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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
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Comparison of Gefitinib Versus VMP in the Combination with Radiotherapy for Multiple Brain Metastases from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of Gefitinib versus VMP in combination with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for multiple brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 73 NSCLC patients with brain metastases from January 2010 to August 2013 were randomly divided into Gefitinib group (37 patients) and VMP chemotherapy group (36 patients). Patients in VMP group recieved VM-26 100 mg/day by intravenous injection, from day 1 to day 3, cisplatin 25 mg/m2 by intravenous injection, from day 1 to day 3. One cycle was defined as a 21-day therapy duration, with a total of 3 cycles; 2 cycles were used for consolidation. Patients in Gefitinib group received Gefitinib orally. Both groups received 3D-CRT, DT50 Gy/25f/35d from first day and target areas were treated with whole brain radiotherapy. The results of the study are listed below: There was no significant difference in the short-term effects of the two groups (P > 0.05). Median survival time (MST) of Gefitinib was 13.3 months whereas median survival time of VMP group is 12.7 months (P < 0.05). In Gefitinib group, we did not observe any difference of the median survival time between the patients with and without mutation EGFR. Toxicity of Gefitinib groups were characterized by rash, whereas chemotherapy resulted in hematologic toxicities, which included 6 cases of III/IV leucopenia (17.6 %), 3 cases of anemia (8.8 %), and 5 cases of thrombocytopenia (14.7 %), and non-hematological toxicity which was less serious symptoms for gastrointestinal disorders, hair loss, etc. These adverse reactions can be released after symptomatic treatment. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Two patients in VMP group quit due to IV leucopenia. Both oral Gefitinib and systemic VMP chemotherapy in combination with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) could be used to treat brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. There were no difference in the short-term effects of the two groups, but long-term effect of Gefitinib group was slightly better than VMP group. Moreover, Gefitinib group showed low toxicity. All together, our finding implicated that Gefitinib is an effective method for patients with brain metastases from NSCLC.
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Value of metabolic tumor volume on repeated 18F-FDG PET/CT for early prediction of survival in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the value of standardized uptake values (SUVs) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) in (18)F-FDG PET/CT to predict the survival of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer during the early stage of concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
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CYP18A1 regulates tissue-specific steroid hormone inactivation in Bombyx mori.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Insect development and metamorphosis are regulated by two major hormones, juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids. Despite being the key regulator of insect developmental transitions, the metabolic pathway of the primary steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), especially its inactivation pathway, is still not completely elucidated. A cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP18A1, has been shown to play key roles in insect steroid hormone inactivation through 26-hydroxylation. Here, we identified two CYP18 (BmCYP18A1 andBmCYP18B1) orthologs in the lepidopteran model insect, Bombyx mori. Interestingly, BmCYP18A1 gene is predominantly expressed in the middle silk gland (MSG) while BmCYP18B1 expresses ubiquitously in B. mori. BmCYP18A1 is induced by 20E in vitro, suggesting its role in 20E metabolism. Using the binary Gal4/UAS transgenic system, we ectopically overexpressed BmCYP18A1 in a MSG-specific manner with a Sericin1-Gal4 (Ser-Gal4) driver or in a ubiquitous manner with an Actin3-Gal4 (A3-Gal4) driver. Ectopic overexpression of BmCYP18A1 in MSG or in all tissues resulted in developmental arrestment of transgenic animals during the final instar larval stage. The 20E titers in the transgenic animals expressing BmCYP18A1 were lower compared to the levels in the control animals. Although the biological significance of MSG-specific expression of BmCYP18A1 is unclear, our results provide the first evidence that BmCYP18A1, which is conserved in most arthropods, is involved in a tissue-specific steroid hormone inactivation in B. mori.
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Template-Free Synthesis of Core-Shell TiO2 Microspheres Covered with High-Energy {116}-Facet-Exposed N-Doped Nanosheets and Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Core-shell TiO2 microspheres possess a unique structure and interesting properties, and therefore, they have received much attention. The high-energy facets of TiO2 also are being widely studied for the high photocatalytic activities they are associated with. However, the synthesis of the core-shell structure is difficult to achieve and requires multiple-steps and/or is expensive. Hydrofluoric acid (HF), which is highly corrosive, is usually used in the controlling high-energy facet production. Therefore, it is still a significant challenge to develop low-temperature, template-free, shape-controlled, and relative green self-assembly routes for the formation of core-shell-structured TiO2 microspheres with high-energy facets. Here, we report a template- and hydrofluoric acid free solvothermal self-assembly approach to synthesize core-shell TiO2 microspheres covered with high-energy {116}-facet-exposed nanosheets, an approach in which 1,4-butanediamine plays a key role in the formation of nanosheets with exposed {116} facets and the doping of nitrogen in situ. In the structure, nanoparticle aggregates and nanosheets with {116} high-energy facets exposed act as core and shell, respectively. The photocatalytic activity for degradation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol and Rhodamine B under visible irradiation and UV/Vis irradiation has been examined, and improved photocatalytic activity under visible light owing to the hierarchical core-shell structure, {116}-plane-oriented nanosheets, in situ N doping, and large surface areas has been found.
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Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Early decompressive craniectomy (DC) has been shown to reduce mortality in malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction, whereas efficacy of DC on functional outcome is inconclusive. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate the effects of DC on malignant MCA infarction and investigated whether age of patients and timing of surgery influenced the efficacy. We systematically searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, Web of Science update to June 2014. Finally, A total of 14 studies involved 747 patients were included, of which 8 were RCTs (341 patients). The results demonstrated that early DC (within 48?h after stroke onset) decreased mortality (OR = 0.14, 95%CI = 0.08, 0.25, p<0.0001) and number of patients with poor functional outcome (modified Rankin scale (mRS)>3) (OR = 0.38, 95%CI = 0.20, 0.73, p = 0.004) for 12 months follow-up. In the subgroup analysis stratified by age, early DC improved outcome both in younger and older patients. However, later DC (after 48h after stroke onset) might not have a benefit effect on lowering mortality or improving outcome in patients with malignant infarction. Together, this study suggested that decompressive surgery undertaken within 48?h reduced mortality and increased the number of patients with a favourable outcome in patients with malignant MCA infarction.
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Allelic-specific expression in relation to Bombyx mori resistance to Bt toxin.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Understanding the mechanism of Bt resistance is one of the key elements of the effective application of Bt in pest control. The lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm, demonstrates qualities that make it an ideal species to use in achieving this understanding. We screened 45 strains of silkworm (Bombyx mori) using a Cry1Ab toxin variant. The sensitivity levels of the strains varied over a wide range. A resistant strain (P50) and a phylogenetically related susceptible strain (Dazao) were selected to profile the expressions of 12 Bt resistance-related genes. The SNPs in these genes were detected based on EST analysis and were validated by allelic-specific PCR. A comparison of allelic-specific expression between P50 and Dazao showed that the transcript levels of heterozygous genes containing two alleles rather than an imbalanced allelic expression contribute more to the resistance of P50 against Bt. The responses of the allelic-specific expression to Bt in hybrid larvae were then investigated. The results showed that the gene expression pattern of an ATP-binding cassette transporter C2 (ABCC2) and an aminopeptidase N (APN3), changed in an allelic-specific manner, with the increase of the resistant allele expression correlated with larval survival. The results suggest that a trans-regulatory mechanism in ABCC2 and APN3 allelic-specific expression is involved in the insect's response to the Bt toxin. The potential role of allelic-specific gene regulation in insect resistance to Bt toxins is discussed.
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Mitochondrial DNA capture and divergence in Pinus provide new insights into the evolution of the genus.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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The evolution of the mitochondrial (mt) genome is far from being fully understood. Systematic investigations into the modes of inheritance, rates and patterns of recombination, nucleotide substitution, and structural changes in the mt genome are still lacking in many groups of plants. In this study, we sequenced >11kbp mtDNA segments from multiple accessions of 36 pine species to characterize the evolutionary patterns of mtDNA in the genus Pinus. We found extremely low substitution rates and complex repetitive sequences scattered across different genome regions, as well as chimeric structures that were probably generated by multiple intergenomic recombinations. The mtDNA-based phylogeny of the genus differed from that based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA in the placement of several groups of species. Such discordances suggest a series of mtDNA capture events during past range shifts of the pine species and that both vertical and horizontal inheritance are implicated in the evolution of mtDNA in Pinus. MtDNA dating revealed that most extant lineages of the genus originated during Oligocene-Miocene radiation and subgenus Strobus diversified earlier than subgenus Pinus. Our findings illustrate a reticular evolutionary pathway for the mt genome through capture and recombination in the genus Pinus, and provide new insights into the evolution of the genus.
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Development of deft amplification refractory mutation sequencing system (ARMSS) for discriminating Pilos antler based on a short cytochrome b (Cytb) gene.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Abstract Pilos antler (Lu-Rong in Chinese) is a famous traditional medicine in China. Many adulterants have been discovered in Chinese markets in recent years. However, few DNA-based methods are effective for discrimination of this DNA-degraded animal medicine. Here, novel and deft amplification refractory mutation sequencing system (ARMSS), integrating the advantages of the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and the short DNA barcode, was first developed to discriminate Pilos antler from its adulterants. We aimed to provide a new sight and inspiration for deft detection. The results showed that developed ARMS achieved strong specificity and high sensitivity in rapid identification, while the short Cytb gene was of excellent identification power in terms of accurate identification, which suggested that ARMSS successfully integrated the advantages of the ARMS and short DNA barcode, and that it was useful for deft detection. Our study determined that the deft ARMSS could be the well candidate for discrimination of Pilos antler, as well as be a valuable tool for deft identification of Chinese medicine.
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Optimization of the genotyping-by-sequencing strategy for population genomic analysis in conifers.
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Flexibility and low cost make genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) an ideal tool for population genomic studies of non-model species. However, to utilize the potential of the method fully, many parameters affecting library quality and SNP discovery require optimization, especially for conifer genomes with a high repetitive DNA content. In this study, we explored strategies for effective GBS analysis in pine species. We constructed GBS libraries using HpaII, PstI and EcoRI-MseI digestions with different multiplexing levels, and examined the effect of restriction enzymes on library complexity and the impact of sequencing depth and size selection of restriction fragments on coverage bias. We tested and compared UNEAK, Stacks and GATK pipelines for the GBS data, and then developed a reference-free SNP calling strategy for haploid pine genomes. Our GBS procedure proved to be effective in SNP discovery, producing 7,000-11,000 and 14,751 SNPs within and among three pine species, respectively, from a PstI library. This investigation has significant practical implications and provides guidance for the design and analysis of GBS experiments, particularly for organisms for which genomic information is lacking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Influence of thread pitch, helix angle, and compactness on micromotion of immediately loaded implants in three types of bone quality: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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This study investigated the influence of thread pitch, helix angle, and compactness on micromotion in immediately loaded implants in bone of varying density (D2, D3, and D4). Five models of the three-dimensional finite element (0.8?mm pitch, 1.6?mm pitch, 2.4?mm pitch, double-threaded, and triple-threaded implants) in three types of bone were created using Pro/E, Hypermesh, and ABAQUS software. The study had three groups: Group 1, different pitches (Pitch Group); Group 2, same compactness but different helix angles (Angle Group); and Group 3, same helix angle but different compactness (Compact Group). Implant micromotion was assessed as the comprehensive relative displacement. We found that vertical relative displacement was affected by thread pitch, helix angle, and compactness. Under vertical loading, displacement was positively correlated with thread pitch and helix angle but negatively with compactness. Under horizontal loading in D2, the influence of pitch, helix angle, and compactness on implant stability was limited; however, in D3 and D4, the influence of pitch, helix angle, and compactness on implant stability is increased. The additional evidence was provided that trabecular bone density has less effect on implant micromotion than cortical bone thickness. Bone type amplifies the influence of thread pattern on displacement.
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The error estimate for contouring the brainstem in radiotherapy of head and neck cancer: a multi-center study from north China.
J BUON
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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To analyze the error in contouring the brainstem for patients with head and neck cancer who underwent radiotherapy (RT) based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images.
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Comparative studies on the interaction of cefixime with bovine serum albumin by fluorescence quenching spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.
Luminescence
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Under simulated physiological conditions, the reaction mechanism between cefixime and bovine serum albumin at different temperatures (293, 303 and 310?K) was investigated using a fluorescence quenching method and synchronous fluorescence method, respectively. The results indicated that the fluorescence intensity and synchronous fluorescence intensity of bovine serum albumin decreased regularly on the addition of cefixime. In addition, the quenching mechanism, binding constants, number of binding sites, type of interaction force and energy-transfer parameters of cefixime with bovine serum albumin obtained from two methods using the same equation were consistent. The results indicated that the synchronous fluorescence spectrometry could be used to study the binding mechanism between drug and protein, and was a useful supplement to the conventional method. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Molecular analysis of the rpsL gene for rapid detection of streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a meta-analysis.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a major threat to tuberculosis (TB) control programs and public health. Most conventional methods of drug susceptibility testing (DST) are precise but time-consuming. Molecular analysis of the rpsL gene has been used widely in diagnosing streptomycin-resistant MTB since it is rapid and specific. The aim of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of molecular assay of the rpsL gene for the rapid detection of streptomycin-resistant MTB.
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Clinical significance of serum soluble death receptor 5 concentration in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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There is an urgent requirement for the identification of suitable biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present study aimed to measure the levels of serum soluble death receptor 5 (sDR5) in patients with locally advanced stage III NSCLC, and to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic significance in these patients. The sDR5 concentrations were evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in 50 healthy controls and 122 patients with locally advanced stage III NSCLC [including 57 adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 65 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients], before and after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. It was found that the pretreatment sDR5 levels in patients with NSCLC were higher than the sDR5 levels of healthy controls (P<0.001). However, no significant difference in the sDR5 levels was observed between the ADC and SCC subgroups (P=0.874). According to multiple clinical classifications, a significant increase in the pretreatment serum sDR5 levels could be observed in IIIB-stage patients compared with IIIA-stage patients (P=0.009). Patients with a tumor burden >3 cm had higher pretreatment sDR5 concentration than those with a tumor burden ?3 cm (P=0.026). Additionally, T4-stage patients had significantly higher pretreatment sDR5 levels compared with those of T1-stage patients (P<0.001). There were no significant differences between pre- and post-treatment sDR5 concentrations in the total NSCLC patient group (P=0.462), ADC subgroup (P=0.066) and SCC subgroup (P=0.052). Furthermore, when patients were divided according to therapeutic response, the pretreatment sDR5 levels in the responder patients were significantly lower compared with those of the non-responders (P<0.001). Further survival analysis showed that the patients whose pretreatment sDR5 levels were ?14 pg/ml (cutoff value, 14 pg/ml) had a longer progression-free survival (PFS) time than patients with sDR5 levels >14 pg/ml. However, no correlation was observed between the post-treatment sDR5 levels and therapeutic response or PFS time. To the best of our knowledge, the present study results provide the first evidence that the pretreatment serum levels of sDR5 may be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis, prediction and prognosis of patients with locally advanced stage III NSCLC.
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[Effect of glimepiride on the glucose uptake of rat mandibular osteoblasts in hyperglycemia].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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To explore the effect of glimepiride on the glucose uptake as well as glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and GLUT-3 expression levels of rat mandibular osteoblasts in hyperglycemia.
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Effect of surfactants on apparent oxygen consumption of photosystem I isolated from Arthrospira platensis.
Photosyn. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Surfactants play a significant role in solubilization of photosystem I (PSI) in vitro. Triton X-100 (TX), n-Dodecyl-?-D-maltoside (DDM), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were employed to solubilize PSI particles in MES buffer to compare the effect of surfactant and its dosage on the apparent oxygen consumption rate of PSI. Through a combined assessment of sucrose density gradient centrifugation, Native PAGE and 77 K fluorescence with the apparent oxygen consumption, the nature of the enhancement of the apparent oxygen consumption activity of PSI by surfactants has been analyzed. Aggregated PSI particles can be dispersed by surfactant molecules into micelles, and the apparent oxygen consumption rate is higher for surfactant-solubilized PSI than for integral PSI particles. For DDM, PSI particles are solubilized mostly as the integral trimeric form. For TX, PSI particles are solubilized as incomplete trimeric and some monomeric forms. For the much harsher surfactant, SDS, PSI particles are completely solubilized as monomeric and its subunit forms. The enhancement of the oxygen consumption rate cannot be explained only by the effects of surfactant on the equilibrium between monomeric and trimeric forms of solubililized PSI. Care must be taken when the electron transfer activity of PSI is evaluated by methods based on oxygen consumption because the apparent oxygen consumption rate is influenced by uncoupled chlorophyll (Chl) from PSI, i.e., the larger the amount of uncoupled Chl, the higher the rate of apparent oxygen consumption. 77 K fluorescence spectra can be used to ensure that there is no uncoupled Chl present in the system. In order to eliminate the effect of trace uncoupled Chl, an efficient physical quencher of (1)O2, such as 1 mM NaN3, may be added into the mixture.
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A method of protein model classification and retrieval using bag-of-visual-features.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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In this paper we propose a novel visual method for protein model classification and retrieval. Different from the conventional methods, the key idea of the proposed method is to extract image features of proteins and measure the visual similarity between proteins. Firstly, the multiview images are captured by vertices and planes of a given octahedron surrounding the protein. Secondly, the local features are extracted from each image of the different views by the SURF algorithm and are vector quantized into visual words using a visual codebook. Finally, KLD is employed to calculate the similarity distance between two feature vectors. Experimental results show that the proposed method has encouraging performances for protein retrieval and categorization as shown in the comparison with other methods.
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Paeonol pretreatment attenuates cerebral ischemic injury via upregulating expression of pAkt, Nrf2, HO-1 and ameliorating BBB permeability in mice.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Oxidative damage plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemic stroke and may represent a target for treatment. Our previous studies have proved that nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream genes served as a key mechanism for protection against oxidative stress. Paeonol (PN) is reputed to possess a broad range of therapeutic properties probably by virtue of its antioxidative ability. However little is elucidated regarding the underlying mechanisms in ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to explore PNs effect in ischemic injury and the role of the pAkt, Nrf2 and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the mice brains of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO).
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Multiple functions of hypoxia-regulated miR-210 in cancer.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. miRNAs can be induced by a variety of stresses such as hypoxia, and are involved in diverse biological processes including differentiation, cell proliferation, cell death, and tumorigenesis. Hypoxia, a common feature of tumor microenvironment, can induce a number of miRNAs expression. miRNA-210 (miR-210) is one of the hypoxia-regulated-miRNAs, which has been investigated extensively in cancer. However, paradoxically opposing results were documented regarding whether it is an oncogene or a tumor suppressor, and whether it is a positive or negative prognostic biomarker. In the present review, we focus on the following investigations of miR-210: 1) its functions of as an oncogene, 2) its functions as a tumor suppressor, 3) its functions in mitochondrial metabolism, and finally, the diagnostic and prognostic value of miR-210 in cancer researches.
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Ambient mass spectrometry imaging: plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging and its applications.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been widely used in many research areas for the advantages of providing informative molecular distribution with high specificity. Among the recent progress, ambient MSI has attracted increasing interests owing to its characteristics of ambient, in situ, and nonpretreatment analysis. Here, we are presenting the ambient MSI for traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and authentication of work of art and documents using plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (PALDI-MS). Compared with current ambient MSI methods, an excellent average resolution of 60 ?m × 60 ?m pixel size was achieved using this system. The feasibility of PALDI-based MSI was confirmed by seal imaging, and its authentication applications were demonstrated by imaging of printed Chinese characters. Imaging of the Radix Scutellariae slice showed that the two active components, baicalein and wogonin, mainly were distributed in the epidermis of the root, which proposed an approach for distinguishing TCMs' origins and the distribution of active components of TCMs and exploring the environmental effects of plant growth. PALDI-MS imaging provides a strong complement for the MSI strategy with the enhanced spatial resolution, which is promising in many research fields, such as artwork identification, TCMs' and botanic research, pharmaceutical applications, etc.
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Recombinant HDL (Milano) protects endotoxin-challenged rat from multiple organ injury and dysfunction.
Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Abstract Endotoxemia, the systemic inflammatory host response to infection, leads to severe septic shock and multiple organ injury and dysfunction syndrome (MOPS), which cause mortality. Apolipoprotein A-IMilano (apoAIM), a naturally occurring cysteine mutant of apoAI with dimers as its effective form, showed an enhanced cardiovascular protective activity compared with wild-type apoAI (apoAIwt). To investigate the role of recombinant high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) reconstituted with apoAIM (rHDLM) on endotoxemia and MOPS, we examined the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and protective effects of this cysteine mutant against organ injury in endotoxin-challenged rat models compared with rHDLwt. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that pretreatment with rHDLM significantly attenuated liver and renal dysfunction and histopathological features of lung injury in endotoxin-challenged endotoxemia rats. Administration of rHDLM to endotoxemia rats dramatically suppressed proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecule increase in tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 1?, interleukin 6, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. In addition, rHDLM pretreatment inhibited lipid peroxidation and enhanced total antioxidant capacity in vivo. In comparison with rHDLwt, rHDLM showed enhanced capacity on anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant functions. In summary, administration of rHDLM protected endotoxin-challenged endotoxemia and MOPS through enhanced anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.
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MicroRNA Let-7 regulates molting and metamorphosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to the 3'UTRs of mRNA targets and thus cause their degradation or translational inhibition. In insects, important roles of miRNAs in various biological processes have been demonstrated in Drosophila melanogaster. However, biological roles of miRNAs are barely unveiled in the majority of insect species due to limited genetic tools. In the present study, we introduce the transgenic miRNA sponge (miR-SP) technology combining with the binary GAL4/UAS system in the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, to exploit the biological function of an evolutionally conserved miRNA, let-7. We successfully established transgenic silkworm lines in which a miRNA sponge construct targeting BmLet-7 seed region was expressed in a ubiquitous manner directed by A3-GAL4 driver. Transgenic animals showed decreased expression of BmLet-7, leading to developmental arrestment during the larval-larval and larval-pupal transition. Simultaneously, expression levels of the predicted BmLet-7 target genes, FTZ-F1 and Eip74EF (E74), key regulatory factors in the ecdysone pathway, were elevated in transgenic animals. The current study is the first report on application of the transgenic miR-SP technology in non-drosophilid insects, which will not only contribute to better understanding of let-7 biological roles, but also greatly facilitate future miRNA functional analysis in insects.
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Characterization of top phase oil obtained from co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and poplar sawdust.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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To research the impact of adding sawdust on top phase oil, a sewage sludge and poplar sawdust co-pyrolysis experiment was performed in a fixed bed. Gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS) was used to analyze the component distribution of top phase oil. Higher heating value, viscosity, water content, and pH of the top phase oil product were determined. The highest top phase oil yield (5.13 wt%) was obtained from the mixture containing 15% poplar sawdust, while the highest oil yield (16.51 wt%) was obtained from 20% poplar sawdust. Top phase oil collected from the 15% mixture also has the largest amount of aliphatics and the highest higher heating value (28.6 MJ/kg). Possible reaction pathways were proposed to explain the increase in the types of phenols present in the top phase oil as the proportion of poplar sawdust used in the mixture increased. It can be concluded that synergetic reactions occurred during co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and poplar sawdust. The results indicate that the high ash content of the sewage sludge may be responsible for the characteristic change in the top phase oil obtained from the mixtures containing different proportions of sewage sludge and poplar sawdust. Consequently, co-pyrolysis of the mixture containing 15 % poplar sawdust can increase the yield and the higher heating value of top phase oil.
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Maize ZmRACK1 is involved in the plant response to fungal phytopathogens.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) belongs to a protein subfamily containing a tryptophan-aspartic acid-domain (WD) repeat structure. Compelling evidence indicates that RACK1 can interact with many signal molecules and affect different signal transduction pathways. In this study, we cloned a maize RACK1 gene (ZmRACK1) by RT-PCR. The amino acid sequence of ZmRACK1 had seven WD repeats in which there were typical GH (glycine-histidine) and WD dipeptides. Comparison with OsRACK1 from rice revealed 89% identity at the amino acid level. Expression pattern analysis by RT-PCR showed that ZmRACK1 was expressed in all analyzed tissues of maize and that its transcription in leaves was induced by abscisic acid and jasmonate at a high concentration. Overexpression of ZmRACK1 in maize led to a reduction in symptoms caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) on maize leaves. The expression levels of the pathogenesis-related protein genes, PR-1 and PR-5, increased 2.5-3 times in transgenic maize, and reactive oxygen species production was more active than in the wild-type. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that ZmRACK1 could interact with RAC1, RAR1 and SGT1. This study and previous work leads us to believe that ZmRACK1 may form a complex with regulators of plant disease resistance to coordinate maize reactions to pathogens.
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Irreversible denaturation of proteins through aluminum-induced formation of backbone ring structures.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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A combination of ab?initio calculations, circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has shown that aluminum ions can induce the formation of backbone ring structures in a wide range of peptides, including neurodegenerative disease related motifs. These ring structures greatly destabilize the protein and result in irreversible denaturation. This behavior benefits from the ability of aluminum ions to form chemical bonds simultaneously with the amide nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen atoms on the peptide backbone.
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Extremely low nucleotide polymorphism in Pinus krempfii Lecomte, a unique flat needle pine endemic to Vietnam.
Ecol Evol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Pinus krempfii Lecomte is a morphologically and ecologically unique pine, endemic to Vietnam. It is regarded as vulnerable species with distribution limited to just two provinces: Khanh Hoa and Lam Dong. Although a few phylogenetic studies have included this species, almost nothing is known about its genetic features. In particular, there are no studies addressing the levels and patterns of genetic variation in natural populations of P. krempfii. In this study, we sampled 57 individuals from six natural populations of P. krempfii and analyzed their sequence variation in ten nuclear gene regions (approximately 9 kb) and 14 mitochondrial (mt) DNA regions (approximately 10 kb). We also analyzed variation at seven chloroplast (cp) microsatellite (SSR) loci. We found very low haplotype and nucleotide diversity at nuclear loci compared with other pine species. Furthermore, all investigated populations were monomorphic across all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions included in our study, which are polymorphic in other pine species. Population differentiation at nuclear loci was low (5.2%) but significant. However, structure analysis of nuclear loci did not detect genetically differentiated groups of populations. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) using nuclear sequence data and mismatch distribution analysis for cpSSR loci suggested recent expansion of the species. The implications of these findings for the management and conservation of P. krempfii genetic resources were discussed.
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Unique WSPA protein from terrestrial macroscopic cyanobacteria can confer resistance to osmotic stress in transgenic plants.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The terrestrial macroscopic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune exhibits remarkable resistance to desiccation stress. This species synthesizes abundant acidic water stress protein (WSPA) in cells upon desiccation and secretes it into the extracellular polysaccharide sheath upon rehydration. However, our knowledge about its cellular role in stress resistance is still rather limited. In this paper, we first revealed that WSPA also occurred in two other macroscopic cyanobacteria Nostoc flagelliforme and Nostoc sphaeroides, but it is more abundant in N. commune. The N. commune wspa1 gene was then heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phenotypic observation found that WSPA1 conferred increased tolerance to osmotic stress in transgenic plants. The physiological indexes such as relative electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, proline accumulation and the maximal quantum efficiency of Photosystem II, were also improved in transgenic plants upon osmotic stress, compared to wild types. In addition, GFP fluorescence analysis of eGFP::wspa1 transgenic plant showed that WSPA1 was localized in the cytoplasm. Therefore, the role of WSPA revealed by this study mainly represented its intracellular function. In general, our research suggested that WSPA may act as a stress protein and involve cellular osmotic stress resistance.
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The expression of miR-21 and miR-375 predict prognosis of esophageal cancer.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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MicroRNA is a class of small, well-conserved, non-coding RNAs, and could play a potential role as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of esophageal cancers. We aimed to review comprehensively the evidence of microRNA as prognostic biomarkers in esophageal cancers.
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Effects of Fructus Akebiae on learning and memory impairment in a scopolamine-induced animal model of dementia.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Fructus Akebiae (FAE) is a component of traditional Chinese medicines used for the clinical treatment of amnesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FAE extract on scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment in mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment with FAE (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) was investigated in scopolamine-treated animals, and its effects on different types of memory were examined using the T-maze, the Morris water maze task, the novel object recognition test, the passive avoidance task and the step-down test. The results revealed that 5 and 10 mg/kg FAE attenuated scopolamine-mediated impairment of cognition, including spatial, episodic, aversive, and short- and long-term memory. Overall, these results suggest that FAE is an effective cognitive enhancer, and thus highlights the value of a multi-target strategy to address the complexity of cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.
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Analysis of dysregulation of immune system in pancreatic cancer based on gene expression profile.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The aim of this study was to explore the dysregulated expression of the immune system in pancreatic cancer and clarify the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer. The Dataset GSE15471 was downloaded from GEO database, Student's t test was used to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the pancreatic cancer group and the normal control group. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) provides functional annotation was employed to explore the significant DEGs involved in biological functions. We got 988 significantly DEGs, including 832 up-regulated genes and 156 down-regulated genes. The ratio of up-regulated genes and down-regulated genes was 5.3. Total 13 biological pathways which were significant enriched with DEGs by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Finally, we constructed a overall network of the immune system in pancreatic cancer with these biological pathways information. Our study reveals that dysregulated pathways in pancreatic cancer associated with the immune system. Besides, we also identify some important molecular biomarkers of the pancreatic cancer, including CXCR4 and CD4. Dysfunctional pathways and important molecular biomarkers of pancreatic cancer will provide useful information for potential treatment of pancreatic cancer.
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Risk factors of radiation-induced acute esophagitis in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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To analyze the clinical and dosimetric risk factors of acute esophagitis (AE) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy.
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Long-term outcome of sensorineural hearing loss in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients: comparison between treatment with radiotherapy alone and chemoradiotherapy.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term effect of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) resulted from radiotherapy (RT) alone versus chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients (NPC). Seventy-two patients initially diagnosed with NPC were enrolled from Shandong Tumor Hospital between March 2003 and May 2007. They were assigned into two groups: RT alone and chemoradiotherapy according to the different treatment regimens. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was applied for both groups, concurrent and adjuvant cisplatin were administered for chemoradiotherapy group additionally. Hearing threshold test was performed at various time periods after completion of RT. Mean radiation dose to the cochlea in each ear was calculated to determine the correlation between cochlear dose and SNHL. We found that the hearing loss is more severe in the chemoradiotherapy group compared with RT group, from completion of RT up to the 5 years of follow-up period. This is especially obvious in the high frequency range. Hearing level is seriously damaged when cochlea dose exceeds 46 GY. We concluded that concurrent/adjuvant chemotherapy plus RT aggravates SNHL in NPC patients than RT alone and thus inner ear tissue tolerance should be redefined in those patients.
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Genetic variants in inducible nitric oxide synthase gene are associated with the risk of radiation-induced lung injury in lung cancer patients receiving definitive thoracic radiation.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Nitric oxide (NO), mainly synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) in pathological conditions, plays an important role in cytotoxicity, inflammation and fibrosis. Elevations in exhaled NO after thoracic radiation have been reported to predict radiation-induced lung injury (RILI). This study examined whether genetic variations in NOS2 gene is associated with the risk of RILI.
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A new tumor suppressor LncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 is regulated by DNMT1 and inhibits migration of glioma cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Growing number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as new modulators in cancer origination and progression. A lncRNA, ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 9 (ADAMTS9) antisense RNA 2 (ADAMTS9-AS2), with unknown function, is the antisense transcript of tumor suppressor ADAMTS9. In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern and functional role of ADAMTS9-AS2 in glioma by using real-time PCR and gain-/loss-of-function studies. The results showed that the ADAMTS9-AS2 expression was significantly downregulated in tumor tissues compared with normal tissues and reversely associated with tumor grade and prognosis. Multivariate analysis of the prognosis factors showed that low ADAMTS9-AS2 expression was a significant independent predictor of poor survival in glioma. Overexpression of ADAMTS9-AS2 resulted in significant inhibition of cell migration in glioma, whereas knockdown of ADAMTS9-AS2 showed the opposite effect. We also found that ADAMTS9-AS2 expression was negatively correlated with DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1). In addition, DNMT1 knockdown led to remarkable enhancement of ADAMTS9-AS2 expression. By 5-aza-dC treatment, the ADAMTS9-AS2 expression was also reactivated. The results suggested that ADAMTS9-AS2 is a novel tumor suppressor modulated by DNMT1 in glioma. LncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for glioma.
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Risk factors for hepatitis B virus reactivation after conformal radiotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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This study investigated whether conformal radiotherapy affects hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation, and the risk factors for HBV reactivation in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sixty-nine patients with HCC were included in this retrospective study. Before radiotherapy (RT), all patients underwent imaging examinations and some baseline examinations, including CBC, liver function test, renal function test, ?-fetoprotein level, hepatitis B (HB) surface antigen, HB surface Ab, HB e antigen, HB e Ab, and serum HBV DNA quantification. During the period of RT and at least 16 weeks after the end of RT, CBCs were carried out weekly and the other tests were monitored monthly or more frequently if necessary. The clinical features and dosimetric parameters of RT were recorded. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression algorithms were used to analyze the risk factors of HBV reactivation. The incidence of complications in the study population was as follows: radiation-induced liver disease, 17.4%; HBV reactivation, 24.6%; and HBV reactivation-induced hepatitis, 21.7%. The HBV DNA level and dose volume parameters including normal liver volume, V20, and mean dose were associated with HBV reactivation. There was a relatively high incidence of HBV reactivation in HCC patients after the end of conformal RT. The serum HBV DNA level and some dosimetric parameters related to normal liver, including normal liver volume, V20, and mean dose, were the prognosis factors of HBV reactivation and should be carefully considered before conformal RT.
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Vanishing lung syndrome in one family: Five cases with a 20-year follow-up.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Vanishing lung syndrome, also known as idiopathic giant bullous emphysema, is a rare disease characterized by giant emphysematous bullae. The disease is diagnosed by radiological findings of giant bullae in one, or both, of the upper lobes of the lung, occupying at least one?third of the hemithorax. There have been several reports of vanishing lung syndrome, however it remains to be determined whether genetic inheritance is associated with the disease. In the present study, five patients within one family, with vanishing lung syndrome, were reported during a follow?up period of ~20 years. All of the patients were diagnosed by radiological findings, which showed diffuse bullae in the lungs, which were of varying size and asymmetrical distribution, and the occurrence of pneumothorax or emphysema. The Medical Ethics Committee of the People's Hospital of Zhangye Municipality (Zhangye, China) approved this study, and all subjects gave their informed consent During the follow?up period of 20 years, bullae in these patients were shown to progressively increase, and no other pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis and chronic bronchitis were observed. Autosomal dominant inheritance was observed in five cases, and autosomal recessive inheritance was observed in one case. The present study suggests that vanishing lung syndrome may be associated with autosomal dominant and recessive genetic inheritance.
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A Metabolomic Strategy to Screen the Prototype Components and Metabolites of Shuang-Huang-Lian Injection in Human Serum by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.
J Anal Methods Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Shuang-huang-lian injection (SHLI) is a famous Chinese patent medicine, which has been wildly used in clinic to treat acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, influenza, and so forth. Despite the widespread clinical application, the prototype components and metabolites of SHLI have not been fully elucidated, especially in human body. To discover and screen the constituents or metabolites of Chinese medicine in biofluids tends to be more and more difficult due to the complexity of chemical compositions, metabolic reactions and matrix effects. In this work, a metabolomic strategy to comprehensively elucidate the prototype components and metabolites of SHLI in human serum conducted by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS was developed. Orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to distinguish the exogenous, namely, drug-induced constituents, from endogenous in human serum. In the S-plot, 35 drug-induced constituents were found, including 23 prototype compounds and 12 metabolites which indicated that SHLI in human body mainly caused phase II metabolite reactions. It was concluded that the metabolomic strategy for identification of herbal constituents and metabolites in biological samples was successfully developed. This identification and structural elucidation of the chemical compounds provided essential data for further pharmacological and pharmacokinetics study of SHLI.
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NDRG1 deficiency attenuates fetal growth and the intrauterine response to hypoxic injury.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Intrauterine mammalian development depends on the preservation of placental function. The expression of the protein N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is increased in placentas of human pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction and in hypoxic primary human trophoblasts, where NDRG1 attenuates cell injury. We sought to assess the function of placental NDRG1 in vivo and tested the hypothesis that NDRG1 deficiency in the mouse embryo impairs placental function and consequently intrauterine growth. We found that Ndrg1 knock-out embryos were growth restricted in comparison to wild-type or heterozygous counterparts. Furthermore, hypoxia reduced the survival of female, but not male, knock-out embryos. Ndrg1 deletion caused significant alterations in placental gene expression, with a marked reduction in transcription of several lipoproteins in the placental labyrinth. These transcriptional changes were associated with reduced fetal:maternal serum cholesterol ratio exclusively in hypoxic female embryos. Collectively, our findings indicate that NDRG1 promotes fetal growth and regulates the metabolic response to intrauterine hypoxic injury in a sexually dichotomous manner.
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Catalytic conversion of biomass pyrolysis-derived compounds with chemical liquid deposition (CLD) modified ZSM-5.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Chemical liquid deposition (CLD) with KH550, TEOS and methyl silicone oil as the modifiers was used to modify ZSM-5 and deposit its external acid sites. The characteristics of modified catalysts were tested by catalytic conversion of biomass pyrolysis-derived compounds. The effects of different modifying conditions (deposited amount, temperature, and time) on the product yields and selectivities were investigated. The results show KH550 modified ZSM-5 (deposited amount of 4%, temperature of 20°C and time of 6h) produced the maximum yields of aromatics (24.5%) and olefins (16.5%), which are much higher than that obtained with original ZSM-5 catalyst (18.8% aromatics and 9.8% olefins). The coke yield decreased from 44.1% with original ZSM-5 to 26.7% with KH550 modified ZSM-5. The selectivities of low-molecule-weight hydrocarbons (ethylene and benzene) decreased, while that of higher molecule-weight hydrocarbons (propylene, butylene, toluene, and naphthalene) increased comparing with original ZSM-5.
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Error in the parotid contour delineated using computed tomography images rather than magnetic resonance images during radiotherapy planning for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Jpn J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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To analyze the intra- and interobserver variations errors in the parotid contour delineated using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who underwent radiotherapy.
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Weak crossability barrier but strong juvenile selection supports ecological speciation of the hybrid pine pinus densata on the tibetan plateau.
Evolution
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Determining how a new hybrid lineage can achieve reproductive isolation is a key to understanding the process and mechanisms of homoploid hybrid speciation. Here, we evaluated the degree and nature of reproductive isolation between the ecologically successful hybrid species Pinus densata and its parental species P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. We performed interspecific crosses among the three species to assess their crossability. We then conducted reciprocal transplantation experiments to evaluate their fitness differentiation, and to examine how natural populations representing different directions of introgression differ in adaptation. The crossing experiments revealed weak genetic barriers among the species. The transplantation trials showed manifest evidence of local adaptation as the three species all performed best in their native habitats. Pinus densata populations from the western edge of its distribution have evolved a strong local adaptation to the specific habitat in that range; populations representing different directions of introgressants with the two parental species all showed fitness disadvantages in this P. densata habitat. These observations illustrate that premating isolation through selection against immigrants from other habitat types or postzygotic isolation through selection against backcrosses between the three species is strong. Thus, ecological selection in combination with endogenous components and geographic isolation has likely played a significant role in the speciation of P. densata.
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Intramolecular C-F and C-H bond cleavage promoted by butadienyl heavy Grignard reagents.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Organomagnesium compounds (Grignard reagents) are among the most useful organometallic reagents and have greatly accelerated the advancement of synthetic chemistry and related sciences. Nevertheless, heavy Grignard reagents based on the metals calcium, strontium or barium are not widely used, mainly due to their rather inert heavy alkaline-earth metals and extremely high reactivity of their corresponding Grignard-type reagents. Here we report the generation and reaction chemistry of butadienyl heavy Grignard reagents whose extremely high reactivity is successfully tamed. Facile synthesis of perfluoro-?-extended pentalene and naphthalene derivatives is realized by the in situ generated heavy Grignard reagents via intramolecular C-F/C-H bond cleavage. These obtained perfluorodibenzopentalene and perfluorodinaphthopentalene derivatives show low-lying LUMO levels, with one being the lowest value so far among all pentalene derivatives. Our results set an exciting example for the meaningful synthetic application of heavy Grignard reagents.
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Association of p53 expression with prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been well accepted that p53 overexpression is associated with advanced stages of cancer. However, the prognostic role of p53 overexpression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. To investigate the prognostic role of p53 overexpression in patients with ESCC, a retrospective cohort study of 136 ESCC patients was carried out. The expression of p53 protein in tumor tissues was investigated immunohistochemically. Positive expression of p53 protein was detected in 57 ESCC patients (41.9%). The p53 overexpression was associated with smoking (P < 0.001), tumor differentiation (P < 0.001), and tumor size (P < 0.001). In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with p53 overexpression had significantly shorter overall survival than those patients with negative p53 expression (log-rank P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis by Cox regression model further showed that p53 overexpression was a significantly independent predictor of poorer overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.91; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.03-3.54, P = 0.04). Thus, p53 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with early stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and it's a significantly independent predictor of poorer overall survival.
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Glimepiride Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation in Rat Osteoblasts via the PI3K/Akt/eNOS Pathway in a High Glucose Microenvironment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Our previous studies demonstrated that glimepiride enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and led to activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Recent genetic evidence shows that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in bone homeostasis. In this study, we further elucidated the roles of eNOS, PI3K and Akt in bone formation by osteoblasts induced by glimepiride in a high glucose microenvironment. We demonstrated that high glucose (16.5 mM) inhibits the osteogenic differentiation potential and proliferation of rat osteoblasts. Glimepiride activated eNOS expression in rat osteoblasts cultured with two different concentrations of glucose. High glucose-induced osteogenic differentiation was significantly enhanced by glimepiride. Down-regulation of PI3K P85 levels by treatment with LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) led to suppression of P-eNOS and P-AKT expression levels, which in turn resulted in inhibition of RUNX2, OCN and ALP mRNA expression in osteoblasts induced by glimepiride at both glucose concentrations. ALP activity was partially inhibited by 10 µM LY294002. Taken together, our results demonstrate that glimepiride-induced osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts occurs via eNOS activation and is dependent on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in a high glucose microenvironment.
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Association of promoter methylation of RUNX3 gene with the development of esophageal cancer: a meta analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a member of the runt-domain family of transcription factors. Emerging evidence indicates that RUNX3 is a tumor suppressor gene in several types of human cancers including esophageal cancer. However, the association between RUNX3 promoter methylation and esophageal cancer remains unclear. Here we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of RUNX3 promoter methylation on the incidence of esophageal cancer.
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Efficacy and Safety of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation after Breast-conserving Surgery: A Meta-analysis of Published Comparative Studies.
Breast J
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2013
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To compare the treatment outcomes between accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and conventional whole-breast irradiation (WBI) and to explore the efficacy and safety of APBI as an adjuvant treatment for early-stage breast cancer who received breast-conserving therapy. Eligible studies were identified on Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library updated to July 10, 2012. Comparative studies were considered for inclusion. Analyses were carried out using Stata software. Eleven comparative studies with a total of 7,097 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed that there were no statistically significant differences between group APBI and group WBI associated with the supraclavicular failure, distant metastasis, overall survival, and disease-free survival, while local recurrence (LR) and axillary failure (AF) increased in group APBI. The sensitivity analysis indicated that both the LR and AF were not statistically significant difference between the two groups. In the subgroup analysis, LR was statistically significantly higher in group APBI for patients with the age <60, large tumor size, and unknown margin status. APBI is a safe treatment modality and could become a potential option for the delivery of adjuvant radiation therapy in patients receiving breast-conserving therapy, especially for the suitable group that was classified by the American Society of Radiation Oncology Consensus Panel.
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Effects of traditional Chinese medicine on rats with Type II diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin: a urine metabonomic study.
Afr Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Type II diabetes has become a serious threat to human health in recent years. Among adults above 20 years old in China, the prevalence rate of diabetes is 9.7%. Thus, it is imperative to study the mechanisms underlying type II diabetes to develop effective therapeutic treatments.
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Bicyclol upregulates transcription factor Nrf2, HO-1 expression and protects rat brains against focal ischemia.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2013
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Oxidative damage plays a detrimental role in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia and may represent a therapeutic target. The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) controls the coordinated expression of the important antioxidant and detoxification genes through a promotor sequence termed the antioxidant response element. Bicyclol has been proved to elicit a variety of biological effects through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. But the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the role of bicyclol in cerebral ischemia and its potential mechanism were investigated. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: MCAO (middle cerebral artery occlusion), Vehicle (MCAO+0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose), By-L (Vehicle+bicyclol 50mg/kg), By-H (Vehicle+bicyclol 100mg/kg) and Sham operated groups. Bicyclol was administered intragastrically once a day for 3 consecutive days; after 1h of bicyclol pretreatment on the third day, rat ischemic stroke was induced by MCAO. Neurological deficit, infarct volume, and brain edema were detected at 24h after stroke. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to measure the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and SOD1. MDA was detected by the spectrophotometer. Results: Compared with MCAO group, By-H group significantly ameliorated neurological deficit, lessened the infarct volume and brain edema, increased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and SOD1 (P<0.05), and decreased the content of MDA (P<0.05). Conclusions: Bicyclol protected the rat brain from ischemic damage caused by MCAO, and this effect may be through the upregulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 expression.
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Punicalagin, a polyphenol in pomegranate juice, downregulates p53 and attenuates hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cultured human placental syncytiotrophoblasts.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Oxidative stress is associated with placental dysfunction and suboptimal pregnancy outcomes. Therapeutic interventions to limit placental injury from oxidative stress are lacking. Punicalagin is an ellagitannin and a potent antioxidant in pomegranate juice. We showed that both pomegranate juice and punicalagin decrease oxidative stress and apoptosis in cultured syncytiotrophoblasts. p53 is involved in the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in trophoblasts. We now test the hypothesis that punicalagin limits trophoblast injury in vitro by regulating the levels of p53. We examined the expression of p53, mouse double minute 2 homolog, p21, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) ?, and selected members of the B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins in cultured syncytiotrophoblasts exposed to ?1% oxygen in the absence or presence of punicalagin. We found that punicalagin attenuated hypoxia-induced apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts, as quantified by levels of cleaved poly-ADP ribose polymerase. This protective effect was in part mediated by reduced p53 activity shown by decreased expression of p21, lower HIF1? expression, and limited activity of caspases 9 and 3. There was no change in expression of proteins in the BCL2 family, which are also important in apoptosis. The data support a role for downregulation of p53 in the protection of human trophoblasts by punicalagin.
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[Hand and wrist bone maturation in children with central precocious puberty and idiopathic short stature].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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To investigate the maturation of individual bones on the hand and wrist in children with central precocious puberty (CPP) and idiopathic short stature (ISS).
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A new deconvolution approach to robust fluence for intensity modulation under geometrical uncertainty.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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This work addresses random geometrical uncertainties that are intrinsically observed in radiation therapy by means of a new deconvolution method combining a series expansion and a Butterworth filter. The method efficiently suppresses high-frequency components by discarding the higher order terms of the series expansion and then filtering out deviations on the field edges. An additional approximation is made in order to set the fluence values outside the field to zero in the robust profiles. This method is compared to the deconvolution kernel method for a regular 2D fluence map, a real intensity-modulated radiation therapy field, and a prostate case. The results show that accuracy is improved while fulfilling clinical planning requirements.
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Sound velocities of PbTe to 14 GPa: evidence for coupling between acoustic and optic phonons.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Sound velocities of PbTe have been determined to 14 GPa using an ultrasonic interferometric method, which allowed for a detailed investigation of the characteristic variations of P and S wave velocities across the phase transitions from Fm3¯m (B1) to the orthorhombic Pbnm to Pm3¯m (B2). Elastic bulk and shear moduli and their pressure derivatives have been determined by fitting the measured velocities using a finite-strain approach. Based on the measured velocities and Debye theory, an estimate is made of the acoustic phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity, considering inter-phonon interactions only. By combining this result with previous determinations of the thermal conductivity due to electrons, the combination was found to have a significantly lower value than the previously determined total thermal conductivity. This is interpreted as evidence for coupling between the low-lying transverse optic (TO) and longitudinal acoustic (LA) modes, allowing the transfer of thermal energy from the acoustic to the optic modes. Possible explanations are discussed in the paper.
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Therapeutic RNA interference targeting CKIP-1 with a cross-species sequence to stimulate bone formation.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Casein kinase 2 interacting protein 1 (CKIP-1) is a newly discovered intracellular negative regulator of bone formation without affecting bone resorption. In this study, we aimed to identify a cross-species siRNA sequence targeting CKIP-1 to facilitate developing a novel RNAi-based bone anabolic drug for reversing established osteoporosis.
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Explore the radiotherapeutic clinical target volume delineation for thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from the pattern of lymphatic metastases.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Esophageal carcinoma is characterized by a high frequency of lymph node metastasis (LNM). It is difficult to accurately define the radiotherapeutic clinical target volume in patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), because the LNM rate and the included node level varied greatly among previous studies. This study aimed to determine which node level should be included for radiotherapy by analyzing LNM rate in thoracic ESCC patients.
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[Establishment of feeder-free culture system of human parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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To establish a safe, effective, and economic feeder-free culture system which is suitable for the culture of human parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (hPESCs) in vitro.
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Early activation of nSMase2/ceramide pathway in astrocytes is involved in ischemia-associated neuronal damage via inflammation in rat hippocampi.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Ceramide accumulation is considered a contributing factor to neuronal dysfunction and damage. However, the underlying mechanisms that occur following ischemic insult are still unclear.
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Ex vivo and in situ approaches used to study intestinal absorption.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Over the recent years, intestinal absorption has been recognized as a critical factor affecting the bioavailability of oral drugs. Intestinal absorption is affected by many factors including the physicochemical property of the drug, the absorption mechanisms, and the need for absorption enhancers. Ex vivo and in situ methods have been used extensively to evaluate the intestinal absorption of new drugs. Biological performance can be obtained rapidly and reliably using these techniques. However, these approaches have many inadequacies which need to be recognized so that appropriate adjustments can be made to the methodology. These shortcomings also need to be accounted for during the interpretation and application of the results in vivo situations. This review describes ex vivo and in situ models of drug absorption, and compares their relative advantages and drawbacks to assist researchers in selecting appropriate models for different drug and therapeutic situations.
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A fast SNP identification and analysis of intraspecific variation in the medicinal Panax species based on DNA barcoding.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Medicinal plants of the Panax genus belonging to Araliaceae family are well-known, rare plants used as tonics in traditional Chinese medicine and have been described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Because of the high price and the huge human demand, these commercial products often contain adulterants. In this study, 377 sequences from four species were analyzed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected and patterns of intragenomic variation in internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) from the four Panax species were studied. Intraspecific variations were analyzed based on three typical DNA barcodings (ITS2, matK and psbA-trnH). Results from this study revealed that intraspecific genetic distances in Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius were quite low (0-0.002) and the multi-copy ITS2 could be considered a single locus in the genomes of these two species. Five stable SNPs were detected in ITS2 region to identify the Panax medicinal species. Considering the mixed powder of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius, double peaks could be clearly examined at SNP positions and the height of the peaks could indicate the mixed ratio roughly. Our findings indicate that SNP-based molecular barcodes could be developed as a routine method for the identification of the Panax genus with closely related species and the mixed powder P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius.
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Screening of a protein that interacts with the matrix attachment region-binding protein from Dunaliella salina.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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We isolated the matrix attachment region-binding protein (MBP) DMBP-1 from Dunaliella salina in our previous studies. MBPs are part of the cis-acting protein family cluster. The regulatory function possibly works through the interaction of the MBPs with each other. In the present study, DMBP-1 was used as the bait in screening the D. salina cDNA library for DMBP-1 interactors that could potentially mediate the DMBP-1-regulated functions. A novel MBP, namely, DMBP-2, was identified as a DMBP-1 binding partner. The cDNA of DMBP-1 was 823 bp long and contained a 573 bp open reading frame, which encoded a polypeptide of 191 amino acids. The interaction between DMBP-2 and DMBP-1 was further confirmed through glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays.
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Cloning and characterization of a novel apolipoprotein gene, apolipoprotein AV, in tree shrews.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Apolipoprotein AV (apoAV) modulates plasma triglyceride levels, which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. ApoAV is also involved in atherosclerosis lesion formation. In order to systematically evaluate the apolipoprotein-related gene profile in tree shrew, a model for its insusceptibility to atherosclerosis, we performed apoAV cloning and characterization. The full-length cDNA of apoAV was identified using SMART-RACE. ApoAV cDNA sequence revealed two transcripts, 1,948 and 1,397 base pairs, due to alternative polyadenylation. These two transcripts share the same open reading frame (ORF), which encodes a 369-amino acid protein with high identity to human apoAV (75 %), including a 23-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide. ApoAV is expressed exclusively in the liver. Mature apoAV was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) and purified by Ni-chelated resin. Lipoprotein lipase activity was significantly stimulated by this recombinant protein. The full-length ORF of apoAV was cloned into pDsRed-monomer-N1 vector with a red fluorescent protein tag and was primarily localized in cytoplasm of hepG2 cells. The successful cloning, expression and localization of apoAV in tree shrew has laid down the foundation for further investigation on its structure and functions.
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Elective lymph node irradiation late course accelerated hyper-fractionated radiotherapy plus concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a phase II study.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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In this phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy, toxicity, and patterns of failure of elective lymph node irradiation (ENI) late course accelerated hyper-fractionated radiotherapy (LCAHRT) concurrently with cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CHT) for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
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Effect of biomass addition on the surface and adsorption characterization of carbon-based adsorbents from sewage sludge.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Sewage sludge with the additive corn cob was used as prescusor to prepare sludge-based carbon adsorbents by pyrolysis method. And then, the carbonizated products were activated with potassium hydroxide. The mixing ratio of the corn cob to sewage sludge was investigated. The surface area and pore size distribution, elemental composition, surface chemistry structure and the surface physical morphology were determined and compared. The results demonstrated that the addition of corn cob into the sewage sludge sample could effectively improve the surface area (from 287 to 591 m2/g) and the microporosity (from 5% to 48%) of the carbon based adsorbent, thus enhancing the adsorption behavior. The sulfur dioxide adsorption capacity was measured according to breakthrough test. It was found that the sulfur dioxide adsorption capacity of the adsorbents was obviously enhanced after the addition of the corn cob. It is presumed that not only highly porous adsorbents, but also a high metallic content of these materials are required to achieve good performances.
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Graphene matrix for signal enhancement in ambient plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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In this work, the signal intensity of ambient plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (PALDI-MS) was significantly increased with graphene as matrix. The graphene functions as a substrate to trap analytes, absorb energy from the visible laser irradiation and transfer energy to the analytes to facilitate the laser desorption process. The desorbed analytes are further ionized by helium plasma and analyzed by MS. Compared with a traditional organic matrix, ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), graphene exhibited much higher desorption efficiency for most of the compounds benefitting from the strong optical absorption at 532nm. The performance has been confirmed by the facile analysis of more than forty compounds with various structures. Additionally, this method was successfully applied to distinguish three kinds of Chinese tea leaves by detecting the endogenous caffeine and theanine, which proved the utility, facility and convenience of this method for rapid screening of main components in real samples.
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Angiogenic factors in bone local environment.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Angiogenesis plays an important role in physiological bone growth and remodeling, as well as in pathological bone disorders such as fracture repair, osteonecrosis, and tumor metastasis to bone. Vascularization is required for bone remodeling along the endosteal surface of trabecular bone or Haversian canals within the cortical bone, as well as the homeostasis of the cartilage-subchondral bone interface. Angiogenic factors, produced by cells from a basic multicellular unit (BMU) within the bone remodeling compartment (BRC) regulate local endothelial cells and pericytes. In this review, we discuss the expression and function of angiogenic factors produced by osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes in the BMU and in the cartilage-subchondral bone interface. These include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), BMP7, receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like family members. In addition, the expression of EGFL2, EGFL3, EGFL5, EGFL6, EGFL7, EGFL8 and EGFL9 has been recently identified in the bone local environment, giving important clues to their possible roles in angiogenesis. Understanding the role of angiogenic factors in the bone microenvironment may help to develop novel therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers for bone and joint diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, osteoarthritis, and delayed fracture healing.
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A urinary metabonomics study on biochemical changes in yeast-induced pyrexia rats: a new approach to elucidating the biochemical basis of the febrile response.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Fever is a prominent feature of many diseases, such as infection, inflammation and trauma. In the clinic, fever can be easily judged by measuring the body temperature; however, the pathogenesis of fever is still not fully understood. A febrile response is a systemic pathological process that can cause metabolic disorders. Metabonomics can provide powerful tools to reveal the pathological mechanisms for such a systemic disease. Thus, to reveal subtle metabolic changes under the condition of fever and to explore its mechanism, an ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabonomics approach was employed to investigate the urine biochemical characteristics of yeast-induced pyrexia rats. The acquired data were subjected to principal component analysis for differentiating the pyrexia rats from the control rats. Potential biomarkers were screened by using orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis and were identified by accurate mass, database, and MS/MS fragment information obtained from the MS(E) technique. Sixteen metabolites in rat urine were identified as potential biomarkers. The relative intensities of the 15 potential biomarkers were calculated. The thermoregulatory circuitry of "endogenous pyrogen (EP) ?-hypothalamus Na?/Ca²?-cAMP?" was partially confirmed in this study. The results suggested that UPLC/MS-based metabolic profiling of rat urine identifies impaired tryptophan metabolism as the mechanism of yeast-induced fever. This research provided informative data that the impaired tryptophan metabolism might be one of the important reasons in elucidating the biochemical basis of the febrile response.
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Chemical synthesis and formulation design of a PEGylated vasoactive intestinal peptide derivative with improved metabolic stability.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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The present study aimed to design a PEGylated VIP derivative, [Arg(15, 20, 21), Leu(17)]-VIP-GRR (IK312532), with improved metabolic stability, and develop its respirable powder (RP) formulation for inhalation therapy. IK312532 was chemically conjugated with PEG (5 kDa, P5K), the physicochemical and biochemical properties of which were characterized by CD spectral analysis, binding assays, and metabolic stability. CD spectral analysis demonstrated that PEG conjugation had no impact on the conformational structure of IK312532. Although the receptor-binding activity of IK312532/P5K (IC??: 82 nM) was estimated to be ca. 30-fold less than that of IK312532 (IC??: 2.8 nM), the metabolic stability of IK312532/P5K was highly improved. The IK312532/P5K was jet-milled and blended with lactose carrier particles to provide RP formulation of IK312532/P5K (IK312532/P5K-RP). In vitro inhalation performance and in vivo pharmacological effects of the IK312532/P5K-RP in antigen-sensitized rats were also evaluated. In cascade impactor analyses, fine particle fraction of IK312532/P5K-RP was calculated to be ca. 37%. Insufflation of IK312532/P5K-RP (150 ?g of IK312532/P5K) in antigen-sensitized rats resulted in marked attenuation of inflammatory events, as evidenced by significant decreases in inflammatory biomarkers and granulocyte recruitment in pulmonary tissue 24h after the antigen challenge. From these findings, PEGylation of a VIP derivative, as well as its strategic application to the RP formulation, may be a viable approach to improve its therapeutic potential for the treatment of airway inflammatory diseases.
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Catalytic fast pyrolysis of straw biomass in an internally interconnected fluidized bed to produce aromatics and olefins: effect of different catalysts.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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A novel reactor, named internally interconnected fluidized bed (IIFB), was specially designed for catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of straw biomass. Catalytic characteristics of four types of catalysts (ZSM-5, LOSA-1, Gamma-Al2O3 and spent FCC catalysts) for producing aromatics and olefins were investigated in this reactor. The results show that IIFB reactor can realize CFP process. The maximum carbon yields of aromatics (12.8%) and C2-C4 olefins (10.5%) were obtained with ZSM-5. ZSM-5 shows the highest selectivity of naphthalene (12.1%), whereas spent FCC catalyst presents the highest selectivity of benzene (45.5%). The selectivity of ethylene and propylene are equal in the present of ZSM-5 and LOSA-1. Gamma-Al2O3 and spent FCC catalysts show a higher selectivity of ethylene than that of propylene. This paper provides a new reactor for CFP process and some suggestions for choosing catalyst.
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Lipid profiling of human plasma from peritoneal dialysis patients using an improved 2D (NP/RP) LC-QToF MS method.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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An improved online two-dimensional liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (2D LC-QToF MS) system was developed for the lipid profiling of human plasma, in which different lipid classes were separated by the first dimensional normal-phase (NP) LC and different lipid molecular species were separated by the second dimensional reversed-phase (RP) LC. This 2D LC-QToF MS system was built based on a ten-port, two-position valve as the interface, the conditions of which had been optimized and discussed in detail. As two loops were used to trap and transfer the first dimensional elute to the second dimension separately, this new interface suppressed the sample band broadening in the first dimensional column, increased the recovery and repeatability of 2D LC interface, and offered the possibility for the realization of not-stop-flow NP/RP 2D LC system. Finally, 190 endogenous lipid species out of 10 lipid classes were determined within a single run from the plasma of peritoneal patients. This method was also applied to identify the difference in lipid profile between plasma from peritoneal dialysis patients with bad volume status and peritoneal dialysis patients with good volume status. The discovery of 30 potential biomarkers would be helpful to the malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis syndrome investigation.
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