecules.
The functional versatility of a chemical system is ultimately dictated by the availability of distinctly accessible architectures. The generation of a diverse array of assembled constructs from a single type of nanoscale building block is a promising yet largely elusive goal. We report herein the utility of a monolayer-modified nanoparticle for the creation of a broad range of architectures. The versatile modes of assembly complement the conventionally used, amphiphilicity-driven strategy. We demonstrate that one can vary the nanoparticle assembly pathways within the confines of solvent media through the modulation of interactions and partitioning of nanoparticles. Merging of the molecular-scale design and higher-ordered arrangement enables diversified assembly through the manipulation of experimental parameters such as solvent, pH, affinity molecule, and temperature. Microfluidics provides an effective channel to control the monodispersity and size on all the architectures attainable in the bulk solution phase. These observations could be further explored for an understanding of diversified matter organization and order generation beyond the amphiphilicity paradigm.
The correct functioning of hepatocytes requires the establishment and maintenance of hepatocyte polarity. However, the mechanisms regulating the generation of hepatocyte polarity are not completely understood. The differentiation of human fetal hepatic progenitor cells (hFHPCs) into functional hepatocytes provides a powerful in vitro model system for studying the molecular mechanisms governing hepatocyte development. In this study, we used a two-stage differentiation protocol to generate functional polarized hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) from hFHPCs. Global gene expression profiling was performed on triplicate samples of hFHPCs, immature-HLCs and mature-HLCs. When the differential gene expression was compared based on the differentiation stage, a number of genes were identified that might be essential for establishing and maintaining hepatocyte polarity. These genes include those that encode actin filament-binding protein, protein tyrosine kinase activity molecules, and components of signaling pathways, such as PTK7, PARD3, PRKCI and CDC42. Based on known and predicted protein-protein interactions, the candidate genes were assigned to networks and clustered into functional categories. The expression of several of these genes was confirmed using real-time RT-PCR. By inactivating genes using small interfering RNA, we demonstrated that PTK7 and PARD3 promote hepatic polarity formation and affect F-actin organization. These results provide unique insight into the complex process of polarization during hepatocyte differentiation, indicating key genes and signaling molecules governing hepatocyte differentiation.
N-nitroso compounds are a versatile class of organic structures that allow expedient access to a diversity of synthetically useful architectures through demonstrated reactivities. We report herein the development of a Rh(III)-catalyzed N-nitroso-directed methodology for the ortho-olefination of arenes. The heightened reactivity endowed by the N-nitroso group translates to mild reaction conditions, high reaction yields, and synthetic compatibility of otherwise elusive substrates (e.g., an unactivated olefin, 1-octene). Comprehensive mechanistic studies on the electronic effect, deuterium exchange, kinetic isotope effect, kinetic profile, and numerous Rh(III) complexes have established [RhCp*](2+) as the catalyst resting state, electrophilic C-H activation as the turnover-limiting step, and a five-membered rhodacycle as a catalytically competent intermediate. The ability to elaborate the N-nitroso moiety to an amine functionality provides a seminal example of the innumerable synthetic possibilities offered by this transformable directing group.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.